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Different Contexts Of Bullying Ap Art History Homework Help

Workplace bullying is a prevalent phenomenon among the workforce across the world. Einarsen et al. define bullying at work as “harassing, offending, socially excluding someone, or negatively affecting someone’s work tasks (549).” Generally, bullying occurs when the victims occupy unequal or subordinate positions at work; hence, the victims are often unable to defend themselves against the inhumane subjection. Such atrocity typically and systematically persists over a long period. The target is exposed gradually to subtle and indirect forms of psychosomatic violence (Akella 1). Notably, these malicious interaction behavior are repeated systematically, like on a weekly basis, over a prolonged period, thus leading the victim to suffer psychological trauma.

Various researchers affirm that bullying at workplaces affects approximately half, 46 percent, of the population. The adverse effects of this behavior have effects on individual and socialism as well. In most cases, a person’s job productivity is affected, a consequence that results from the adverse effects of their mental health. Investigations show that a quarter of the affected population, 28 percent, experience detrimental physical effects with another 22 percent being forced to take work leave due to bullying. In extreme cases, 36 percent of those who are subjected to workplace bullying quit their jobs (Agarwal). These statics indicate that work-related bullying is more widespread than the acknowledgment and attention it receives. Although people are reluctant to speak about workplace bullying, the oppression has often pushed many out of their jobs while others preserve receiving redundancy contracts. Many victims possess a traditional mindset of guilt, feeling that they bought the mistreatment upon themselves by underperforming. The resultant effects of bullying cost an organization some substantial amount of money as the employed victims often fail to execute the job responsibilities effectively due to sickness-associated absenteeism, suffer psychological distress and social exclusion, and consequently lower their productivity.

Different Contexts of Bullying

Researchers often find it tricky to define bullying since it cannot be termed as harassment since the oppression lies beyond a one-time occurrence. Conversely, bullying is a deliberate action that intents to establish dominance and cause fear or distress on the victim. Often, these mistreatment happens in private working environments and by perpetrators who are in authority, thus making it challenging to gather substantial evidence regarding the occurrences (Agarwal). Since the bullying involves a predetermined campaign, with a possibility of a negative result, it is challenging to remand the bully because conducting a subjective assessment on the situation cannot be argued out in a court of law.

Workplace bullying can either be mental or physical, in other cases. Regardless, bullying results in mental distress, though the victims are often people who live with physical or mental health issues. Nonetheless, some longitudinal researches point out that bullying and other health-associated consequences are self-reported. For instance, a previously conducted cross-sectional investigation in France reported that there was an association between bullying in workplaces and self-reported cases of prescriptions for psychotropic medication for sleep, tranquilizers and other mental health medications. Further, the study reported a prescription-response where more prolonged exposure to bullying directly paired with a higher frequency of the dose intake. Other cross-sectional studies formed a similar link between individually-reported psychotropic prescription and workplace bullying. Interpersonal conflicts among colleagues at work have been associated with the risk of mental disorders, like prolonged psychiatric and psychosis hospital treatment. Similarly, many victims of bullying have reported having suffered sleep problems and some varied episodes of depression and mental distress. These previous studies further justify the adverse consequences bullying has on an individual with regard to employee mental health and work productivity.

Phases of Bullying

Bullying follows sequential stages as the individual is exposed to the humiliation, which affects their esteem as well as social conduct.

The initial critical incident: In this stage, the crucial incident is basically a conflict, which often arises due to unfair treatment. This stage is often short and difficult to identify and confront.
Intimidation and stigmatization: During this phase, the victim faces stigmatization from management and colleagues in form of loud-voiced humiliation, criticism, slandering, isolation, assignment of meaningless tasks, and violence threats. Constant subjection to these negatives insolences on systematic and enduring basis pushes the victim into stigmatization
Personnel administration: during this phase, the bullying becomes officially a considerable case that propagates the management intervenes. However, they |misjudge the situation and end up blaming the target for being problematic. The administration, hence, refuses to help or take responsibility for the stigmatization.
Expulsion: in the last phase, the victim is often expelled from work or is forced out to quit out of either directly or indirectly, thus forcing him/her to leave the workplace voluntarily.

 

Literature Review

The literature concerning bullying roves that the conceptualization of this humiliation various across ethnic affiliations. This variance occurs across countries because of differences in sector relations and socio-cultural contexts. As a result of different conceptualization f bullying, researchers across countries have varied descriptions of the phenomenon. Nonetheless, these definitions proliferations have become a significant obstacle to forming a generalized comprehension of the bullying dynamics (Fevre, Robinson, Jones, and Lewis, 77). Although studies are striving to develop a single unified description of bullying, others cite the difficulties of the different forms of the phenomenon in diverse contexts.

European researchers conduct the majority of the related studies about bullying in the workplace. Some of the studies highlight that bullying in childhood may increase the likelihood of being a target or a bully in adulthood (Agarwal). In addition, Vartia suggests that the adverse effects of bullied employees affect not only the targets but also bystanders, thus resulting in a social interaction-unrest (64). The observers of bullying could also suffer health-related problems since they experience an unfavorable work climate by observing the atrocity alongside other psychosocial working conditions. The research classifies workplace bullying in three distinct features, namely: persistency, hostility, and power disparities. Persistency typically escalates the phenomenon’s nature repetitively. Hence, the propagator subjects the victim to hostility in a bid to create dominance. This oppression affects an individual’s willingness to perform efficiently. For the concept of bullying to prevail, power difference and quest to dominate must exist; here, the confronted individual experiences challenging to protect themselves from such oppression. Since the two parties are unequally matched, there is characteristically illegitimate exploitation of power, by the bully, gained from the formal authority-structure within the organization. This setting aids the bully to violate the power limits that govern the workplace code of conduct, thus intentionally causing a negative influence on the victim’s morale to work.

Intentionally causing negative attitude on a person in the workplace due to bullying is a crucial aspect that affects an individual both personally and socially. However, this feature is the weakest of the three and it is controversial since the bully and the target differ on this aspect. The cat of bullying ranges from identifiable or explicit to subtle conduct. According to Einarsen et al., such behaviors can be differentiated into three groups: a work-related, person-related, and physically intimidating (550). Work-associated bullying would typically intent to withhold information, give unreasonable work deadlines, monitor the victim excessively, and subject the target to a voluminous workload. Conversely, the person-related humiliation involves frequent reminders of mistakes and persistent criticism. Finally, physical bullying comprises of insults and threats. Researches affirm that such subjection to mental, emotional, and physical oppression eventually affects the individual’s self-esteem and self-worth, thus making them leave in fear and leading them to withhold their abilities to work efficiently.

The direct effects of workplace bullying on an individual

Empirical evidence provides that presents a broad range of tangible and intangible effects on an individual. While tangible influences include financial losses and reduced productivity, the intangible costs include effects on mood disorders and interpersonal relationships. Other direct severe consequences involve stress, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety and depression, loss of self-confidence, aggression, insomnia, and fatigue. Giorgi et al., include physical effects such as headache, muscle pains, stomach problems, hand tremors, and anxiety attack in the direct individual impacts of workplace bullying (5). Majorly, bullying results in poor psychosomatic health among targets, a disorder that is associated with dysfunctional work behavior. The significance of this phenomenon on an employee is supported by the identification that workplace psychological oppression is a strong predictor of depression and anxiety than other work-related stressors. It was established that work-related bullying often leads to a mental disorder like depression, and in most severe cases, lead to suicide among targets who experience unbearable situations or detrimental consequences like post-traumatic disorders. Some symptoms of this disorder are social withdrawal, avoidance, irritable behavior, concentration difficulties, and emotional numbing. These symptoms lead targets of workplace bullying to suffer the impairment of social competences like conscientiousness, emotional control, achievement drive, and adaptability (Giorgi et al., 3-7). Generally, the exposure to workplace bullying develops into psychosomatic distress, which results in a decreased ability to self-manage oneself.

The subtle relationship between the ability to self-manage and workplace bullying could be based on burnout. Targets are subjected to unfavorable workload, which makes them experience high levels of burnout, thus leading to poor mental well-being. It is obviously conventional knowledge that individuals who experience burnout in any work environment lack the achievement drive, initiative, and adaptability, which are the core aspects of a person’s self-management capability. Various researchers establish a relationship between mental distress and self-management competencies. Giorgi et al. illustrated that emotional suffering explains the link between achievement and peer victimization.one would physiological argue that exposing a target to workplace bullying lowers their self-esteem and confidence (5). Biologically, stressful environments impair the function of a person’s prefrontal cortex, a body part that is responsible for goal-oriented behavior. It also increases the embryonic emotional reactions of amygdala (that is responsible for expressive reactions); therefore, one’s ability to suppress improper impulses and insights concerning one’s actions becomes impeded.

Workplace bullying and the effects it has on socialism

Ideally, humans are social beings who always yearn to form bonds with others within their living environment. In any workplace, people seek validation of their normalcy and humanity with others. Hence, every individual faces the pressure to conform to social norms, which are often used as assessment measures to determine a person’s affluence and success. This pressure largely determines one’s behavior, although many perceive that they are masters of their own individualism. Eventually, when the social bonds are stripped away, any employee would suffer an emotional loss due to lost friendship and reduced self-worth.

Ostracism experts have found out that individuals gain self-worth from achieving good relationships with others, and in times of social exclusion, they react in a predictable sequence. The initial response is a reflexive hurtful response followed by an amplified sadness and irritation emanating from the threat of losing the human need to belong, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and control. The next response involves a cognitive and reflective phase. It evaluates the cause or reason beyond the exclusion, as well as the source of the ostracism. Nonetheless, individual differences lead to a varied, resulting conclusion. When the relational need to belong is most thwarted, the individual may behave prosaically. Otherwise, when the need to gain recognition and become acknowledged is highly affected, the person might strive to regain their identity and social control by antisocial or provocative actions. Frequent subjection to workplace bullying affects an individual’s ability to respond to situations more effectively, thus leading the target to suffer emotional torture from despair, alienation, and helplessness.

Workplace bullying adverse effects on socialism range from biological to interrelationships. Neuroscience evidence indicates that workplace bullying, as a form of social shunning, triggers trauma and pain pathways in the victim’s brain. This type of suffering can be related to the physical feeling of pain from a romantic relationship breakup. Further, studies explain that people tend to exclude those who have excess generosity, which exceeds the majority. For instance, a group of work colleagues who form a get-away trip would more likely expel a member whose generosity surpasses their own. The group would opt to cut off the altruists since, by comparison, the more self-interested and greedier in a group, may not tolerate the goodness of that one person. They would expel the individual so that the rest of them can stop looking or feeling bad about themselves. In addition, the group would think that an altruist person fouls up their norm, thus forcing the group to become better than its current form. Pushing others towards higher ethical practices than their average conduct often lead the perpetrator to suffer social isolation. The person would then be subjected to unsatisfactory relations with others since they may have previously enjoyed intensive contact. Shunning workplace colleagues hurts their emotional responses and challenges their assumptions about the world. The victim may adopt a different social behavior in order to gain acceptance from the rest or entirely isolate themselves from relating to others, thus affecting their identity and productivity.

Workplace bullying yields negative social consequences for not only its victims but also for bystanders. Individuals who witness their neighbor or colleagues experience bullying would most likely avoid engaging in the same activities, which might have lead to the occurrence. In some cases, these activities could have been productive to the organisation, and since bystanders would not willingly commit an act that would automatically lead them to be bullied, staying away from the trigger activity may affect their productivity. Consequences would then include low job satisfaction and reduced employee commitment. Also, both bystanders and the victim may experience increased stress and a reduced sense of confidence; these feelings would further affect their willingness to contribute to any social gathering. These social effects of workplace bullying often, in turn, yield ripple effects where family members and friends, who are otherwise not part of the work environment, become involved due to the changed likely behavior of the victim due to psychological distress.

Conclusion

Workplace bullying, intentional harassment that is directed towards the subordinates, affects an individual’s productivity as well as their interpersonal relations. The bullying may commit a broad range of aggressive and malicious behavior such as verbal mockery, physical violence, ostracism, rumors, and threats spread orally or through other communication channels like the internet. Although many bullies harass workmates to humiliate them, some organisation have adopted bullying as a management tool. They carefully use it to inspire the target to work harder and avoid experiencing the same situation due to poor job performance. Nevertheless, various studies have linked workplace bullying to psychological distress and emotional unrest among the victims, which in turn affects their ability to relate with others and perform the job-related task effectively.

This study raises concerns about the employee ethics and rights in the workplace. Although employees may not be responsible for safeguarding and protecting their interests, they can demand for establishment of anti-bullying policies in the organizations. Although some entities have such systems already in existence, employees should ensure that the policies are implemented by collectively organizing employee unions that advocate for more respectful office environments. In addition, the employees ought to create more awareness concerning bullying, the various forms of workplace oppression, what can be categorized as inhumane and unacceptable, and the tools that bullies use to humiliate others. Simultaneously, the campaign against bullying should prioritize how an organisation should provide support to the target or victims. Since social isolation could worsen a victim’s work balance and mental health, workplace interactive platforms should encourage individuals to utilize online workplace sites. Such platforms allow bully victims to post their encounters anonymously to get assistance to potential battle consequences such as depression, stress, and low self-esteem. Employee unions should also educate the workforce about seeking legal help or protection against dehumanizing colleagues.

Gathering extensive literature about workplace bullying as a control managerial technique, the humiliating aspects, and effects in stripping people of their self-confidence would garner support for workers’ unions in the fight against bullying. The theory of the labor process, which depicts workplace bullying as a managerial control weapon, highly advocates for the establishment and enactment of anti-bullying legislation. The bulling laws should be able to legally protect the employees’ interests, which are otherwise left at the mercy of those in authority (Akella 7). As an ultimate recommendation, adopting a labor procedural perception when inspecting various instances of bullying in the workplace would help in cleaning and providing conducive work environments. Consequently, this restoration would be resulting in a more productive and happier working climate.

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Analysis and critique of the literature ib history essay help: ib history essay help

An electronic database exploration was conducted from the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), PubMed, Cochrane Library (Wiley), and OVID. The CINAHL database facilitated the most critical and significant recent literature. The key terms employed for the searches incorporated: aseptic non-touch technique and aseptic technique and the Boolean operator AND was used to retrieve all sources indexed to the search terms. Research terms were applied within these databases individually and in various combinations to establish relevant literature. One thousand four hundred sixty (1460) outcomes were discovered. A Gray search was done to develop additional sources in academic journals within 2010-2020; 58 outcomes were discovered. Search 1 and 2 were combined in the attempt to reduce the results through the use of Boolean AND operator, 18 results were determined. Another research using perioperative nursing inclusion criteria was conducted, and out of 18 articles reviewed, 8 were involved in the literature review. The selection of the literature for review was dependent on the importance to nurse competence in invasive care and of the rank of the hierarchy, such as qualitative and comparative studies, experimental studies, and systemic reviews offering level three evidence.

Analysis and critique of the literature

Clare & Rowley (2018) assessed research across various studies published in an evidence-related journal. The outcomes offered level-three evidence and reviewed a mixed-methods technique of a self-report survey, an observational audit of practice, and structured interviews with primary stakeholders, and with clinical implications (Clare & Rowley, 2018, p. 10). Such studies offered adequate evidence to propose competency is a nursing attribute that is directly linked to quantifiable elements of appropriate nursing performance. Notably, it was evidenced that compliance with aseptic technique both before and after the enforcement of the aseptic non-touch technique (ANTT) increases dramatically.

Both Anon (2011) and Rowley (2011) evaluated research on the effectiveness of an aseptic technique using ANTT across various studies that were published in an evidence-linked journal. The findings facilitated a level four evidence that aseptic non-touch technique best lowers healthcare-related infections, with clinical implications, and offered principles of ANTT as well as the intervention to practice, including highlighting problems that healthcare specialists still experience in lowering healthcare linked infections.

More specifically, Anon (2011) provide enough evidence to suggest that the use of ANTT, that depends on the appropriate healthcare professional training, safety equipment, and environments enhances nursing competency and this, in turn, facilitates the increased nursing performance in the attempt to ensure the reduction of the healthcare-related infections (Anon, 2019, p. 25) On the other hand, Rowley’s findings offered relevant evidence to demonstrate that nursing competency through the use of fundamental infection prevention precautions, including appropriate or effective glove usage and hand hygiene to ensure asepsis it is directly linked to substantial factors of relevant nursing performance (Rowley & Clare,2011, p. 90).

On the assessment of the influence of flushing with ANTT utilizing manually prepared or pre-filled flush syringes on the bloodstream and central venous catheter occlusion infections, Anon (2018) explored research along various studies printed in an evidence-related journal. The outcomes offered three-level evidence, with medical recommendations, and that it reviewed the qualitative methodology of the studies to facilitate the credibility and reliability of the results (Khurana et al., 2018). These studies effectively offered enough evidence to propose that the use of ANTT competency is a nursing factor that best facilitates the comprehensive elements of necessary nursing functioning.

Isaac et al. (2019) examined research along numerous studies published in an evidence-based journal of nursing. Isaac and his colleagues provide an abstract that best summarized the key findings of the article, such as methods, research problems, main findings, discussions, and clinical implications. The focused ethnography across two pediatric wards methodology best answered the research aim in an effective manner, and thus the outcomes best offered level-three evidence, alongside medical implications for nurses to best improve their working conditions in the future in the attempt to enhance their competency. Data was effectively collected and analyzed, and the resulting themes were reflected against the theoretical framework of Kirkpatrick’s (1994) model of training assessment. The results were presented and discussed in a manner that was easy to understand. Notably, these studies offered enough evidence to propose that nursing competency through the use of ANTT directly facilitates substantial elements of adequate and appropriate nursing functioning towards ensuring the reduction of healthcare-linked infections to the patients.

Summary

Importance of ANTT for competency

ANTT in nursing serves as an essential infection prevention competency for safeguarding clients from healthcare-linked infection. The use of the ANTT aseptic technique presented with enhanced compliance and minimized variability with aseptic technique. ANTT facilitates the teaching and definition of a standard competency-related aseptic technique to nurses. ANTT supports healthcare professionals to practice effectively and safely, alongside standardizing the practice to enhance the competency in the reduction of healthcare-associated infection. Besides, it enhances patient safety by lowering the threat of introducing disease into a susceptible body site following procedures like wound care, intravenous therapy, and urinary catheterization. As such, ANTT serves as an essential medical and nursing skill that best defines the infection prevention and management techniques and precautions relevant following invasive medical procedures to mitigate the transfer of micro-organisms to sterile or essential body sites from healthcare workers, procedure device, or the sudden setting to a client.

ANTT and invasive IV procedures

Standardizing aseptic technique for invasive IV procedures through the use of ANTT best enhances nurse’s compliance with the infection prevention deeds that are meant to attain an effective and safe aseptic technique, and that is even sustainable over time. Notably, aseptic technique prevents clients as well as the healthcare professional following the invasive medical procedures through using infection control interventions that reduce, regarding effective practice, the availability of the pathogenic micro-organisms.

Relevant measures towards ANTT

Various stakeholders within the healthcare setting play a central role in ensuring the enhancement of practice as well as lowering rates of healthcare-related infections. As such, health service institution management and nurse ensure the significant creation and implementation of policies and procedures for the ANTT.

Role of nurses towards ANTT

Nurses engage in competency-related training and education regarding the aseptic technique, alongside the use of ANTT framework, once conducting an invasive medical procedure to combat contamination of prominent sites and main parts by performing a risk assessment, conducting hand hygiene, using a non-touch technique, and determining and safeguarding main issues. Nurses employ ANTT policies before conducting the procedure to establish the level of practice needed that might be standard ANTT, surgical ANTT.

How ANTT relates to facilitating patient safety in the perioperative setting

It has been evidenced that ANTT serves a vital role in reducing the harm that patients face due to healthcare-related infections. As such, various literature has documented that the most appropriate and effective means for lowering healthcare-associated conditions is via the use of a standardized ANTT for a medical procedure (—-. This is through its primary purpose of ensuring no introduction of micro-organisms into susceptible body sites —-, as it is linked to the aim asepsis, that is, the absence of pathogenic toxins or organisms from the tissues or blood —-. To facilitate this, nurses effectively ensure that they often decontaminate their hands appropriately. Similarly, healthcare workers never contaminate vital parts of the device or the client’s susceptible site, including not touching non-key parts of the device with confidence. Besides, healthcare workers take relevant infection prevention as well as management precautions as they facilitate invasive procedures. Nonetheless, standard precautions like appropriate and effective hand hygiene via hand decontamination interconnect to the hand hygiene section of the manual as well as the utilization of personal protective gear that links to the PPE department of the manual, and that is critical to ANTT practices. The use of non-sterile gloves in various instances only when the procedure needs a surgical strategy, or the operator might not conduct the procedure without the risk of touching the essential parts regarding ANTT principles play an integral role in ensuring patient safety in the perioperative environment.

In the attempt to explore how ANTT facilitates patient safety in the perioperative setting, proper placement of the endotracheal tube following the carina would best illustrate its importance. As such, severe complications result from inadvertent positioning of the endotracheal tube in a key stem bronchus, like hypoxemia facilitated by atelectasis development in the unventilated lung and barotrauma and hyperinflation with the formulation of pneumothorax of the intubated lung. Through the use of ANTT, nurses ensure sudden verification of endotracheal placement of the endotracheal tube to avoid anesthetic-linked mortality and morbidity.

Conclusion

ANTT enhances aseptic practice that, in turn, facilitates the reduction of healthcare-related infections. Notably, ANTT prevents the transfer of micro-organisms into the susceptible body sites by creating asepsis condition. ANTT results in a situation of the absence of pathogenic toxins or micro-organisms from the tissues or blood.

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Why Every group has a common and belief system as history essay help

Every group has a common and belief system

Introduction

It is usual for every person to join or have a group of individuals who, from the social view, could be called friends; in business, they are regarded as associates or partners. The type of relationships between such individuals is based on the reasons they are together. Therefore, people belonging to a given group have common thinking and perception.

Group thinking is different from individual thought. People tend to think differently when they are in a group of people than what they would do when they are alone. They tend to get the influence of a form of energy and motivation from the presence of others. In the past, individuals have had confessions saying that they would not have done what they did, was it not in a group of people. Aronson, Wilson & Sommers (2019) further indicate that the influence of groups has made people express themselves better through the use of other means such as digital platforms. Thus, the perception of people in a group is similar, and each individual will comply with the underlying principles of the group so that they remain relevant in the long run. It is the same idea that Herman Goering insists in his quote that individuals cannot act on their own. However, when there is effective leadership that will put them in a group, they will be more active and aggressive.

Davis, Jenkins & Hunt, (2002) describe a relationship between youthful people from their early days at school up to adulthood. In this book, the concept of group thinking is presented in a unique way. People associate with a given individual due to various reasons. They tend to gain more depending on their individual goals. For instance, there can be groups of people who indulge in immoral acts such as drug peddling and substance abuse and robbery. On the other hand, when one intends to get a group of people with similar goals of maybe studies or to do legal business, they will end up contacting people with a shared mindset. The level of commitment to the set goals will influence the duration of the relationship among the people in the group.

The big lie theory describes the consistent spread of a lie to a given group until individuals start believing it is the truth. It is a concept that was coined after World War I, and it describes how a government regime can use propaganda to spread misleading information to the public. Hermann Goering describes such a scenario that leaders can provide false hope to the people by giving them a reason to act in a given way. These actions are described in the Thomas theorem as subject to the prevailing circumstances.

Conclusion

The group provides a platform for individuals to express themselves. However, they do this by complying with the norms and underlying principles of the group. Thus, they tend to interpret situations depending on the general feel of people. This makes it easy for any form of leadership to have an easy time convincing the masses. These concepts are all described in the big lie theory and Thomas Theorem. The underlying principle, however, is that people choose whom they associate with depending on their individual goals to belong.

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The Information technology industry a level history essay help: a level history essay help

Task 1

Google Alphabet is in the Information technology industry, and it is attractive going by the company’s progress. Google was created in 1995 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, who were taking a Ph.D. project. Page realized that it was difficult to find links for the PhD project and link them to web pages. The two, therefore, entered a new field where they were dedicated to creating a new product that was in indirect demand. Google focused on two main strategies for growth in the industry, including increasing the customers and hiring a substantial CEO. By customers, Google meant the number of views per day, which reached 100 million daily by 1999. In 2001, the company hired Eric Schmidt and reported a net income of $6.9million. The progress that was made within six years is an indicator that the industry is attractive.

From 2001 Google has grown exponentially and defined by the acquisition of new companies and products combined with the development of new products. It has tried to invest in the hardware market, for instance, by purchasing Taiwan Based HTC phones, which did not go well. However, the company is still growing in its IT business by increasing the number of products available to its customers. Some are based on the Google platform and name like Google ad and Google play, while others are operated as independent entities under the large brand name Alphabet. Google does not monopolize the market but competes with other players like Facebook, Yahoo, and Microsoft. The fact that Google is not offering the services alone is enough proof that the industry is attractive, and that’s why competition is high, with each company aspiring to be the market leader and benefit more than Google.

The industry is attractive as explained and has, therefore, attracted many companies, which means that competition has increased. The firms that need to remain competitive in this industry, therefore, require a comprehensive strategy on how to tackle the competitors and emerge the best. Strategies have been employed for long in different settings and what a modern manager may think as a current strategy may end up being one of the key successes to civilization. For instance, the military leaders in China used different strategies to win over their enemies more than 2500 years ago. Today, the best term for the approach is strategic management since it involves organizing various factors to ensure a seamless flow of information and avoid data hitches.

Strategic management seeks to ensure that the decisions made are strategic and will, therefore, give the company an advantage over the competitors. One of these is having the right team to ensure work is done. Google, for instance, realized that it required a person who could serve as CEO with good management skills and although IT skills and hence settled on Eric Schmidt. Apart from having a good CEO, the company needs an insightful team of staff that can quickly learn the trends in the industry and hence develop products that may be the source of competitive edge in the future. For instance, the current industry leaders must understand that the world is moving from the desktop to smaller devices like smartphones and hence must develop software that will be easily aligned with these devices or risk losing customers as they shift from desktops and personal computers.

It also takes great innovation for a company to remain competitive in the industry, which can take place in different aspects of the company. A firm like Google is usually large, and innovation can involve one or a few elements. Most people associate innovation with the creation of new and superior products, but the modern meaning goes beyond the product. Innovation can involve engaging economies of scale where the company produces products at much lower prices than competitors. In this case, the company produces similar products like competitors but at a lower cost, meaning they can be sold at a lower price or the same market price. Companies can use globalization to reduce the costs by setting up offices and manufacturing firms in countries where the cost is low. For instance, Google, which has for long contemplated entering the IT hardware industry, should consider setting up plants in the developing countries. In this case, the companies use fewer resources on production, which gives them an edge over the competitors.

Task 2

Google Alphabet has used its position by virtue of being a leader in the industry to accumulate the necessary resources and hence higher capabilities of outdoing competitors. The major resource enjoyed by the company is a huge presence in different online platforms. One cannot mention IT without mentioning Google since some of the most popular sites are under the company. Some of these sites include chrome, Adwords, Google Play, Android, Gmail, YouTube, and the search engine. Most of these are consumer products and are already known by the customers, which ensures that the company is popular among the people. These are key resources since they form the foundation of the company operations, and others in the industry just create a version of the same to compete with the company. The resources also provide Google Alphabet the capabilities required to compete with other industrial players. The current business practices show that companies that are more endowed with the necessary resources are likely to succeed when compared to newcomers that are not endowed. It is, therefore, true that online presence through online tools forms a major resource.

The other resource is money, where the Google alphabet has enough money to finance different activities, including acquisitions and funding innovations. The role of money as a resource in the company’s functions can be understood through the VRIO framework, which is an acronym for four questions one must ask about the resource capability and competitive potential. The first question asked through the framework is whether the resource facilitates the company in its efforts to exploit the environment. Google Alphabets’ net income has increased since its inception, with the company recording a net income of about 19 billion dollars in 2016. The money as a resource is used to exploit resources or neutralize an external threat. For instance, the company acquired YouTube in 2007, Android, launched chrome, and latter Google play. These have enabled the company retail its position as a leader in the IT industry and also prevented competitors from taking these opportunities. Money has been used to exploit opportunities like the integration of IT in mobile phones and the use of as many applications as possible to reach the people.

These resources are controlled by only a few other firms in the industry, which is a huge advantage for the company´s competitive ability. For instance, Google is a dominant player in the search engine by holding more than 70% of the market, while the android application has a market share of more than 60%. These resources, particularly the large online presence, are scarce because another company can’t penetrate the market and get the users enjoyed by Google and hence fulfills the imitability aspect of VRIO. The resources and capabilities allow Google Alphabet to engage in research as identified and become the first movers in the industry. For instance, the company has continuously come up with new products that make them better when compared to the competitors. Most of the competitors end up duplicating Google or offering a substitute, but this, too, has proved difficult.

The two resources have allowed Google Alphabet to maintain a competitive advantage when compared to other players. The high online presence makes the company accessible by millions of customers who already use the services. When Google wishes to launch a new product like Nest and Google play, which are some of the latest products, it has a platform that other companies lack. The online sites already present like Ad word and search engines are used to introduce the latest products to the customers at no cost. The company uses huge financial muscle as an advantage by buying and products that may pose competition. Ironically some of Google´s competitors use Google search engines and other ads to popularize their products. The closest competitors are Facebook and Microsoft, who rely heavily on Google to compete with it, which is an advantage. The question of the organization asks whether the company is fully organized to exploit its competitive potential. In this case, the question is whether the two resources identified are fully realized and lead to a competitive advantage. The management team plays a huge role in ensuring that these competitive advantages are realized and exploit any other possible opportunities. Other capabilities are anchored in human and physical resources through social networking theory. In this case, skilled employees are used to create connections between Google and customers by offering the required solutions.

Task 3

Google’s core business, especially at inception, was a search engine but has diversified to increase others. Google Alphabet uses both related and unrelated diversification strategies to expand its market. Related diversification entails adopting products that are in line with the original business thinking. The company has diversified by launching chrome, Google maps, and Youtube. These allow the consumers to search for the information they need including videos using internet connections. The company, however, realized the need to invest more and diversified into other areas. Unrelated diversity entails engaging in products that are totally out of line with the original product. Although many players saw this as a bad move by the company, it saw it as a positive step towards cushioning itself in case the core business does not yield the necessary benefits. Although the Google business model was based on offering services, it was necessary to diversify.

Unrelated diversification by Google alphabet entails acquiring property in areas different from the search engine model. In 2017, the Google alphabet acquired HTC for about 1.1 billion dollars. HTC was a Taiwanese company specializing in the manufacture of smartphones, and when it was acquired by the company, it was used to develop a special type of smartphone called Google Pixel Phone. In 2012, Google spent 12.5 billion dollars on buying Motorola Company, although it sold it later at a loss. These two are perfect examples of unrelated diversification. In the first case, the company bought a hardware company and even engaged in the production of hardware and not just the usual search engine. In the deal involving Motorola, Google was concerned with acquiring Motorola patents, where it was a success. Even after selling Motorola Company, Google still retained the patent, which demonstrates the importance of the business. These two are good examples of unrelated diversification since the company engaged in products that are far from its core mission.

Apart from the hardware market, Google has also engaged in other software markets but different from the search engine. For instance, the company bought Android, which was a startup in 2005, but this has turned out to be one of the most sought of products. Android is mostly used on smartphones and not a search engine. Google Play, which was launched in 2012, is a unique type of search engine because it searches specific applications on the phone. Today, Google play is used by about 1 billion people, whereas there are more than 2. 8 Million Applications. These platforms play a huge role in ensuring the company makes increased profit: closely related to the search engine is the Ad word, which is the advertising section of the company. The company has also diversified heavily, and this is one of the highest income earners. Google invested in these projects even if this is not its specialization as a way of diversification. The strategy may look bright when the competition for search engines increases and reduce revenues based on this channel. The mixed diversification can be explained through the M-form organization, as explored by Chandler. Google fits in this definition since its business model id multi-dimensional and is ready to spend a lot to make economies of scale, which is evident with the company’s recent purchases.

Alphabet is using a unique organizational structure made of two broad categories of its products that is Google and other bets. The organizational structure is considered as divisional and flat, where each division is made of a specific business. Google comprise the leading businesses, including chrome, search, YouTube, Android, Ads, Gmail, and maps. These, for instance, search engines, were among the first businesses, and others like ads are the highest earners for the company. These are treated separately due to their role and domination in the field. Google is also the primary source of competitive advantage hence significantly considered. The other category includes products under Alphabet, and some of them are not well known. They include Nest, Access, Artificial intelligence, venture capital fund, and capital IG. Others are Jigsaw, waymo, verily, and Google X. All these are technological products where most of them are in the development stage and have not reached a point of self-sustenance like YouTube. However, with the advancement in technology, they promise to be the main driving forces, for instance, Waymo, which is self-driving cars. The organizational structure allows the management to focus on different elements of the company, depending on the income it generates and the level of progress.

The major rationale behind the diversification and structure adopted by Alphabet is to remain relevant in the light of changing technology. Google Alphabet has learned from companies that congregated all her products or lacked diversification like Motorola and collapsed. Google realized this, and instead of focusing on one area diversified even in areas that did not form its core business. The strategy acted as a cushion when the company experienced turbulent economic times since some divisions will move on and sustain the entire company. For instance, most of the revenues currently come from ads and search engines, but competitors may overtake this leaving the company in financial challenges. The flat structure is ideal since it eliminates the common bureaucracy is such large organizations. Employees report to their divisional heads, and the information reaches the management, which is ideal in multinationals. The organizational structure also gives the leaders hearing different divisions the autonomy to make decisions as quickly as possible, which is beneficial to the company. Long and cumbersome decision making associated with a complex organizational structure leads to losses that the Alphabet is ready to eliminate. For instance, the person in charge of Waymo can make faster decisions on the electric car instead of waiting for Larry’s page, which is time-consuming. All the activities are, however, harmonized under the leadership of the page who ensures all work towards a common goal. mm

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The Millennium Development Goals history assignment help

According to the Millennium Development Goals report published in 2015, the progress of reducing extreme hunger remains uneven in most regions of the world. Global poverty has decreased significantly, and the proportion of people living on less than 1.25 dollars a day since 1990 has fallen. From the graph, by the year 2011, sub- Saharan African countries are lagging in reducing extreme hunger, and people are still living in abject poverty. On the other hand, Eastern Asian countries such as China played the greatest role in reducing hunger and poverty with a drop of 4% in the year 2015 from 61% in 1990. Similarly, Southern Asian countries have also made impressive progress in reducing poverty with a decline from 52% to 17% during the same period.

Many factors contribute to the uneven progress of poverty and hunger-reduction. These include gender inequality, rising unemployment, volatile prices of commodities, economic recessions, and extreme weather conditions, and natural disasters that have taken a considerable toll on livelihoods and eventually on the progress towards global food security. In many developing countries, political instability and civil conflicts have aggravated natural disasters, and as a result, people face a significant humanitarian crisis. Some of these developments have slowed the progress of reducing food insecurity in vulnerable regions across the world, resulting in persistent hunger and poverty. Importantly, a lot of work must be done in reducing extreme hunger, such as increasing productivity, expanding social protection systems for vulnerable workers and families. In creating more progress for countries living in poverty and hunger, several strategies have to be put in place. For instance, they are promoting gender equality by empowering women, achieving universal primary education for children coming from poor households, reducing child mortality rates by preventing diseases, ensuring environmental stability.

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