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The prevailing condition of Air Traffic Management history assignment help book: history assignment help book

Rodríguez-Sanz et al. (2018) details the prevailing condition of Air Traffic Management (ATM) and highlights that the functional approach is changing drastically. The authors note that both the Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NEXTGEN) support the implementation of a four-dimension (4D) trajectory in their operational concepts. The study proceeds to discuss various ideas concerning the feasibility of implementing 4D trajectories in air transport, where it notes that the concept can be compared to multi-state systems (MSS) (Rodríguez-Sanz et al., 2018). Yan & Cai (2017) points out that the growing demand for strategic ATM has led to highly saturated airspace, raising safety concerns, flight delays, and pollution. As a result, flight trajectory planning has emerged as a critical field that requires immediate attention (Yan & Cai, 2017). Technology advances have made the concept of 4D trajectory an instrumental aspect of trajectory planning.

Rosenow, Fricke, Luchkova, & Schultz (2018) suggest that the aviation industry seeks to increase efficiency, safety, and environmental compatibility by optimizing 4D trajectories. The fast-developing entity with high dynamic input parameters renders it vulnerable to high safety requirements and certification standards. As a result, SESAR and NEXTGEN have focused on challenging current trajectory management and supporting 4D trajectory-based planning. 4D has the potential to address conflicting concepts that are within the ATM.

Rosenow, Fricke, Luchkova, & Schultz (2018) point out that Area Navigation (RNAV) avails a solution approach for 4D trajectory management by developing a framework for both airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs). Therefore, the study suggests that implementing ATM based on 4D is a feasible concept.

Rodríguez-Sanz et al. (2019) point out that the recent growth of traffic demand presents numerous European ATM challenges. Due to these challenges, the future ATM system relies on Trajectory Based Operation with high precision. Aircraft will be compelled to follow assigned 4D trajectories instead of using tactical approaches. 4D trajectories will increase the capacity of air traffic by reducing controllers’ workload. The concept of the 4D trajectory concept integrates time in 3D aircraft trajectory. Rodríguez-Sanz et al. (2019) argue that ATM-based on 4D trajectories will improve efficiency and safety since it will allow aircraft to follow practically unrestricted and optimum trajectories for as long as possible. Primarily, 4D has the potential to enhance ATM by increasing efficacy and safety.

Rodríguez-Sanz et al. (2020) provide a holistic vision of the systems and concepts required to implement the 4D-trajectories concept efficiently. The authors note that the implementation of 4D trajectories in ATM calls for an adjustment in the aviation system. The study notes that the 4D trajectories’ performance to effective tolerance windows for trajectory degradation ought to be implemented (Rodríguez-Sanz et al., 2020). The window will impose compliance of accurate arrival times over designated checkpoints. Fundamentally, Rodríguez-Sanz et al. (2020) point out that the practical implementation of 4D trajectories in ATM will require integrating time window monitoring tools to enhance efficiency.

Matthes et al. (2016) assess the environmental aspect of flight trajectories, examining the impact of implementing ATMs based on 4D trajectories. The study notes that considering ecological factors related to flight trajectories is not operational (Matthes et al., 2016). The only considered economic goals are seeking to minimize fuel consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases. Matthes et al. (2016) note that trajectory optimization through the implementation of 4D trajectories will reduce air traffic’s negative impacts on the environment. The studies illustrate that ATM-based on 4D trajectories within the framework of SESAR and NEXTGEN will address environmental issues that emerge from air traffic.

Methodology and Tools

Rodríguez-Sanz et al. (2018) utilized conceptual modeling to undertake the study whereby a system was designed to perform aviation functions in a specific environment. Typically, studies adopt a binary system that consists of two states: working and not working; however, the approach is limits studies. Therefore, a multi-system approach was adopted since it allows the study to examine various functionalities’ performance using multiple values. The system permitted performance rates of evaluated elements to range from perfect operation to complete failure. Similarly, the study used Markov-chains, a stochastic model that describes a sequence of possible events where each event’s state determines the probability of the next event. The model was useful for the evolution of the Markov-chain illustrated the transition from 3D to 4D State, thus providing a reliable data source. Fundamentally, the research paper used multi-system and Markov-chain to obtain the data required by the study.

Yan & Cai (2017) utilizes a network-wide conflict management model and a mathematical optimization model to formulate their study’s problem. The network-wide conflict management model is used to represent flight trajectories, whereby the interaction of the trajectories is modeled using the model to indicate the feasibility of 4D trajectories. The model was based on the assumption that all flights follow their planned routes. This model is quite useful when undertaking studies pertaining to flight routes and aircraft fuel consumption calculations. A mathematical optimization model was utilized to optimize the network-wide 4D flight trajectories planning optimization problem (Yan & Cai, 2017). The model takes 4D courses for each flight to calculate the number of airborne conflicts and trajectory modification cost. This model is utilized in studies seeking to optimize planning. Fundamentally, Yan and Cai used two models to formulate the problem for their research.

Rosenow, Fricke, Luchkova, & Schultz (2018) used a comparison study to obtain the study’s data. The impact of optimized free route trajectories on ATM was evaluated and compared to pre-existing reference scenarios. The reference scenarios were calculated using two approaches; the first approach calculated realistic trajectories by simulating fast-time total airspace and airport model AirTOp with real, historical speeds, lateral paths, cruising altitudes, and level changes (Rosenow, Fricke, Luchkova, & Schultz, 2018). The second approach served as a validation tool for TOMATO’s simulation environment by additionally calculating the reference scenario. TOMATO paired cities, lateral paths departure time, aircraft models, altitudes, and cruising altitudes to optimize flight trajectories. Both reference scenario and optimized trajectories are evaluated by following the flight-related parameters such as total fuel burn (Rosenow, Fricke, Luchkova, & Schultz, 2018). Fundamentally, the study utilized a comparative analysis to examine the reliability of implementing 4D trajectories-based ATM.

Rodríguez-Sanz et al. (2019) used an approach that featuring in the course since the study used a case study methodology. The case study examines the relationship between trajectories and other concepts of the ATM framework. Reasonably, initial 4D trajectory management and procedural concepts were explored regarding ATM based on 4D trajectories. After that, the case study appraised how 4D trajectories ought to be managed and planned, establishing negotiation, synchronization, verification, and modification process (Rodríguez-Sanz et al., 2019). This phase of the case study has several stages since the management of 4D trajectories involves trajectory simulation and monitoring.

Similarly, the study utilized the point mass model to model 4D trajectories and EUROCONTROL’s Base of Aircraft Data. Mass point model appraises the parameter of 4D-trajectories stochastically using Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo simulation allowed the study to obtain a large number of simulated trajectories by varying key parameters. Most of the tools used in this study are covered in the course material.

Rodríguez-Sanz et al. (2020) use the comparative study to review the operational implementation of 4D trajectories. The study evaluated the relationship between 4D trajectories vis-à-vis other concepts and systems of future ATM. The study also assessed communication navigation and surveillance CNS context. The methodology aimed at establishing the main tools that ought to be considered to allow effective implementation of 4D based on 4D trajectories (Rodríguez-Sanz et al., 2020). The data obtained in the comparative approach illustrates how 4D trajectories ought to be managed and planned. Similarly, the study utilized stochastic simulation whereby 4D trajectories were simulated to evaluate the feasibility of implementing 4D trajectories in ATM. The simulation used system requirements and time windows monitoring as the variable parameter since the study sought to examine the abovementioned impact variables on 4D based ATM systems. Essentially, the study utilized a comparative approach and stochastic simulation –tools that are widespread in aviation studies.

Matthes et al. (2016) utilized an overall approach that is not particularly common in the course material. The study used a modeling study that depends on comprehensive model calculations to construct and assess tools that can establish the impact of 4D trajectories on ATM and the environment. Additionally, the study utilized an approach covered in the course material whereby quantitative measure was used to collect data about environmental implications of 4D trajectories from reputable sources (Matthes et al., 2016). Fundamentally, the study combined a quantitative approach with a modeling study to detailed information about the impact of implementing ATM based on 4D trajectories on the environment.


Rodríguez-Sanz et al. (2018) used three indicators to assess the system; mean instantaneous performance, mean instantaneous deficiency, and mean instantaneous reliability to obtain average MSS output performance. The reliability of the course was thus defined as its ability to maintain an acceptable state during operation. Therefore, the study concluded that the reliability of 4D trajectories is in the correct states if it obtains a stable value in the stochastic simulation (Rosenow, Fricke, Luchkova, & Schultz, 2018). Similarly, the implementation of ATM-based on 4D trajectories requires high accuracy and reliable monitoring tools. Conclusively, the performance of ATM-based on 4D trajectories is feasible if the system requirements are reliable.

Although the primary result was based on simulations, the problem model illustrates that implementing a 4D trajectory-based ATM is feasible (Yan & Cai, 2017). Implementation of ATM-based on 4D flight trajectories can minimize traffic conflict. Simulations based on SESAR and NEXTGEN illustrate that re-routing, time tuning, and level allocation heuristically reduce the interaction of flight trajectories (Matthes et al., 2016). 4D trajectories integrate time in the 3D flight trajectory, allowing time tuning using SESAR and NEXTGEN systems. Therefore, 4D trajectories will minimize flight trajectory conflict by enhancing flight time accuracy (Yan & Cai, 2017). Thus, studies seeking to examine ATM’s reliability on 4D trajectories illustrate that time tuning will improve flight trajectory reliability.

Additionally, comparative studies and case studies based on stochastic simulation and Markov chain tools illustrate the superiority of 4D flight trajectories over 3D trajectories. Yan & Cai (2017) posit that the entire flight network of China can be solved by the sliding window technique to meet the operational requirements of SESAR. Rosenow, Fricke, Luchkova, & Schultz (2018) point out that results obtained from TOMATO simulation are valid and numerical variables such as spatial and temporal resolution are verifiable. Therefore, optimized 4D trajectories will improve flight traffic and promote time accuracy. The scenario reference used in the TOMATO simulation illustrates that optimized 4D trajectories reduce aircraft per hour significantly.

Rodríguez-Sanz et al. (2020) point out that the proposed time window technique can improve time tolerance within less than 100 seconds along 4D trajectories. ATM-based on 4D trajectories will reduce controllers’ task load by rescinding constraints associated with 3D trajectories, improving time tolerance (Rosenow, Fricke, Luchkova, & Schultz, 2018). Simulations based on SESAR’s 4D routes indicate that the concept is possible and will positively impact both airline and ANSP efficiency. Similarly, simulations show that the integration of 4D trajectories on the whole of European airspace will positively impact safety. Although 4D trajectories will reduced airspace conflict, the remaining conflict is more sophisticated.

Matthes et al. (2016) argue that the impact of 4D trajectories has multi-dimensional has implications on the effect of aircraft flight routes. The comprehensive modeling approach utilized by Matthes et al. (2016) indicates that 4D trajectories will reduce airspace congestion by moderating flight time through time tuning, thus reducing aircraft’s environmental effect. Implementing ATM based on 4D trajectories will allow integration of the earth-system model with an integrated air traffic submodel that will enhance the usage of environmentally optimized re-routing strategies (Rosenow, Fricke, Luchkova, & Schultz, 2018). Fundamentally, studies indicate that implementing ATM based on 4D will enhance improved aviation by improving safety, efficiency and minimizing aviation’s impact on the environment.

Conclusion and Application of Reliability in Real Life

The reliability assessment of 4D trajectories illustrates that the idea is feasible since ATM based on 4D trajectories can positively impact safety, efficiency, and time accuracy. However, the reliability study indicates that the implementation calls for a high level of accuracy. Reliability analysis using multi-state system theory and the Markov-chain model suggest that the performance may degrade as the state shifts from optimal to acceptable. Simulation undertaken using the Monte Carlo technique indicate that the system evolves with time; thus, 4D trajectories calls for close monitoring. Admittedly, implementing ATM based on 4D trajectories is a feasible idea but requires collaboration among all aviation stakeholders.

Reliability engineering focuses on applying scientific knowledge to a component, product, process, or plant to assess whether it will function as intended with minimal failures (Kiran, 2017). Reasonably, strive to establish the dependability of a product/service or related element of their production and delivery. Therefore, reliability is utilized in assessing the cost-benefit ratio of a product or service. Reliability analysis has two dimensions; time and stress, thus allowing evaluation of a product or service’s fault tolerance, therefore allowing calculation of the cost-benefit ratio. Additionally, the two-dimensional nature of reliability analysis enables applying reliability engineering in product feasibility studies (Kiran, 2017). Essentially, reliability engineering has a wide range of applications in determining a product’s dependability by assessing all processes engrossed in the product lifecycle and other related processes.

Reliability engineering primarily focuses on the cost associated with the failure of a product, service, component, or process involved in the production (Kiran, 2017). Reasonably, reliability engineering assesses the cost of system downtime, spare parts, repair and equipment overhaul, and personnel warranty. Fundamentally, the main objective of reliability engineering is to determine the reliability of a product and facility equipment. Thus, reliability engineering assesses all risks associated with a product/service, production, and delivery. Therefore, reliability engineering is applied in risk analysis and mitigation. From a pragmatic perspective, it is impossible to eliminate risks; thus, reliability engineering reinforces risk analysis and mitigation strategy (Kiran, 2017). The goal of reliability engineering, where it assesses all production and delivery elements, makes it suitable for risk analysis and mitigation plan.

Reliability engineering is not static; instead, it is a perpetual process that commences at the conception stage where a facility creates a conceptual design of a product or service and continues throughout the lifecycle of a product/service (Kiran, 2017). Similarly, reliability engineering employs several tools and technologies. For instance, assessing the reliability of 4D trajectories in ATM uses tools such as Markov-chain and multi-system analysis (Kiran, 2017). Therefore, reliability engineering is utilized in quality control. One of the main goals of reliability engineering is addressing the potential reliability problems as early as possible. As such, the concept is essential in quality control. Conclusively, reliability engineering has a wide range of applications whereby it is utilized both in scientific studies and business operations.

THE NURSING PRACTICE EXPERIENCE history assignment example

Nursing practice is considered a calling that requires dedication and commitment. Since my childhood experience, I have always been fascinated by how nurses saved my brother’s life after he had an accident. I witnessed as the nurse practitioners performed resuscitation procedures and were later able to get back his heartbeat and breathing. This experience completely changed my life and led to the development of a great passion for the nursing profession. I have been highly motivated to become a nurse since the experience, and I started by undertaking a basic nursing course. My general ambition and dedication to the nursing practice have kept me highly motivated to achieve an undergraduate degree. Becoming a qualified registered nurse has been one of my greatest ambitions. It would enable me to serve in a more significant capacity and positively impact many patients’ lives.

I am currently practicing nursing working in the intensive care unit. The practice has given me extensive experience in dealing with patients and responding promptly to emergency cases. According to my knowledge and experience, every patient deserves to receive services that focus on their healthcare needs. Besides, the nurses have to be made available to meet their needs. I once challenged the healthcare facility’s code of conduct to guide nurses’ operation in the intensive care department. My idea was to spend more time with conscious patients and talk to them in a gentle and comforting way. This resonates with the holistic approach to caring, which has been proven to significantly improve healthcare service quality and promote desired patient outcomes. The facility management was against the practice and claimed that it wasted time that could be used to increase my general productivity, but I stood my ground.

My nursing concept is based on the human caring theory, which upholds healthcare services in a humane way that considers the patients’ underlying problems. Ideally, this approach has, on many occasions, brought me to conflicts with nurse leaders and overall facility management. I believe in the significance of a holistic approach in providing effective healthcare services that promote desired patient outcomes. The facility recently resolved to increase the nurse-patient ratio in the intensive care unit to allow nurses more time with the patients. The management realized that my nursing strategy brought a substantial improvement in general wellness and patient satisfaction, thus integrating it into standard practice interventions.

Getting enrolled in your institution will be a great opportunity for me to increase my knowledge and skills and nurture my nursing profession expertise. This will make me a more competent nurse who will use their professional qualifications to promote good health among community members by implementing disease eradication interventions and preventive measures. Moreover, it will allow me to participate in healthcare policy deliberation and formulation. I will strive to ensure the implemented public health policies uphold quality healthcare services to achieve desired patient outcomes. I am aware that attaining a place in your institution is not easy. Still, I am hopeful that articulating my reasons and exploring my abilities and skills has been convincing enough. I will feel highly privileged to get admitted to your facility.

The Revenant film by Leonardo DiCaprio history assignment help in uk: history assignment help in uk

Leonardo DiCaprio wrote The Revenant film, and it is based on real-life events. The American frontiersman Hugh Glass inspired the development of the story. The Revenant probably meant “one that returns after the death or a long absence.” This film’s storyline can be used to interpret the past American lives concerning gender, class, and the issues of race.

Firstly, the role of race is highlighted in The Revenant. Native

Americans are viewed as enemies. Hugh Glass’ son, Hawk, was a Native American; when he was left with Fitzgerald and Hugh was about to die; he killed Hawk.

After the incident, he buried Hugh alive then left him in the wilderness. Glass

wanted to seek revenge for his native son or seek justice for his son’s killing. The film can be interpreted as the past life of Americans. Black

Americans and Native Americans are discriminated against in the United States since the

colonial era. White Americans enjoyed all the legal rights compared to Native

Americans. United States government attacked Indians who lived in US

territories; they were killed in the name of civilization. Also, in 1782, the

United States military killed 96 Indians, who argued that they were controlling

the growing population of the Native Americans.

Secondly, the role of gender is highlighted in The Revenant,

whereby the film gave women a small role in developing the story. The

film is comprised of more men than women. Women’s character shows the gender role

inflicted on women during the interrelation with men in society. Like in

the United States, most roles are given to men, leadership roles and education

were more encouraged in men than women. Since the colonial eras, it has been

hard to find women given the leadership roles; men are always in favor of

women. Also, the film is said to be too brutal for women. Chief’s daughter,

Powapa is kidnapped and the French leaders later raped her as Glass watched the incident helplessly from far apart. However, she tried to fight

back as described; she castrated the rapist with a knife. This was

experienced in the past life of Americans. In 1758, a girl in western

Pennsylvania was kidnapped by the Delaware Indians left with her in their

community. Women have less recognition in society, and most of them are

mistreated. Women kidnapping and enslaved is not something new in the past

Americans. Though activists have been trying to deal with these gender roles

insisting both men and women are equal.

However, the class’s role is viewed in the film whereby

various scenes have contributed to defining the differences between upper

class, middle class, and lower class. The lower class people are despised and

mistreated by other people. It can be seen that Hugh’s son is killed by

Fitzgerald without any sensible reason. Hugh was also buried alive; this

implies the real life that was experienced by the Americans. The middle-class

people were hunters and gatherers. That was their only field where they could

get their daily bread. That risk was a bit dangerous, as can be seen in the

Glass face to face attacks with a dangerous bear. Putting a meal on the table required

the individual’s total sacrifice. During the fight, the trappers were

killed, and those who managed to escape could only travel on foot. The ability

of Henry to give money to John Fitzgerald shows that he belongs to the upper

class. He paid them the money to keep watching Hugh Glass until he dies, and

then they should bury him. In relation to the life of Americans in the past

years, people were divided into different classes. The upper class was seen

enjoying life, using other people to accomplish their jobs on their behalf,

while middle-class people struggled to have something in their stomachs. They

did all types of jobs to get money. The low-income earners were treated as

slaves, humiliated, low payments, and they were the most undermined group of

people and viewed as a waste in the community; they were never recognized.

The lower class of people are viewed as the people who care for

one another. When Glass began his journey out of the wilderness, he met Hikuc,

a Pawnee refugee. He pitied Glass, and they shared a piece of meat then

decided to travel together. They helped one another and even lodged a restroom.

This life was experienced in the past Americans, whereby the oppressed joined

their hands together in seeking justice. The encouragement kept them going.

The French hunters hanged Hikuc; this shows the oppression and unjust

society that existed. Just like in the real-life of Americans, many people such

as Breonna Taylor, Eric Garner, and Michael Brown, among others, lost their

lives in the unjust American society.

In conclusion, The Revenant film displayed a real-life story that

interprets the past life of Americans. It relates a society experienced

with gender bias, racism, and upper class oppressing the middle and the

low-income earners. However, each individual must depend on each other in order

to have survival for the fittest. Merciless killing and raping are signs of an

unjust society that should be discouraged.

THE BENEFITS OF TAKING DEBTS advanced higher history essay help

Trade-offs management has to make between zero debt or $300,000 in debt?

For an optimal capital structure, debt and equity must be mixed in the same proportion. Zero debt results in higher equity than debt, while $300,000 debt results in higher debt than equity.

Benefits of taking debt

Debt reduces the cost of capital due to the tax rate applicable. Besides, debt reduces the amount of tax payable by a company resulting in higher net income. Therefore, debt reduces capital cost and maximizes the shareholders’ value (Vishwanath, 2007). If debt is used to repurchase shares, it increases the earning per, which attract investors to invest in the company.

Disadvantages of debt

Debt causes cash flow difficulties due to the payment of debt. Failure to obtain enough cash for operation causes the company to reduce revenue. Besides, high debt causes high-interest charges that reduce the net income. Also, high debt causes the company to increase the cost of capital. High debt tends to lower shareholders’ value and increases the cost of capital.

Part B: Conceptual Questions

Pharmaceutical company

The pharmaceutical company is facing A business risk against the FDA. The pharmaceutical company has no control or power to influence the FDA’s decision-overs side effects.


The airline is facing both financial risk and Business risk. The Financial risk arises due to the company reduced cash flow due to the payment of a massive debt of $97 out of EBIT of $100 Per year. The airline faces Business risk due to changes in the economy.

Basketball franchise

The basketball franchise faces business risk since its return is affected by factors outside the business control.

The CEO’s purchase of the shares causes the shares’ price of shares to increase, but the shares’ price decreases when the CEO sells the shares. The scenario is based on Modigliani and Miller’s capital structure theory, which states that its value is determined by the expected future earnings (Vishwanath, 2007). In this case, the future expectation of price increases causes the firm’s value to increase. When shares prices are expected to decrease, the firm’s value also decreases.

The scenario of XYZ corporation is based on Net income theory. When the debt percentage increases from 35% to 45%, the corporation decided to issue more debt. The company wanted to take advantage of debt interest since it reduces the company’s tax payable. It is paying more debt interest results in more net income, which increases the net income (Vishwanath, 2007). An increase in net income maximizes the value of the firm. The firm is very cautious, not affects its net income. When bankruptcy laws become stricter and costlier, the company refrained from borrowing.

The case of CEO Joe Bigwig is based on the Net operating income approach. The firm’s value is determined by the company’s ability to manage operating expenses (Vishwanath, 2007). Bigwig lives a luxurious life and cannot control the operating costs of the business. An increase in the operating cost lowers the value of the firm.