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Describe the trends in Real GDP in the US economy during the period 2000-2019. What were the significant issues

Describe the trends in Real GDP in the US economy during the period 2000-2019. What were the significant issues during that period? Support your discussion with graphs of the relevant variables – RGDP, Consumption, Investment, Government Spending, Net Exports.

The paper should be at least 300 words in length and include at least two graphs. Your textbook and the FRED website will suffice as your reference list.

Book for this assignment

Mankiw, N. Gregory. Principles of Macroeconomics, 7th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2014. ISBN: 9781285165912

1 Communication Tactics Your Name Listed Here Communications for Public Administrators –


Communication Tactics

Your Name Listed Here

Communications for Public Administrators – COM/PA523


Dr. Scharlene Ahmed

Communication Tactics

This is the introductory section of your paper which grabs the reader’s attention. Tip: Avoid

starting sentences with “The purpose of this essay is . . .” or “In this essay I will . . .” or any

similar flat announcement of your intention or topic.

Communicating to a Diverse Workforce

Explain the communication tactics you would use to get information out to a diverse workforce and how you would measure its impact (think in terms of an organization’s intranet, employee programs, and video storytelling). Include whether the content was truthful, whether it was accessed and viewed or heard, and if the message was well-timed.


The closing paragraph is designed to bring the reader to your way of thinking if you are

writing a persuasive essay, to understand relationships if you are writing a comparison/contrast

essay, or simply to value the information you provide in an informational essay. The closing

paragraph summarizes the key points from the supporting paragraphs without introducing any

new information.


Use a separate page to list the references and double-space the entire page. The word References is upper and lower case, centered, not bolded, at the top of the page. All references must be cited in your paper and listed in alphabetical order.

Dear President Rockfish, Thank you for taking the time to speak with

Describe the trends in Real GDP in the US economy during the period 2000-2019. What were the significant issues Economics Assignment Help Dear President Rockfish,

Thank you for taking the time to speak with me about Knowledge Management (KM). I understand your concerns about the Information Technology (IT) Department having loads of new software; however, there is a valid explanation. I believe establishing a Knowledge Management Department is paramount to the continued success of Global Delivery Direct. However, the IT and KM departments will have to work in concert, using the new software, to meld the expertise and resources to manage tools for knowledge capture and sharing.

Managing an organization’s knowledge has typically been the responsibility of IT. Fundamentally IT ensures employees have information available when they need it(Dalkir, 2011). However, GDD needs to invest in capturing tacit and explicit knowledge. We are fortunate to have a diverse group of employees that are subject matter experts within their professions, although located in multiple locations globally. For GDD to benefit from these experts’ knowledge, we will use the SECI model. Nonaka’s and Takeuchi’s SECI Model will help clarify the importance of tacit and explicit knowledge and its conversion within our organization.

The Nonaka and Takeuchi SECI model of knowledge conversion has four quadrants to define the roles and responsibilities within our organization. The first is Socialization which is tacit to tacit, which is one of the easiest. It consists of face-to-face interaction, conversations, observation, and brainstorming ideas in the workplace (Dalkir, 2011). For example, our employees are responsible for loading and unloading air cargo. The warehouse workers have devised tactics that position the shipments in a manner that makes it easier for the forklift operators to maneuver, thus making it a safer and more efficient operation based on experience and cooperation amongst the employees.

The second quadrant of the model is tacit to explicit, which is externalization, where the knowledge is derived from experts and written down or recorded. An excellent example of externalization is GDD aircrews and loadmasters developing checklists for specific pallets, cargo types, and shipping methods based on particular aircraft, number of stops, and securing processes. IT will acquire and program handheld scanners that interface with GDD global enterprise software to validate cargo ownership and destination in real-time, guaranteeing our clients get their products to their destination intact and on time. The third quadrant is a Combination which is explicit to explicit transfer involving trend analysis and content organization (Dalkir, 2011). The GDD IT department will be heavily involved in this quadrant. Through the Combination mode, we will gather data from our customers. We will identify the clients of our customers. The IT department will use the data to determine what types of cargo go where, when, and to what client. The Knowledge Management department will work with logistics to analyze factors to help make decisions more easily regarding fleet availability, geographic locations, and fuel costs. The final quadrant is internalization, where our employees will internalize knowledge gained from within the organization. We will have GDD-specific know-how from offices and warehouses across the globe based on our deployment of the SECI Model. KM will be pivotal to the Socialization of knowledge, and IT will be heavily involved in the Combination mode. Both modes will be crucial to Global Delivery Direct securing a competitive advantage in the market.

We can keep GDD employees updated on the latest technological developments if we spread the word and share information (Dalkir, 2011). Because of this, we can preserve our position as the industry leader.

Thank you for your questions. I hope this has clarified why KM and IT are important and how they can benefit Global Deliver Direct.


Jane Clive


Dalkir, K. (2011). Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice (2nd Ed). The MIT Press.

Drug Goes From $13.50 a Tablet to $750, Overnight Give this article

Drug Goes From $13.50 a Tablet to $750, Overnight

Give this article

Specialists in infectious disease are protesting a gigantic overnight increase in the price of a 62-year-old drug that is the standard of care for treating a life-threatening parasitic infection.

The drug, called Daraprim, was acquired in August by Turing Pharmaceuticals, a start-up run by a former hedge fund manager. Turing immediately raised the price to $750 a tablet from $13.50, bringing the annual cost of treatment for some patients to hundreds of thousands of dollars.

“What is it that they are doing differently that has led to this dramatic increase?” said Dr. Judith Aberg, the chief of the division of infectious diseases at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. She said the price increase could force hospitals to use “alternative therapies that may not have the same efficacy.”

Turing’s price increase is not an isolated example. While most of the attention on pharmaceutical prices has been on new drugs for diseases like cancer, hepatitis C and high cholesterol, there is also growing concern about huge price increases on older drugs, some of them generic, that have long been mainstays of treatment.

Although some price increases have been caused by shortages, others have resulted from a business strategy of buying old neglected drugs and turning them into high-priced “specialty drugs.”

Cycloserine, a drug used to treat dangerous multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, was just increased in price to $10,800 for 30 pills from $500 after its acquisition by Rodelis Therapeutics. Scott Spencer, general manager of Rodelis, said the company needed to invest to make sure the supply of the drug remained reliable. He said the company provided the drug free to certain needy patients.

In August, two members of Congress investigating generic drug price increases wrote to Valeant Pharmaceuticals after that company acquired two heart drugs, Isuprel and Nitropress, from Marathon Pharmaceuticals and promptly raised their prices by 525 percent and 212 percent respectively. Marathon had acquired the drugs from another company in 2013 and had quintupled their prices, according to the lawmakers, Senator Bernie Sanders, the Vermont independent who is seeking the Democratic nomination for president, and Representative Elijah E. Cummings, Democrat of Maryland.

Doxycycline, an antibiotic, went from $20 a bottle in October 2013 to $1,849 by April 2014, according to the two lawmakers.

The Infectious Diseases Society of America and the HIV Medicine Association sent a joint letter to Turing earlier this month calling the price increase for Daraprim “unjustifiable for the medically vulnerable patient population” and “unsustainable for the health care system.” An organization representing the directors of state AIDS programs has also been looking into the price increase, according to doctors and patient advocates.

Martin Shkreli is the founder and chief executive of Turing Pharmaceuticals, which raised the price of the drug Daraprim to $750 a tablet from $13.50.

Martin Shkreli is the founder and chief executive of Turing Pharmaceuticals, which raised the price of the drug Daraprim to $750 a tablet from $13.50.

Daraprim, known generically as pyrimethamine, is used mainly to treat toxoplasmosis, a parasite infection that can cause serious or even life-threatening problems for babies born to women who become infected during pregnancy, and also for people with compromised immune systems, like AIDS patients and certain cancer patients.

Martin Shkreli, the founder and chief executive of Turing, said that the drug is so rarely used that the impact on the health system would be minuscule and that Turing would use the money it earns to develop better treatments for toxoplasmosis, with fewer side effects.

“This isn’t the greedy drug company trying to gouge patients, it is us trying to stay in business,” Mr. Shkreli said. He said that many patients use the drug for far less than a year and that the price was now more in line with those of other drugs for rare diseases.

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“This is still one of the smallest pharmaceutical products in the world,” he said. “It really doesn’t make sense to get any criticism for this.”

This is not the first time the 32-year-old Mr. Shkreli, who has a reputation for both brilliance and brashness, has been the center of controversy. He started MSMB Capital, a hedge fund company, in his 20s and drew attention for urging the Food and Drug Administration not to approve certain drugs made by companies whose stock he was shorting.

In 2011, Mr. Shkreli started Retrophin, which also acquired old neglected drugs and sharply raised their prices. Retrophin’s board fired Mr. Shkreli a year ago. Last month, it filed a complaint in Federal District Court in Manhattan, accusing him of using Retrophin as a personal piggy bank to pay back angry investors in his hedge fund.

Mr. Shkreli has denied the accusations. He has filed for arbitration against his old company, which he says owes him at least $25 million in severance. “They are sort of concocting this wild and crazy and unlikely story to swindle me out of the money,” he said.

Daraprim, which is also used to treat malaria, was approved by the F.D.A. in 1953 and has long been made by GlaxoSmithKline. Glaxo sold United States marketing rights to CorePharma in 2010. Last year, Impax Laboratories agreed to buy Core and affiliated companies for $700 million. In August, Impax sold Daraprim to Turing for $55 million, a deal announced the same day Turing said it had raised $90 million from Mr. Shkreli and other investors in its first round of financing.

Daraprim cost only about $1 a tablet several years ago, but the drug’s price rose sharply after CorePharma acquired it. According to IMS Health, which tracks prescriptions, sales of the drug jumped to $6.3 million in 2011 from $667,000 in 2010, even as prescriptions held steady at about 12,700. In 2014, after further price increases, sales were $9.9 million, as the number of prescriptions shrank to 8,821. The figures do not include inpatient use in hospitals.

Turing’s price increase could bring sales to tens or even hundreds of millions of dollars a year if use remains constant. Medicaid and certain hospitals will be able to get the drug inexpensively under federal rules for discounts and rebates. But private insurers, Medicare and hospitalized patients would have to pay an amount closer to the list price.

Turing Chief Explains Drug Price Rise

Martin Shkreli, the chief executive of Turing Pharmaceuticals, explains the increase in drug prices in a CNBC interview.CreditCredit…CNBC

Some doctors questioned Turing’s claim that there was a need for better drugs, saying the side effects, while potentially serious, could be managed.

With the price now high, other companies could conceivably make generic copies, since patents have long expired. One factor that could discourage that option is that Daraprim’s distribution is now tightly controlled, making it harder for generic companies to get the samples they need for the required testing.

The switch from drugstores to controlled distribution was made in June by Impax, not by Turing. Still, controlled distribution was a strategy Mr. Shkreli talked about at his previous company as a way to thwart generics.

Some hospitals say they now have trouble getting the drug. “We’ve not had access to the drug for a few months,” said Dr. Armstrong, who also works at Grady Memorial Hospital, a huge public treatment center in Atlanta that serves many low-income patients.

But Dr. Rima McLeod, medical director of the toxoplasmosis center at the University of Chicago, said that Turing had been good about delivering drugs quickly to patients, sometimes without charge.

“They have jumped every time I’ve called,” she said. The situation, she added, “seems workable” despite the price increase.

Daraprim is the standard first treatment for toxoplasmosis, in combination with an antibiotic called sulfadiazine. There are alternative treatments, but there is less data supporting their efficacy.

Dr. Aberg of Mount Sinai said some hospitals will now find Daraprim too expensive to keep in stock, possibly resulting in treatment delays. She said that Mount Sinai was continuing to use the drug, but each use now required a special review.

“This seems to be all profit-driven for somebody,” Dr. Aberg said, “and I just think it’s a very dangerous process.”


Identify the major issue in the article.

What is the primary ethical issue and why did you select it? (1-2 paragraphs)

Analyze the social and business implications of the ethical issue and their impact on society. (1 page)

Choose the appropriate business support tools and use them to support your argument. See list of tools below. (1-2 paragraphs)

Conclude and defend your decision. Given the analysis you have done; how would you approach this problem as a corporate citizen or professional? (1 page)

Sample Business Support Tools. Choose from below or use other business analysis tools from your studies.

ROI Flow Charts

SWOT Histograms

TOWS Check Sheets

PEST Cause/Effect Diagrams

PESTEL Scatter Diagrams

Journal articles Control Charts

T-chart Root Cause Analysis

Decision Tree Environmental Assessment

Cost-Benefit Feasibility Study

Pareto Analysis