Your paper should be written as a Word document, formatted MLA style and written in a 12 point font. You paper should be a minimum of 3 pages double spaced, but not more than six. The sources cited page does not count as a page. Please use at least two additional sources other than your text. Spelling and grammar will be graded as well.
TRADE ANALYSIS : This paper looks at whether pegging of the sterling
TRADE ANALYSIS : This paper looks at whether pegging of the sterling pound to the United States dollar would help to address trade deficits that the United Kingdom has and also whether trade imbalances are more important than financial flows in the short-run determination of exchange rates
The issue of the United Kingdom leaving the European Union which is also referred to as Brexit has been one of the trending topics in the world today. The United Kingdom held a referendum which they voted in the favour of the Brexit. One of the negative outcomes of the aftermath was the sharp decline in value of the sterling pound (BBC News, 2019). Since June 2016, holidays and goods that are imported in the country have experienced an increase in price becoming more expensive while the exports have become much cheaper (BBC News, 2019). This paper looks at whether pegging of the sterling pound to the United States dollar would help to address trade deficits that the United Kingdom has and also whether trade imbalances are more important than financial flows in the short-run determination of exchange rates.
Pegging of the pound sterling to the US dollar
When a country pegs its currency with the dollar, it means that it maintains its currency’s value at a fixed exchange rate to the US dollar. The central bank of the country is mandated with the control of the value of its currency so that when the dollar rises and falls, the currency does so along with the dollar (Lee young ki, 2014). There are at least sixty six countries in the world that have pegged their currencies with the US dollar or use the dollar as their own legal tender (Tarashev and Zabai, 2019). The reason the dollar is most popular is because it is the world’s reserve currency a status that was bestowed upon it by world leaders during the 1944 Brettin Woods Agreement.
Since the year 1992, the pound has been freely floating on the currency markets where the traders (buyers and sellers) have been responsible in the determination of its worth (Lee young ki, 2014). As a free-floating currency, the sterling was at a better place as it means and works as a safety value.
Fig. 1 a graph showing the performance of the sterling pound against the US dollar from 2008-2019
In the recent years, traders have been looking at politics rather than economic data which mean faster trading and a faster pace of change in price (Tarashev and Zabai, 2019).the traders have reacted to Brexit which is a political issue and this has affected the pound and consequently the economic situation in the United Kingdom. The value of the pound has gone down and life in the UK has been becoming expensive.
Fig. 2 a graph showing the performance of the pound since the EU referendum
The United Kingdom has been facing trade deficits since the Brexit and this has greatly affected its economy and the situation is not changing for the better. There is the need for the country to come with long term solutions that will help stabilize its currency and be able to trade favourably. The main reason for pegging the sterling pound with the US dollar would be to ensure the stability of the pound by maintaining an exchange rate that is steady to assist in the construction of stable trade relations.
Given the fact that the sterling pound is fluctuating constantly in relation to other major currencies it poses a challenge as it disheartens prospective trade partners who are scared of the unfavourable changes in exchange rate and this has brought about the trade deficits (Lee young ki, 2014). Given the fact that the US dollar is the reserve currency of the world, it means that it is not prone to sudden fluctuations and the UK and other countries pegging their currencies to the dollar would help in instilling faith in the investors and this would help in reducing the trade deficits as investors and traders would have more confidence (Tarashev and Zabai, 2019).
Are trade imbalances more important than financial flows in the short-run determination of exchange rates?
The approaches of exchange rate determination that are common have assumed a sturdy rapport between currency prices and trade flows. In the approaches, trade flows are viewed as the most crucial determinants of the currency prices, and the currency prices are thought to have the most crucial effect on the trade flows (Abbas Ali, Johari and Haji Alias, 2014). Based on these suppositions, there is the argument that the currencies of trade deficit countries tend to depreciate and those of trade surplus countries tend to appreciate (Cheung and Chinn, 2001).
The trade balance is responsible for influencing currency exchange rates via its effect on the supply and demand for foreign exchange (Cheung and Chinn, 2001). If a country’s trade account does not net to zero, meaning that imports are not equal to exports, there is comparatively more supply or demand for the country’s currency which has an effect on the price of the currency in the global market (Abbas Ali, Johari and Haji Alias, 2014). The relative values of the currency exchange rates are dictated by the demand for a given currency which is consequently influenced by trade. If a country imports less than it exports, there is a high demand for its products and consequently its currency. According to the law of supply and demand when demand is high prices rise and the currency rises too. The vice versa is also true. These trade imbalances are the ones that are more accurate in determining the exchange rates for currencies (Abbas Ali, Johari and Haji Alias, 2014). There can be different reason starting from socio-economic to political factors that can instigate the imbalances. In order for the world market to protect itself from individual afflictions of countries, these imbalance are the best way to determine the exchange rates in the short term to avoid the collapsing of the whole system as it acts as a balancing factor (Cheung and Chinn, 2001).
The above scenarios present issues that are affecting the global market currently. It can be said that pegging of a country’s currency that is not performing well in the global market to a currency that is more stable can help in correcting the economic deficit. The one main thing that a country should consider before pegging its currency with another is the stability of the other currency and it should be willing to take the risks that come with it in case the other currency depreciates. On the issue of trade imbalances being used to determine exchange rates in the short term, it is the best suited as it helps in the protection of the global market from problems experienced in an individual country.
Abbas Ali, D., Johari, F. and Haji Alias, M. (2014). The Effect of Exchange Rate Movements on Trade Balance: A Chronological Theoretical Review.
BBC News. (2019). Brexit: A really simple guide. [online] Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-46318565 [Accessed 28 Mar. 2019].
BBC News. (2019). How does Brexit affect the pound?. [online] Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-46862790 [Accessed 28 Mar. 2019].
Cheung, Y. and Chinn, M. (2001). Currency traders and exchange rate dynamics: a survey of the US market. Journal of International Money and Finance, 20(4), pp.439-471.
Herrendorf, B. (1997). IMPORTING CREDIBILITY THROUGH EXCHANGE RATE PEGGING*. The Economic Journal, 107(442), pp.687-694.
Lee young ki (2014). Monetary Models of US Dollar/ UK Pound Exchange Rates. The Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 32(4), pp.55-76.
Tarashev, N. and Zabai, A. (2019). When Pegging is a Commitment Device Revisiting Conventional Wisdom about Currency Crises. Journal of International Economics.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CSR STANDARDS 8 Advantages and Disadvantages of CSR
Describe an ethical dilemma or moral issue you have personally dealt with in your life. Describe the problem, why Writing Assignment Help ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CSR STANDARDS 8
Advantages and Disadvantages of CSR Standards
Corporate Social Responsibility is a self-regulating organizational model that helps it to be socially accountable to its stakeholders, itself, and the general public. The application of Corporate Social Responsibility in an organization has been considered important in helping the stakeholders understand its social, environmental, and economic impact of their operations to the society (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). The main goal of an organization’s corporate social responsibility is to improve the general social and environmental impacts of its operations without focusing on its negative impacts (Fombrun, 2005). Corporate social responsibility has six key characteristics including being voluntary, having different practices and values, social economic alignment, multiple stakeholders’ orientation, beyond philanthropy, and managing externalities.
The successful application of an organization’s corporate social responsibility is always guided by the right corporate social responsibility standards. Corporate Social Responsibility Standards refers to a set of broad international and global standard that irrespective of the significant differences in their focus, nature, governance structure and monitoring mechanisms share similar objectives. The application of CSR standards is always meant to improve the ethical, social, and the environmental performances of an organization through organizational behavior codification (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). There has been an increase in the adoption of CSR standards by organizations from different parts of the world, a trend that has been linked to the benefits linked to its application in the organization. The standards define the procedures that should be followed for purposes of achieving socially desirable outcomes within the organization (Fombrun, 2005).
The general structure of global corporate social responsibility standards is based on the common distinction between the general management systems and the specialized CSR standards (Fombrun, 2005). According to this classification, specialized corporate social responsibility standards are defined as a type of codification that focuses its attention on a single stakeholder, or a single issue while the general management system is defined as a standard that codifies the social, ethical, and environmental issues that define the relationship between key stakeholders and the organization without having to focus on a particular group (Smith, 2002).
The process of developing CSR standards is always done in two stages. The first stage entails focusing on the process defining the required CSR standard’s scope by making sure that all the general principles are adequately identified (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). The second stage entails focusing on substantive definition of the SCR standard content and addressing the issue of deceptive measurements from experimentation and stakeholder engagement processes (Smith, 2002). More often than not, these stages always conflict and the applicants of the CSR standards end up having difficulties when applying the standards in their operations. It is the inconsistencies that are linked to both the adoption and application process that make the application of CSR standard challenging. How well the standards are developed leads to the creation of both the advantages and disadvantages in its application. As such, the purpose of this paper is to critically discuss the advantage and disadvantages of using CSR standards as one of the best ways of establishing a responsible business organization.
Advantages of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards
A look at the corporate social responsibility standards has been linked to a number of benefits to the organizations that apply them in the right way. The applications in different organizations lead to benefits like CSR operationalization, help in the process of avoiding confusion, supports the CSR uptake, facilitating the engagement of stakeholders, and enhancing corporate reputation. The standards also act effectively towards promoting continuous improvement, and enabling self-enforcement in the organization.
Corporate social responsibility operationalization
The application of corporate social responsibility standards offers an organization with a series of practical frameworks that help the stakeholders to interpret the presented organizational values and principles. When applied in the right way, these standards act effectively towards helping stakeholders translate the presented abstract concepts into effective tools that are easily manageable (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). Through the operationalization process, the application of an organization’s CSR ends up being done easily compared to how it could have been done without the standards. The interpretation process also offers stakeholders with a better understanding of their organization’s CSR, thus enabling them to adopt them in the right way (Smith, 2002). The operationalization process generally makes everything attached to the organization’s CSR to be applicable in all areas irrespective of the impact that it will have to the operations of the organization.
Helps in avoiding confusions in the organization
The application of CSR standards in an organization plays a significant role in helping stakeholders to eliminate any form of confusion in the methodologies and language used in the organization. Its application significantly promotes all the commonly accepted practices and processes in the organization by the stakeholders, thus making everything clear to the stakeholders (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). Making the concepts used clear to the stakeholders makes the application of CSR more effective because all forms of confusions are eliminated through the operationalization process. The meaning of this is that, the absence of the right CSR standards could lead to a lot of confusion being created amongst the stakeholders (Mueckenberger, & Jastram, 2010). The ability of the standards to avoid confusions from being made during the interpretation process is linked to the fact that they offer a step-by-step guide to organizations on what they have to maintain a positive relationship to their stakeholders while at the same time improving their image to the general society (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016).
Supporting corporate social responsibility uptake
The development and application of corporate social responsibility standards enables organizations to adopt the most appropriate codified processes and practices that end up promoting a broad adoption of CSR in the organization amongst the organization’s stakeholders. It is therefore important to apply that the application of the standards is beneficial to any organization because it makes a large population of the stakeholders to adopt the organization’s CSR without having doubts or contracting questions that could affect the whole adoption process.
Facilitates stakeholder engagement
One of the key functions that CSR standards play in an organization is that of identifying the organizations shared rules through various ways. The standards always achieve this by adopting the globally codified principles and norms that offer the stakeholders with a strong engagement and partnership basis to the organization (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). By perfectly explaining the rules of the game, the stakeholders always develop an urge to be a part of the organization’s CSR in different ways.
Promoting progressive improvement
Corporate Social Responsibilities that are adopted in different parts of an organization is always open to continuous and experimental improvements that help the organization improve its performance and productivity. Having improvement opportunities through the standards plays a very important role in improving their CSR, and ultimately a reduction in the negative consequences of the organization’s actions to the society (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). As such, the improvement opportunities presented by the standards opens the organization to different improvement opportunities.
It enhances corporate reputation
Organizations that adopt the right corporate standard responsibility standards always have a high chance of enhancing their reputation as opposed to organizations that do not adopt these standards. The reason for having these organizations enhance their corporate reputation is based on the fact that the standards adopted acts effectively in offering the stakeholders with an appropriate reference point for the organization’s accountability (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). From the basis provided, stakeholders get an opportunity to judge the performance of the organization as well as the corporate behavior of the employees working in the organization. Additionally, the CSR standards also make it easy for stakeholders to improve their understanding of the roles and responsibilities in helping the organization improve its outlook to the general public (Mueckenberger, & Jastram, 2010). The end result of adopting the standards an improvement in the organization’s reputation to the stakeholders.
It enables self-enforcement
The application of CSR standard in an organization has been linked to the process of activating a specific self-enforcement mechanism that is based on the organizations participant’s endogenous motivation (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). Its ability to enable self-enforcement in an organization is always based on the fact that a good number of the organization’s stakeholders tend to be more inclined towards behaving in a responsible manner when they rely on becoming responsible employees and managers (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). This leads to a significant reduction in external enforcement costs like sanctions and controls for a given organization.
Disadvantages of using Corporate Social Responsibility Standards
The application of CSR standards in an organization is always linked to different drawbacks. The drawbacks in the application of SCR standards tend to vary from one organization to the other. Some of the common drawbacks from CSR standard application that have been identified to affect the operations of an organization include conceptual inadequacy, introduction of extra operational costs, lack of enforcement, obsession with compliance, inappropriate communication, and stifling innovation as well as systematic failure in driving systematic change.
The development of CSR standards was purposely done to deal with all the technical issues that affect the smooth running of an organization. However, the CSR development process has been characterized with various methodological issues, thus making the process of codifying both the ethical and social issues a complex process (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). Additionally, the fact that there are a limited number of standards meant to handle the different issues that are experienced in an organization lead to the development of confusions linked to the terminologies used (Fombrun, 2005). An increase in the rate of terminology confusion has generally led to the development of conceptual inadequacies in the application of CSR standards.
Introduction of extra costs
The adoption and implementation of a CSR standard requires an organization to acquire a series of certificates that make the whole process costly both for the small and medium enterprises (Milne, Gray, & Buhr, 2014). On to the charges that are meant when applying for the right certification, the implementation process has also been considered costly because the management has to organize and facilitate a series of seminars and conferences to train the stakeholders on the importance of applying the standards in the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). As such, both the adoption and implementation stages of the CSR standards have been considered to possess significant cost implications to the organizations.
Lack of enforcement
The adoption of CSR standards in any organization is always voluntary and only applicable to any organization that deems its presence important in its operations. Due to this, their application is always considered to lack legality and strong conformity methods that are available to the law (Tallontire, 2007). Despite the nature of CSR standard being linked to its reliance on endogenous motivation as opposed to external sanctions, scholars have made it clear that its voluntary nature is a representation of a weakness that when not well solved could lead to the lowering of the standard’s effectiveness (Tschopp, & Nastanski, 2014). Additionally, despite the application of CSR standards always involving a look at some specific processes or substantive issues, it fails to offer an accompanying schema that would help the stakeholders to evaluate how easy or difficult its implementation could be to the management of the organization (Golob, & Bartlett, 2007). It is however important to understand that this issue can be well handled by including a series of monitoring mechanisms in the organization to look at the effectiveness of the standards.
Obsession with compliance
The adoption of a CSR standard is always followed by an immediate focus on its compliance by the management. The focus of the management is always meant to make improve the acceptability of the standards by the employees while at the same time helping them to learn the link between the standards and the results of their application (Haack, Schoeneborn, & Wickert, 2010). When the focus on the implementation process becomes the only thing for the stakeholders, other important elements of the organization end up being neglected. Issues like building the relationship and trust between the stakeholders always get forgotten by the employees, leading to a reduction in the productivity and efficiency of the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). The process of making important decisions in the organization also gets neglected at the expense of the implementation process. It is also important to understand that some organizations may opt to apply CSR standards without considering any adaptation to their personal characteristics and needs (Delchet-Cochet, & Vo, 2013). The result of the adoption leads to the production of counter-productive impacts in the organization, and this affects its performance and operations significantly.
Communication is always important to the success of any concept in an organization. However, when the communication process is either overdone or done inappropriately, the information being passed reaches the target audience in a flawed format (Christensen, & Murphy, 2004). As such, the use of formalistic compliance has been said to bring various risks like having a lot of data that does not adequately represent the real information being communicated, thus making the involved stakeholders not to be in a position to make informed decisions for the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). Miscommunication on the other hand due to inadequate data also leads to poor decisions being made from the assumption that the standards adopted are adequate in guiding the organization meet its key goals and objectives (Tallontire, 2007). As such, the fact that the standards are either over or under emphasized has led to the development of under or over communication in the organization, and this has affected the ability of the stakeholders to perfectly apply the standards in the organization’s operations (Ingenbleek, Binnekamp, & Goddijn, 2007).
The process of CSR standard application entails codifying or identifying best practices or socially acceptable outcomes. It is however important to understand that the application of CSR standard has the potential to stifle creativity and innovation in dealing with any of the new issues experienced in the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). The process of stifling innovation is always detrimental to the operations of the organization in different ways, thus affecting the whole process of applying CSR standards (Adeyeye, 2011).
Failure to drive systematic change
Despite the adoption of CSR standards being linked to numerous benefits, the issue of failing to drive systematic change effectively has been affecting its effectiveness in a significant way. The application of CSR standards have been found to be very effective in improving issues linked to the social, ethical, and environmental issues that affect its operations as well as the image of the organization to the society. Irrespective of these benefits, the standards always lack the ability to address the issues in a systematic manner or in a way that does not affect the operations of the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). Due to this issue, all the involved stakeholders always have a tough time implementing the change brought about by these standards because the period needed for the change does not support systematic operations to be carried out for purposes of effecting the change process (Tallontire, 2007). Generally, CSR standards on their own ate not in a position to bring about systematic change that has been considered in dealing with issues affecting the organization nationally and internationally. The organization is therefore expected to develop the most appropriate strategies that will make sure that the change process brought about by the standards is done appropriately without any rush or delay being experienced by the involved stakeholders.
Corporate social responsibility standards erode individual and organizational responsibility
The application of CSR standards has been linked to the problem of eroding personal and organizational responsibility in a big way. The behavioral codification process that is linked to the CSR standards has been associated with the development of a counter-productive tendency because the involved members tend to align their behaviors to the outcomes and processes of the organization through these standards (Adeyeye, 2011). Importantly, the disadvantage of codifying individual behaviors to match the requirements of the organization is that of having some individuals limit their responsibilities and roles to what the standards designate them to do. When this happens, some of the common roles that individuals used to undertake and make sure the organization is run smoothly get neglected, thus creating an opening in the organization that need to be occupied by employing another employee, a process that is always costly for the organization to adopt (Koszewska, 2010). The general result of this is erosion of the roles and responsibilities that individual undertake in their work place.
Corporate social responsibility standards are a set of rules and guidelines that guide organizations to keep a positive image to the society while at the same time working towards reducing the social, environmental, and economical issues that are experienced by the organization. The main purpose of this paper was to give a critical analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of CSR standards in organization. From the discussion, the paper identified various CSR standards benefits to the organization including CSR operationalization, avoiding confusions in organizations, playing an important role in supporting CSR uptake, and facilitating the process of stakeholder engagement in the organization. Additionally, the presence of CSR standards in an organization has been linked to the process of enhancing corporate reputation, promoting continuous improvement, and enabling self-enforcement in the organization. On the other hand, some of the disadvantages that have been linked to the application of CSR standards in the organization as discussed above include lack of enforcement, introducing extra costs into the organization, being characterized by conceptual inadequacy, and obsession with compliance amongst the employees. Additionally, CSR standards application has also been linked to high levels of data communication issues, stifling innovation, and failure of driving systematic change in the organization. Irrespective of the benefits that the CSR standards introduce to an organization, all the issues experienced need to be well addressed for purposes of making sure that their roles and responsibilities are well met within the stipulated time period. The right strategies therefore need to be put into place for purposes of making sure that the organization does not only concentrate on solving the issues, but also focus on working towards making sure that the benefits are mutual to all the stakeholders in the organization.
Adeyeye, A. (2011). Universal standards in CSR: are we prepared?. Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, 11(1), 107-119.
Christensen, J., & Murphy, R. (2004). The social irresponsibility of corporate tax avoidance: Taking CSR to the bottom line. Development, 47(3), 37-44.
De Colle, S., Henriques, A., & Sarasvathy, S. (2014). The paradox of corporate social responsibility standards. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(2), 177-191.
Delchet-Cochet, K., & Vo, L. C. (2013). Classification of CSR standards in the light of ISO 26000. Society and Business Review, 8(2), 134-144.
Fombrun, C. J. (2005). A world of reputation research, analysis and thinking—building corporate reputation through CSR initiatives: evolving standards. Corporate reputation review, 8(1), 7-12.
Golob, U., & Bartlett, J. L. (2007). Communicating about corporate social responsibility: A comparative study of CSR reporting in Australia and Slovenia. Public relations review, 33(1), 1-9.
Haack, P., Schoeneborn, D., & Wickert, C. (2010). Exploring the Constitutive Conditions for a Self-Energizing Effect of CSR Standards: The Case of the’Equator Principles’.
Husted, B. W., Montiel, I., & Christmann, P. (2016). Effects of local legitimacy on certification decisions to global and national CSR standards by multinational subsidiaries and domestic firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(3), 382-397.
Ingenbleek, P., Binnekamp, M., & Goddijn, S. (2007). Setting standards for CSR: A comparative case study on criteria-formulating organizations. Journal of Business Research, 60(5), 539-548.
Koszewska, M. (2010). CSR standards as a significant factor differentiating textile and clothing goods. Fibres Text. East. Eur, 83, 14-19.
Milne, M. J., Gray, R., & Buhr, N. (2014). Histories, rationales, voluntary standards and future prospects for sustainability reporting: CSR, GRI, IIRC and beyond. In Sustainability accounting and accountability (pp. 69-89). Routledge.
Mueckenberger, U., & Jastram, S. (2010). Transnational norm-building networks and the legitimacy of corporate social responsibility standards. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(2), 223-239.
Smith, K. (2002). ISO considers corporate social responsibility standards. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 25(3), 42.
Tallontire, A. (2007). CSR and regulation: towards a framework for understanding private standards initiatives in the agri-food chain. Third World Quarterly, 28(4), 775-791.
Tschopp, D., & Nastanski, M. (2014). The harmonization and convergence of corporate social responsibility reporting standards. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(1), 147-162.
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Type of Requirement
Food Labelling – A Clearer Healthier Message
Your Detailed Content Instructions
Social Marketing Individual Essay: 60% of the module of the module grade
(Submit on Monday 3rd December 2018 via the Turnitin link on Moodle – Week 13)
This assessment entails an individual essay assignment of 2,000 words in length (excluding appendices). The topic is Food Labelling – A Clearer Healthier Message
The topic of this essay concerns the messages and information contained on food products which are available for purchase in retail stores.
The essay question is: How can social marketers help consumers to better understand the nutritional information provided on food labels in order to assist them to make informed food choices in the context of eating a healthy diet?
The essay should be developed using current popular articles and in particular journal articles. There must be a clear theoretical base. The student should write a structured essay (with references cited in the text) demonstrating the role that social marketing, social policy (government) and retailers have to play in changing behaviour concerning a healthy diet and food labelling. Some suggested references are listed below as a starting point:
Key Food Labelling References
Cavicchi, A., Stefani, G., Romano, D., & Santini, C. (2011). Exploring social marketing landscapes: A review of healthy food campaigns. African Journal of Business Management, 5(5), 1533–1542.
Grunert, K. G., Wills, J. M., & Fernández-Celemín, L. (2010). Nutrition knowledge, and use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels among consumers in the UK. Appetite, 55(2), 177–89.
Kleef, V., Ellen, & Dagevos, H. (2013). The growing role of front-of-pack nutrition profile labelling: A consumer perspective on key issues and controversies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, (in press)
Noble, G., Stead, Martine, Jones, Sandra, McDermott, Laura, & McVie, Danielle. (2007). The paradoxical food buying behaviour of parents: Insights from the UK and Australia. British Food Journal, 109(5), 387–398.
The essay should be structured as follows (guidelines):
Set the context: Current state of dietary practices in the UK; adherence to dietary guidelines, overweight and obesity; critical appraise the barriers to eating healthily. Discuss food labelling and how it is linked to ‘healthy eating and dietary change’.
Theoretical base linked to health behaviours and social marketing and its link to food labelling (cited references in text).
Conclusion of the essay with YOUR IDEAS in terms of future social marketing campaigns through food labelling & other proposed social policies for the future.
Your Detailed Structure Instructions
Essay structure (do not use sub-headings). There should be an introduction to outline what is covered in the essay and a conclusion to summarise the key points from the essay (20%).
No. Of References
Line Spacing, Font & Size
1.5倍行距，12号字，Times New Roman
Writer Submit Time