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cyclones and anticyclones? How do they form? What are the characteristics of each?

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SOURCES:

1) https://sciencing.com/major-difference-between-cyclones-anticyclones-8252667.html

2)https://www.meteorologiaenred.com/en/anticiclon-caracteristicas-y-tipos.html

3)https://www.clearias.com/cyclones-anticyclones/

4)https://ownyourweather.com/cyclones-and-anticyclones/

5) THIS SOURCE I ATTACHED AS A FILE

Forum: Discussion Forum Two: Deviance and Social Control Deviance is commonly defined

Forum: Discussion Forum Two: Deviance and Social Control

 

Deviance is commonly defined as a disruption of social order and is almost always performed by individuals. However, in some instances, deviance can be committed by groups or organizations. Examples include murder by a criminal organization, the corruption of elected officials, and illegal drug use conducted on behalf of an entire company. However, deviance is not always criminal behavior. A deviant act can be non-criminal as well. For example, some people regularly do not flush the toilet after a person. It does not constitute criminal behavior and is not deviant, but it does contravene norms and is considered by some to be rude.

Sociologists have begun to use the term to refer to behavior that is considered unacceptable according to society’s norms. The definition of deviant behavior is not universal, and sociologists have several guidelines to determine what is normal and what is not. The most common of these are social norms and informal rules that govern society’s behavior. They are often unwritten and passed down through generations by word-of-mouth. However, in the case of the United States, many formal norms have been written into law. Examples include prohibitions on murder, theft, and the consumption of alcohol or drugs.

I have been the subject of multiple sanctions. Each was for different actions, though some were for the same action under different terms of service. I’m not sure if their effectiveness was affected by my being the subject of so many sanctions, but I think there is a problem with the criminal justice system regarding social media. It doesn’t matter if someone is innocent until proven guilty; a platform like Twitter can make or break a person in days or weeks. It is particularly true for those without the financial resources to fight back. I think this goes beyond the technical and into the human rights violations occurring. We are seeing social media giants essentially use the power of their platforms to target and silence voices that they don’t like. It has become a modern-day witch hunt, and social media users are the current victims.

Reply: Hi Rachel, great work on detailing the history and definition of the concept of deviance in sociology. It also catches my attention on the role of power in the definition of deviance. Can they be considered deviant if someone has a mental disorder or is addicted to a seemingly harmless activity such as gambling, can they be considered deviant? I would argue that the person with the disorder or addiction is deviant and the behavior is merely a symptom of their disorder or addiction. I also agree that the criminal justice system does contribute to inequalities in the distribution of deviance. It is evident in the disparity between white-collar and blue-collar offenses. The former is considered respectable, the latter is not. It is also evident in the fact that drug use and possession are considered deviant behavior in the African American community, but not in the white community. Excellent Work!

Forum: Discussion Forum Three: Race and Ethnicity

 

Race and ethnicity can be used to describe any group of people who have some commonality, usually in terms of culture, ancestry, or physical traits. Most people who use them are often treated as the same thing. A prejudice is a preconceived judgment or opinion about a person or group without proof or knowledge. Racism is discrimination, bigotry, and prejudice against someone for their race. It often involves the belief that one’s race is superior and has the right to rule others. Racism is also prejudiced against people who appear to be of different colors.

According to the American Sociological Association, racism is deeply ingrained in the American culture. Racism often appears as discrimination against people based on their race and ethnicity. In the US, Whites have voted for racially homogenous governing bodies such as school boards and zoning commissions since the 19th century. This ideology sees White culture, interests, and values as superior to others.

I often felt that I was less valued than my white peers, and I think that these feelings of being unappreciated are why I have not fully embraced my Hispanic identity. Growing up, I always received more attention from my white classmates than from any racial or ethnic group. I feel that my Hispanic heritage has given me a more well-rounded view of the world and allowed me to become a more accepting person.

One of the most popular topics discussed in the media is racism and ethnic stereotypes. These discussions take place on several different platforms, such as the mass medium (print and broadcast) found in newspapers, periodicals, magazines, television ads, advertisements, blogs, and social media sites. The targets targeted by racial or ethnic stereotypes can be anyone in the world. It is people of color, such as blacks, Asians, and Hispanics, most of the time. These groups are frequently portrayed negatively in media, depicting them as violent, hostile, and criminal. People exposed to these types of stereotypes describe an increased perception that they have towards people of color. Another way to discuss the stereotypes in the media is to look at how media portray sex differences. Different ethnic groups are very different in both positive and negative ways. The research proposes that African American and Hispanic women are more likely to be portrayed as sexual objects than whites and Asian Americans.

The possibility of the media being used as a medium to promote racial and ethnic stereotypes is likely to present because of the many platforms it uses to deliver such information. The media can influence people’s consumption habits through advertisements, such as stereotypes that depict African Americans as aggressive and Hispanics as poorly educated, and Asian Americans as passive.

Reply: Hi Tania, I absolutely sympathize with your situation and agree that inequality does play a part in the racism, discrimination, and segregation that many minority groups experience. However, I also feel that sociological explanations for the discrimination minorities face are often oversimplified and do a disservice to the complexity of the issue. For example, I have heard many people claim that racism is a thing of the past, simply because black and white people now live side by side. However, this ignores the many ways in which race remains a central part of people’s lives.

The sociological perspective focuses on the bigger picture and looks at the various ways in which power and social status are distributed in society. This can lead to greater understanding of the factors that contribute to the inequality that minority groups often experience. For example, racial discrimination is often attributed to the ‘system’ rather than the actions of the individual. This is because the sociological perspective argues that individual actions are the result of the social environment in which they occur.

Forum: Discussion Forum Four: Marriage and The Family

Marriage and the family are two of the most important institutions in society. They are the primary mechanism by which social relations are organized, and the transmission of culture and community values and norms from one generation to the next occurs. Sociologists have identified three major functions that these two institutions are expected to perform (1) the reproduction of the population; (2) the transmission of culture and community values and norms from one generation to the next; and (3) the socialization of children.

These institutions have changed greatly considering my grandparents’ day. In earlier times, marriage and the family were much less complicated institutions. Today, however, these two institutions have become highly complex and diverse, and they are affected by numerous social factors. At the same time, their basic functions remain relatively constant. They are still primarily designed to serve the reproduction of the population and the transmission of culture and community values and norms from one generation to the next. They are still meant to provide children with a set of parents from whom they can learn how to be social beings, and they are still expected to provide their children with a good example of how a couple should behave to build a strong and lasting relationship. However, family life today is much different from the family life of my grandparents’ day.

In the past, marriage and the family were two of the most important societal institutions. They were the primary mechanism by which social relations were organized and the transmission of culture and community values and norms from one generation to the next. Both these institutions have enough flexibility to allow them to change as times change, but they also remain stable enough to provide security and stability when people need it most. At this point, whether an individual chose to marry or not was related largely to economic factors such as poverty, wealth, or access to jobs that provided economic security.

The modern dating and marriage scene has been disrupted by dating sites and apps that have changed the courtship process. In recent years, Americans have been seeking love, romance, sex, and companionship on social media and internet dating sites like Match.com, eHarmony, and Tinder instead of old-fashioned dating practices of finding mutual interests or getting introduced in person. However, several other social factors might explain the rise in usage of these services, such as political correctness or our ever-increasing reluctance to rely on personal networks for love. These factors include:: the rise of the “hookup” culture; the increase in “friends with benefits” relationships; the rise of technology as a way of meeting people; the rise of social media; the rise of the internet and dating sites; In addition, many people have moved into urban centers where the dating scene is more crowded than in their hometowns. The increased ease of access to information, the ability to “self-diagnose” one’s own romantic or sexual tendencies, and the increased sense of isolation in the modern world. These changes in dating and marriage have led to several sociological consequences. One of these consequences is the increased reliance on online dating and the decline in the use of face-to-face dating.

The first thing to know about the modern dating scene is that it is a very complicated thing to properly explain this. There are many ways to fall into a relationship, from social gatherings and work trips to going on dates with friends or meeting in clubs or bars. For example: “You meet someone through your sister’s friend’s ex-boyfriend who is a friend of a colleague. Dating sites, such as Match.com, use algorithms and other methods to match people who might be compatible with each other based on their interests, values, and personality traits, thereby changing the courtship ritual. More importantly, these websites have made it easier for people to meet strangers and make friends without the need for introductions or a formal introduction via friendships established previously in person.

Reply: Hi, Catalina what a thrilling experience you have with your grandmother and brother. It definitely shows the difference in age and how it affects even our dating and marriage choices. I was always taught that men and women, when dating, should try to be similar to each other to see if there is compatibility. But, I have also come to realize that this is not always the case. As you grow older, you become more open and your values change. You learn who your true friends are and who are just using you for their own benefits.

Running head: LAB REPORT 1 Lab Report Student’s Name: Professor’s Name: Course

cyclones and anticyclones? How do they form? What are the characteristics of each? Geography Assignment Help Running head: LAB REPORT 1

Lab Report

Student’s Name:

Professor’s Name:

Course Code:

Submission Date:

Introduction

The soil layers are crucial to agricultural development. The majority of the nutrients required for crop growth are found in top soil. Knowing the PH balances in the soil will allow you to determine whether or not you will be able to cultivate particular crops in that area (Hue et al, 2018). It will also tell you if your ground is more acidic or basic. Soil nutrient testing is commonly used to assess nutrient levels as well as properties such as pH. It is divided into four stages. 1) soil assessment 2) Analyze the samples 3) Data analysis and 4) recommendations for soil management Soil testing can aid in determining soil fertility levels and identifying nutrient deficiencies, both of which are crucial for tracking the stages of soil degradation (Puno et al, 2017). The goal of this lab report is to figure out how to balance the PH levels in diverse soil samples. 25 percent clay, 40 percent silt, and 35 percent sand are what I expect to find. I anticipate the sand to take the longest and the clay to take the shortest. Because the area has not been used or fertilized for the past twenty years, I expect the PH to be low.

Materials and Methods

I dug out some soil and filled the tubes with it. I next measured the amount of sand, silt, and clay for sample A after adding water and letting it sit overnight. The particle size distribution for sample A was then computed. By pouring out the Lumps and rocks and filling the tube to the 4cm map, I was able to measure the porosity of the samples. I wrapped the tube around the 10 ml cylinder and secured one end with the 3 CM2 piece of cheesecloth. I next poured water into the tube to see how long one drop would take to leak. I employed the students to test the nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium levels of the soil samples for activity 3 and provided the kits to test the pH levels in the soil. After that, I kept track of my findings for both activities. The materials I used are as follows 2 graduated cylinders, 10 ml and 100ml, clay, scissors, 3 rubber bands, five test tubes, soil tester kit, test tube rack, permanent marker, 6 twist ties, cheesecloth, 2 pipets, ruler, plastic cups, sheet of white paper to soil samples tap water distilled water liquid hand soap stop what camera tool for digging soil

Data Table 1: Depth of soil sample

Depth of clay layer

cm

Depth of silt layer

Cm

Depth of sand layer cm

Total Depth

% Clay

% Silt

% Sand

Soil Texture

Soil Sample A

1.81

1.81

2.64

6.53

32.1

32.1

43

Data Table 2: Determination of soil porosity

Time taken for first drop to emerge from column(s)

Sand Sample

2.8

Clay Sample

3.3

Soil Sample

3.4

Data Table 3: PH Comparison of soil samples

Soil sample A

Soil Sample B

Local Description ______________

pH

.71

.602

Data Table 4: Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potash comparison in soil samples

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Potash

Soil Sample A

Low

Low

Low

Soil Sample B

Low

Low

Low

Discussion

The initial hypothesis is true “Approximately 20 nutritional elements are crucial for plant growth and some of these elements are supplied naturally by air, water and soil” (Alasco et al, 2018). The essence of soil nutrient is a key factor in agriculture. The top soil contains nutrients of the highest value. It is therefore important to prevent soil erosion by preventing activities such as deforestation, and instituting proper drainage and irrigation schemes.

References

ALASCO, R., DOMDOMA, E., DORIA, K., RICAFRANCA, K., SAITO, Y., & ARAGO, N. et al. (2018). SoilMATTic: Arduino-Based Automated Soil Nutrient and pH Level Analyzer using Digital Image Processing and Artificial Neural Network. 2018 IEEE 10Th International Conference On Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology,Communication And Control, Environment And Management (HNICEM). https://doi.org/10.1109/hnicem.2018.8666264

Hue. R. Frank. S & Uchida. H (2018) “Sampling and Analysis of Plants and Soil Tissues, How to take representative samples, How the samples are tested”, in Plant Nutrient Management in Hawaii soils, Approaches for Tropical and Sub-tropical Agriculture.

Puno, J., Sybingco, E., Dadios, E., Valenzuela, I., & Cuello, J. (2017). Determination of soil nutrients and pH level using image processing and artificial neural network. 2017IEEE 9Th International Conference on Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology, Communication and Control, Environment And Management (HNICEM). https://doi.org/10.1109/hnicem.2017.8269472

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COVID – 19 IN SAUDI ARABIA Abstract Saudi Arabia

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COVID – 19 IN SAUDI ARABIA

Abstract

Saudi Arabia is one of the many countries in the world most affected by the spread of Covid-19. The effects of the spread of the disease can be assessed on varying degrees, with the death rate of 9,000 deaths in the country, the impact on the Saudi economy, how schools are affected, and many other affected areas. This study aims to provide a statistical analysis of the spread of Covid-19 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Statistical studies were performed on the data obtained, including appropriate rescue strategies, inappropriate time-trial experiments, and alternative theories for the definition of moderate, recurrent and contagious deaths. In addition, frequency analysis and multivariate analysis of key events were performed on the data.

Introduction

Over the past decade, the world has experienced the effects of many respiratory viruses. In retrospect, it is worth noting that coronavirus 2019 (covid-19) was confirmed as an infectious disease caused by acute respiratory infections coronavirus 2. it has spread to almost every corner of the globe due to the international movement of human beings, virtues and others. Symptoms of covid-19 have been reported to vary from person to person, but the most common symptoms are fever, fatigue, headaches, loss of smell and taste, and respiratory problems. From December 2019 to June 3, 2021, the number of deaths and infections was 3,691,780 and 171,687,641 respectively.

However, great efforts have been made aside, as more than 437,376,264 people have been vaccinated worldwide. Furthermore, it was revealed that there are thousands of covid-19 substitutes circulating around the world today as viruses evolve, and many changes are insignificant. It has been reported that some of these dialects are very dangerous, while others make the disease more contagious and frightening. However, there are some alternatives known as anxiety, which have alerted various health officials, and are called: Indian dialect (B.1.617.2) This dialect has infected more than 3,000 people across the UK, the British dialect known as B. 1.1. 7, B.1.1.7 has been found in more than 200,000 people in the UK and has migrated to more than 50 countries worldwide. Specifically, this British dialect seems to be changing as it spreads. The South African dialect has been found in more than 20 countries and is known as B. 1.251. The Brazilian dialect called P.1 has spread to more than 10 countries. There was also recent news that a new dialect had been discovered in Vietnam, which is a mixture of British and Indian dialects. Saudi Arabia, like the rest of the world, has been badly affected by the spread of Covid-19. Therefore, this work is dedicated to discussing statistical and dynamic analysis that supports transit within Saudi Arabia..

Statistical Analysis of the COVID 19 Data

Data Analysis

independent rate

According to social and demographic factors, men were given 1 gender and women were given gender 0. The age differences were divided into: 18-29 years (type of reference), 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years. and ≥60 years. Marital status is recorded as division, marriage as one value and another as zero. Education is divided into higher and lower classes (type of reference), college / university degree and postgraduate degree. Employment status is divided into government employees (reference units), non-government employees, retirees, self-employed and unemployed. Monthly revenue (Saudi Riyal, riyal 1 = $ 0.27) is divided into eight categories: <rial 3000 (type of reference); SR 3,000 to <5,000, SR 5,000 to <7,000, SR 7,000 to <10,000, 0000 100,000 SR 10,000,000 SR 10,000,000 SR 10,000, SR 10,000 15,000 to <20,000, SR 20,000 to <3,000 or more. We also control 13 administrative states: Almadina Almonawra, Albaha, Aljouf / Quriat, Aseer / Bisha, Eastern Province, Haiel, Jazan, Najran, Northern Border, Qaseem, Riyadh, Tabouk and Western Province.

Related parameters

Respondents were asked to provide the correct or incorrect answers to the knowledge items, with the additional “I do not know” option. Incorrect or incorrect answers (I do not know) are given zero points, correct answers are given one point. The overall score is from 0 to 22, and the high scores indicate excellent COVID-19 skills. Evaluate local products using Cronbach alpha. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is 0.70, indicating internal dependence.

In the comments section, scores were calculated based on respondents’ responses to each statement, 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = strongly disagree, 3 = strongly disagree, 4 = strongly agree, and 5 = strongly agree. Scores are calculated based on the average response of the respondents to six reports. The overall score is 6 to 30, with a high score indicating a positive attitude. Likert scales were evaluated on an internal basis using Cronbach alpha. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is 0.81, indicating internal dependence. In the exercise section, respondents were asked to answer “yes” or “no” to the components. One argument is given for answers that reflect good practice and zero points for answers that reflect bad habits. The total score is between 0 and 5, and the higher scores indicate better practice.

Analysis skills

This study mainly uses statistical and statistically accurate data analysis. A flexible analysis was used to list copies of social and demographic data. One-way variance analysis (ANOVA) was used to evaluate average differences in KAP scores. Because the scores were consistent, the average population differences were estimated using the Bartlett experiment. Power line restoration analysis was performed to identify factors related to skills, attitudes and practice. All analyzes were performed using the Rstudio software.

results

Table 1 shows the social and demographic characteristics of the study participants. As shown in Table 1, the average knowledge score on COVID-19 is 17.96 (SD = 2.24, range: 3-22), and the total accuracy of the knowledge test is 81.64% (17.96 / 22 * ​​100). The average score of COVID-19 was 28.23 (SD = 2.76, range: 6-30), indicating a positive attitude. The average score of COVID-19 was 4.34 (SD = 0.87, range: 0-5), indicating good exercise. Of all the samples, there were 1966 females (58.03%) and 1422 males (41.97%).

The majority of the sample (57.73%) were between the ages of 18 and 39. Of the participants, 2,149 were married (63.43%) and 1,239 were single (36.57%). More than half of the samples (56.20%) had a college or university degree. Respondents were grouped according to monthly income, with 846 (24.97%) in the <SR 3000 group and 246 (7.26%) in the ≥ 30,000 SR group. In terms of employment, 1,073 people (31.76%) were unemployed and 314 people (9.27%) were retired. Tables 2 – 4 show KAP-related program responses for COVID-19.

We also assessed knowledge levels in various revenue groups. Figure 1-3 shows the results. Figure 1 shows that the knowledge mark about COVID-19 increases due to revenue. The lowest score is for respondents in the low-income unit, <3000 SR, and the highest marks are for respondents in the earnings range of SR 20,000 to <30,000. From the perspective, Figure 2 does not show a clear structure in revenue groups. Furthermore, in practice, there were small differences between income groups, as shown in Figure 3.

Econometric Results

In addition to the statutory and non-statistical analysis performed in the previous sections, we focus on recovery analysis. All the various symbols were recorded and interpreted using standard squares (OLS). Increasing scores means increasing knowledge, practice and attitude. The results are shown in Table 6.

Table 6 shows that the groups aged 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60+ were more aware of COVID-19 than the reference group (18-29). All age groups 30-39 (β = 0.047; p <0.001), 40-49 (β = 0.041; p <0.001), 50-59 (β = 0.057; p <0.001) and ≥60 (β = 0.051) different; p <0.001), statistically significant at the rate of 1%. However, attitudes follow a different direction. The 50-59 age group only (β = 00.021; p <0.001) was significantly different from baseline. In COVID-19 practice, 30-39 years (β = 0.039; p <0.001), 40-49 years (β = 0.033; p <0.05), and 50-59 years (β = 0.051; p <0.001) were largely associated with good exercise.

With regard to gender, the results showed that compared to women, men had lower levels of knowledge (β = 00.018; p <0.001) and lower positive attitudes (β = 00.018; p <0.001), better practices for COVID-19 Rarely (β = 00.064; p <0.001). No differences in KAP of COVID-19 were observed with marital status. However, the relationship between income, location, education, and interest rates varied, suggesting significant differences.

We also examined the relationship between KAP scores. Because they are all logs, the details are equal to elasticity. Thus, Table 6 shows that for every 1% increase in skill scores, there is a corresponding increase in perception and practice scores, 0.095 and 0.16, respectively.

to discuss

COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease that poses a serious threat to public health. Given the serious threat posed by COVID-19 and the lack of COVID-19 vaccine, preventive measures play an important role in reducing infection rates and controlling the spread of the disease. This highlights the need for the public to adhere to preventive and regulatory measures, which are influenced by their Knowledge, Attitudes and Actions (KAP). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the KAP of the Saudi population against the 2019 novel disease COVID-19.

Our results suggest that most of the study participants were familiar with COVID-19. The average score of the study participants in the knowledge questionnaire was 81.64%. This discovery is consistent with other studies showing a satisfactory level of knowledge among Saudi residents about outbreaks such as MERS. Not surprisingly, participants in this study had a high level of accurate answers to knowledge-related questions. This may be related to sample characteristics, 84% have a college or university degree or higher, and 70% are over 30 years of age. This may also be due to the distribution of questionnaires during the COVID-19 explosion. By then, people may have gained an awareness of the disease and its spread through television, news, and media platforms to protect themselves and their families. The positive balance between knowledge, educational background and age supports our claim.

The majority of participants in our study (98%) knew the clinical symptoms and 96% knew that as of the date of this bill, no treatment was approved medically for COVID-19. Viral infections have been shown to be highly contagious in the immediate vicinity. However, almost half of the respondents did not know that SARS-CoV-2 could be passed from person to person. It is also clear that the general population (44%) currently have little knowledge of when and who masks are worn to prevent infection. According to the World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, labels should only be worn by people who are sick or caring for people suspected of having COVID-19. These findings underscore the need to continue to encourage and emphasize social research as a way to prevent the spread of the virus.

It is worth noting that the government has made significant efforts at all levels, including public awareness campaigns. Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Health (MOH) has launched a comprehensive awareness campaign through its website, TV and various social networks. The Department of Health has provided guidance for COVID-19 to provide residents with accurate and protective information in more than 10 languages. The Ministry of Health also works with the public and the media, particularly through social media platforms. These early steps to engage the public in measures to prevent and control and combat gossip and misinformation have greatly expanded. In particular, the KSA is in a unique position to successfully respond to two viruses of related viral origin. This unique experiment has enabled the government to take immediate action and prevent the prevention of COVID-19 in order to control its spread.

The key predictors of participants’ knowledge in this study were age, gender, level of education and income level. This finding is supported by other studies that have found older, older, and more educated respondents to be more aware of emerging infectious diseases.

References

Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen Y-M, Wang W, Song Z-G, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature. (2020) 579:265–9. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COVID 19 IN SAUDI ARABIA Abstract Saudi Arabia is

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COVID 19 IN SAUDI ARABIA

Abstract

Saudi Arabia is one among the several nations impacted by the emergence of Covid-19 across the world. With 9,000 deaths in the kingdom, the damage on the Saudi economy, where institutions are affected, and many other sectors affected, the impacts of the disease’s spread can be judged to varied degrees. The goal of this study is to offer a statistical analysis of Covid-19’s dissemination in Saudi Arabia. Statistical studies were performed on the data obtained, including appropriate rescue strategies, inappropriate time-trial experiments, and alternative theories for the definition of moderate, recurrent and contagious deaths. In addition, frequency analysis and multivariate analysis of key events were performed on the data.

Introduction

Many respiratory infections have wreaked havoc on the planet during the last decade. In hindsight, coronavirus 2019 (covid-19) has been confirmed as an infectious illness induced by coronavirus 2 respiratory illnesses. Due to the global mobility of persons, qualities, and other things, it has spread to practically every corner of the planet. Covid-19 indications differ from individual to individual, but the most common ones are fever, tiredness, and headaches, as well as loss of smell or taste and respiratory issues. From December 2019 to June 3, 2021, there were 3,691,780 fatalities and 171,687,641 infections, correspondingly.

Despite this, tremendous efforts have been undertaken, with over 437,376,264 individuals vaccinated worldwide. Additionally, most of covid-19 replacements are spreading across the world now as viruses mutate, and many of the differences are minor. Some of these dialects are said to be quite harmful, while others are said to make the sickness more infectious and terrifying. Nevertheless, there are certain anxiety-related alternates that have been reported to multiple health experts and are known as: Indian dialect (B.1.617.2) This dialect has attacked over 3,000 persons in the United Kingdom, the British dialect known as B. 1.1. 7, B.1.1.7 has been detected in over 200,000 persons in the United Kingdom and has spread to over 50 nations across the world. This British accent, in particular, appears to be evolving as it expands. B. 1.251 is the name given to the South African language, which is spoken in more than 20 countries. P.1 is a Brazilian dialect that has spread to over ten nations. There was also significant rumor that a new dialect, a combination of British and Indian languages, had been discovered in Vietnam. The proliferation of Covid-19 has wreaked havoc on Saudi Arabia, as well as the rest of the world. As a result, the focus of this paper is on statistical and dynamic analysis in support of transit inside Saudi Arabia.

COVID 19 Data Analysis Statistically

Analysis of Data

Rate of independence

According to social and demographic factors, men were given 1 gender and women were given gender 0. 18-29 years (kind of reference), 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, and 60 years were used to split the age disparities. The social status is indicated as a division, with one value for marriage and zero for divorce. Maximum and minimum grades (types of reference), college / university degrees, and postgraduate degrees are the different types of education. Public servants (reference units), non-government personnel, pensioners, self-employed, and jobless are the numerous job categories. Aseer / Bisha, Eastern Province, Haiel, Jazan, Najran, Northern Border, Qaseem, Riyadh, Tabouk, and Western Province are the eight categories in which monthly revenue (Saudi Riyal, riyal 1 = $ 0.27) is allocated.

Related parameters

Participants were given the choice of providing accurate or wrong responses to the items in the questionnaire, as well as the option of “I don’t know.” Right answers receive one point, whereas erroneous or inaccurate (I do not know) responses receive zero points. Higher values indicate greater COVID-19 competencies. The overall score ranged from 0 to 22, with higher scores reflecting stronger COVID-19 strengths. Cronbach alpha is a method for assessing the quality of locally produced goods. Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.70 indicates internal reliance.

In the comments section, values were computed based on the users’ responses to each proposition, with 1 denoting a fundamental disagreement, 2 a strong disagreement, 3 a strong disagreement, 4 a strong agreement, and 5 a strong agreement. The average answer of the participants to six articles is used to determine the scores. A top score indicates a good attitude. A high score indicates a positive attitude. The total rating runs from 6 to 30, with a top rating indicating a positive mindset. Cronbach alpha was used to assess Likert scales on an internal basis. Internal dependency is shown by a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.81. Participants were required to answer “yes” or “no” to the elements in the activity section. Replies that show excellent practice receive one point, whereas answers that represent negative habits receive zero points. The overall score ranges from 0 to 5, with higher numbers indicating more practice.

Analysis skills

This research relies heavily on quantitative and numerically precise data analysis. To create a list of duplicates of socioeconomic and economic data, a dynamic model was undertaken. The mean variations in KAP scores were evaluated using one-way variance analysis (ANOVA). The overall population variances were assessed using the Bartlett test since the scores were comparable. To discover aspects linked to abilities, attitudes, and practice, an overhead wires rejuvenation assessment was done. RStudio was used to conduct all of the analyses.

Results

Table 1 illustrates the regarding the respondents’ socioeconomic and economic traits. The typical COVID-19 literacy level is 17.96 (SD = 2.24, range 3-22), and the overall correctness of the education exam is 81.64 percent (17.96 / 22 * 100), which can be seen in Table 1. COVID-19 had an overall grade of 28.23 (SD = 2.76, range 6-30), suggesting a favorable outlook. COVID-19 had an average score of 4.34 (SD = 0.87, range 0-5), suggesting good activity. There were 1966 girls (58.03 percent) and 1422 men in the total sample (41.97 percent).

The bulk of the participants were between the age group of 18 and 39 (57.73 percent). There were 2,149 married people (63.43 percent) and 1,239 single people among the participants (36.57 percent). A college or university degree was held by more than 50 % of the population (56.20 percent Based on their monthly income, the respondents were separated into two groups: 846 (24.97 percent) in the SR 3000 category and 246 (7.26 percent) in the 30,000 SR group. In terms of jobs, 1,073 people were unemployed (31.76%) and 314 people were retirees (9.27 percent ). COVID-19 KAP-related curriculum outcomes are shown in Tables 2–4.

We also looked at the degrees of expertise in different revenue categories. The findings are shown in Figure 1-3. Figure 1 shows that when one’s pay goes up, so does one’s knowledge of COVID-19. Participants in the limited unit got the lowest grade of 3000 SR, while those in the income range of SR 20,000 to 30,000 received the maximum. Figure 2 does not demonstrate a clear organization in revenue categories from the standpoint. Additionally, as shown in Figure 3, there were minor disparities in income brackets in practice.

Results of Econometric Analysis

We concentrate on restoration assessment in contrast to the statutory and non-statistical assessment performed in the preceding sections. Standardized squares were used to record and understand all of the varied symbols (OLS). Raising one’s score entails expanding one’s knowledge, practice, and mindset. Table 6 summarizes the findings.

Table 6 demonstrates that COVID-19 awareness was higher in the 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60+ age groups than in the comparison group (18-29). All age groups 30-39 (= 0.047; p 0.001), 40-49 (= 0.041; p 0.001), 50-59 (= 0.057; p 0.001), and 60 (= 0.051) were positive and significant at 1 percent level. Perceptions, on the other hand, are in the opposite direction. Only the 50-59 age group (= 00.021; p 0.001) differed substantially from base point. 30-39 years (= 0.039; p 0.001), 40-49 years (= 0.033; p 0.05), and 50-59 years (= 0.051; p 0.001) were all related with excellent exercises in COVID-19 practice.

In terms of gender, the findings revealed that males had less development of awareness (= 00.018; p 0.001), lower favorable sentiments (= 00.018; p 0.001), and improvement initiatives for COVID-19 Rarely (= 00.064; p 0.001). There were no changes in COVID-19 KAP based on parental status. The association involving salary, locality, knowledge, and rate of interest, on the other hand, fluctuated, indicating that there were considerable variances.

Researchers also looked at the correlation involving KAP ratings. The specifics are comparable to flexibility since they are all logs. Table 6 reveals that with every 1% rise in talent values, there is a proportional 0.095 and 0.16 rise in awareness and practice results.

To discuss

COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading contagious illness that constitutes a severe risk to the public. Because of the serious threat posed by COVID-19 and the lack of a COVID-19 treatment, early detection is critical in reducing infection rates and restricting disease spread. This emphasizes the importance of the general population adhering to preventative and legislative frameworks impacted by their awareness, opinions, and acts (KAP). As a result, the goal of this study was to assess the Saudi population’s KAP against the 2019 rare illness COVID-19.

The majority of the research respondents were acquainted with COVID-19, according to our findings. The regarding the respondents’ mean rating on the knowledge questionnaire was 81.64 percent. This finding is in line with earlier research that shows Saudi locals have a good understanding of epidemics like MERS. Participants in this research, not unexpectedly, gave a high percentage of correct responses to experience and understanding questions. This might be attributable to the characteristics of the sample: 84 percent have a bachelor’s degree or more and 70% are more than 30 years old. This might be because questionnaires were disseminated shortly after the COVID-19 explosion. By that time, people may have heard about the virus and how it spreads through broadcast, news, and other forms of media, allowing them to protect themselves and their families. A net return of knowledge, academic background, and age supports our claim.

The majority of our survey participants (98%) were knowledgeable of the prognostic factors, and 96% were aware that no COVID-19 pharmaceutical treatment had been approved as of the date of this law. Viral infections have been shown to be particularly contagious in the neighborhood. Over half of those questioned, on the other hand, were uncertain whether SARS-CoV-2 may be passed from human to human. It is also clear that the public at large (44%) has a poor knowledge of when and who should use masks to avoid pollution. According to the WHO and the Organizations for Research on the Epidemiology, persons who are sick or are assisting those who are suspected of having COVID-19 should only use labelling. These findings highlighted the importance of seeking to foster and prioritize research work as a strategy of reducing the virus’s spread.

The administration has announced considerable effort at all aspects, involving public service announcements, it is worth highlighting. Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Health (MOH) has started a comprehensive public awareness campaign using its website, television, and social media platforms. COVID-19 has received guidelines from the State health Department in order to offer citizens with accurate and protective information in more than ten languages. The Department of Health also interacts with the entire press and the public, particularly through digital networking. Such primary motivation to seek the majority’s assistance in avoiding, regulating, and combatting rumor and disinformation have greatly increased. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in particular, is in a unique position to successfully respond to two illnesses with comparable viral origins. Because of this one-of-a-kind research, the administration was able to take prompt measures to avoid the transmission of COVID-19.

In this research, age, gender, educational level, and economic level were the most important determinants of respondents’ expertise. Other research have revealed that elder, older, and individuals that are more intelligent are better knowledgeable of new contagious diseases.

References

Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen Y-M, Wang W, Song Z-G, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature. (2020) 579:265–9. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

2. Zhou P, Yang X-L, Wang X-G, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. (2020) 579:270–3. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

3. Riou J, Althaus CL. Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020. Eurosurveillance. (2020) 25:2000058. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.4.2000058

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

4. Chan JF-W, Yuan S, Kok K-H, To KK-W, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. (2020) 395:514–23. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

5. Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. COVID-19 infection: origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. J Adv Res. (2020) 24:91–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

6. Phan LT, Nguyen TV, Luong QC, Nguyen TV, Nguyen HT, Le HQ, et al. Importation and human-to-human transmission of a novel coronavirus in Vietnam. N Engl J Med. (2020) 382:872–4. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2001272

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

7. Parry J. China coronavirus: cases surge as official admits human to human transmission. BMJ. (2020) 368:m236. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m236

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

8. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. (2020) 382:1199–207. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

9. WHO. Coronaviruses (COVID-19) 2020. Available online at: https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses (accessed 1 April, 2020).

Google Scholar

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COVID – 19 IN SAUDI ARABIA Abstract Saudi Arabia

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COVID – 19 IN SAUDI ARABIA

Abstract

Saudi Arabia is one of the many countries in the world most affected by the spread of Covid-19. The effects of the spread of the disease can be assessed on varying degrees, with the death rate of 9,000 deaths in the country, the impact on the Saudi economy, how schools are affected, and many other affected areas. This study aims to provide a statistical analysis of the spread of Covid-19 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Statistical studies were performed on the data obtained, including appropriate rescue strategies, inappropriate time-trial experiments, and alternative theories for the definition of moderate, recurrent and contagious deaths. In addition, frequency analysis and multivariate analysis of key events were performed on the data.

Introduction

Over the past decade, the world has experienced the effects of many respiratory viruses. In retrospect, it is worth noting that coronavirus 2019 (covid-19) was confirmed as an infectious disease caused by acute respiratory infections coronavirus 2. it has spread to almost every corner of the globe due to the international movement of human beings, virtues and others. Symptoms of covid-19 have been reported to vary from person to person, but the most common symptoms are fever, fatigue, headaches, loss of smell and taste, and respiratory problems. From December 2019 to June 3, 2021, the number of deaths and infections was 3,691,780 and 171,687,641 respectively.

However, great efforts have been made aside, as more than 437,376,264 people have been vaccinated worldwide. Furthermore, it was revealed that there are thousands of covid-19 substitutes circulating around the world today as viruses evolve, and many changes are insignificant. It has been reported that some of these dialects are very dangerous, while others make the disease more contagious and frightening. However, there are some alternatives known as anxiety, which have alerted various health officials, and are called: Indian dialect (B.1.617.2) This dialect has infected more than 3,000 people across the UK, the British dialect known as B. 1.1. 7, B.1.1.7 has been found in more than 200,000 people in the UK and has migrated to more than 50 countries worldwide. Specifically, this British dialect seems to be changing as it spreads. The South African dialect has been found in more than 20 countries and is known as B. 1.251. The Brazilian dialect called P.1 has spread to more than 10 countries. There was also recent news that a new dialect had been discovered in Vietnam, which is a mixture of British and Indian dialects. Saudi Arabia, like the rest of the world, has been badly affected by the spread of Covid-19. Therefore, this work is dedicated to discussing statistical and dynamic analysis that supports transit within Saudi Arabia..

Statistical Analysis of the COVID 19 Data

Data Analysis

independent rate

According to social and demographic factors, men were given 1 gender and women were given gender 0. The age differences were divided into: 18-29 years (type of reference), 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years. and ≥60 years. Marital status is recorded as division, marriage as one value and another as zero. Education is divided into higher and lower classes (type of reference), college / university degree and postgraduate degree. Employment status is divided into government employees (reference units), non-government employees, retirees, self-employed and unemployed. Monthly revenue (Saudi Riyal, riyal 1 = $ 0.27) is divided into eight categories: <rial 3000 (type of reference); SR 3,000 to <5,000, SR 5,000 to <7,000, SR 7,000 to <10,000, 0000 100,000 SR 10,000,000 SR 10,000,000 SR 10,000, SR 10,000 15,000 to <20,000, SR 20,000 to <3,000 or more. We also control 13 administrative states: Almadina Almonawra, Albaha, Aljouf / Quriat, Aseer / Bisha, Eastern Province, Haiel, Jazan, Najran, Northern Border, Qaseem, Riyadh, Tabouk and Western Province.

Related parameters

Respondents were asked to provide the correct or incorrect answers to the knowledge items, with the additional “I do not know” option. Incorrect or incorrect answers (I do not know) are given zero points, correct answers are given one point. The overall score is from 0 to 22, and the high scores indicate excellent COVID-19 skills. Evaluate local products using Cronbach alpha. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is 0.70, indicating internal dependence.

In the comments section, scores were calculated based on respondents’ responses to each statement, 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = strongly disagree, 3 = strongly disagree, 4 = strongly agree, and 5 = strongly agree. Scores are calculated based on the average response of the respondents to six reports. The overall score is 6 to 30, with a high score indicating a positive attitude. Likert scales were evaluated on an internal basis using Cronbach alpha. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is 0.81, indicating internal dependence. In the exercise section, respondents were asked to answer “yes” or “no” to the components. One argument is given for answers that reflect good practice and zero points for answers that reflect bad habits. The total score is between 0 and 5, and the higher scores indicate better practice.

Analysis skills

This study mainly uses statistical and statistically accurate data analysis. A flexible analysis was used to list copies of social and demographic data. One-way variance analysis (ANOVA) was used to evaluate average differences in KAP scores. Because the scores were consistent, the average population differences were estimated using the Bartlett experiment. Power line restoration analysis was performed to identify factors related to skills, attitudes and practice. All analyzes were performed using the Rstudio software.

results

Table 1 shows the social and demographic characteristics of the study participants. As shown in Table 1, the average knowledge score on COVID-19 is 17.96 (SD = 2.24, range: 3-22), and the total accuracy of the knowledge test is 81.64% (17.96 / 22 * ​​100). The average score of COVID-19 was 28.23 (SD = 2.76, range: 6-30), indicating a positive attitude. The average score of COVID-19 was 4.34 (SD = 0.87, range: 0-5), indicating good exercise. Of all the samples, there were 1966 females (58.03%) and 1422 males (41.97%).

The majority of the sample (57.73%) were between the ages of 18 and 39. Of the participants, 2,149 were married (63.43%) and 1,239 were single (36.57%). More than half of the samples (56.20%) had a college or university degree. Respondents were grouped according to monthly income, with 846 (24.97%) in the <SR 3000 group and 246 (7.26%) in the ≥ 30,000 SR group. In terms of employment, 1,073 people (31.76%) were unemployed and 314 people (9.27%) were retired. Tables 2 – 4 show KAP-related program responses for COVID-19.

We also assessed knowledge levels in various revenue groups. Figure 1-3 shows the results. Figure 1 shows that the knowledge mark about COVID-19 increases due to revenue. The lowest score is for respondents in the low-income unit, <3000 SR, and the highest marks are for respondents in the earnings range of SR 20,000 to <30,000. From the perspective, Figure 2 does not show a clear structure in revenue groups. Furthermore, in practice, there were small differences between income groups, as shown in Figure 3.

Econometric Results

In addition to the statutory and non-statistical analysis performed in the previous sections, we focus on recovery analysis. All the various symbols were recorded and interpreted using standard squares (OLS). Increasing scores means increasing knowledge, practice and attitude. The results are shown in Table 6.

Table 6 shows that the groups aged 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60+ were more aware of COVID-19 than the reference group (18-29). All age groups 30-39 (β = 0.047; p <0.001), 40-49 (β = 0.041; p <0.001), 50-59 (β = 0.057; p <0.001) and ≥60 (β = 0.051) different; p <0.001), statistically significant at the rate of 1%. However, attitudes follow a different direction. The 50-59 age group only (β = 00.021; p <0.001) was significantly different from baseline. In COVID-19 practice, 30-39 years (β = 0.039; p <0.001), 40-49 years (β = 0.033; p <0.05), and 50-59 years (β = 0.051; p <0.001) were largely associated with good exercise.

With regard to gender, the results showed that compared to women, men had lower levels of knowledge (β = 00.018; p <0.001) and lower positive attitudes (β = 00.018; p <0.001), better practices for COVID-19 Rarely (β = 00.064; p <0.001). No differences in KAP of COVID-19 were observed with marital status. However, the relationship between income, location, education, and interest rates varied, suggesting significant differences.

We also examined the relationship between KAP scores. Because they are all logs, the details are equal to elasticity. Thus, Table 6 shows that for every 1% increase in skill scores, there is a corresponding increase in perception and practice scores, 0.095 and 0.16, respectively.

to discuss

COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease that poses a serious threat to public health. Given the serious threat posed by COVID-19 and the lack of COVID-19 vaccine, preventive measures play an important role in reducing infection rates and controlling the spread of the disease. This highlights the need for the public to adhere to preventive and regulatory measures, which are influenced by their Knowledge, Attitudes and Actions (KAP). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the KAP of the Saudi population against the 2019 novel disease COVID-19.

Our results suggest that most of the study participants were familiar with COVID-19. The average score of the study participants in the knowledge questionnaire was 81.64%. This discovery is consistent with other studies showing a satisfactory level of knowledge among Saudi residents about outbreaks such as MERS. Not surprisingly, participants in this study had a high level of accurate answers to knowledge-related questions. This may be related to sample characteristics, 84% have a college or university degree or higher, and 70% are over 30 years of age. This may also be due to the distribution of questionnaires during the COVID-19 explosion. By then, people may have gained an awareness of the disease and its spread through television, news, and media platforms to protect themselves and their families. The positive balance between knowledge, educational background and age supports our claim.

The majority of participants in our study (98%) knew the clinical symptoms and 96% knew that as of the date of this bill, no treatment was approved medically for COVID-19. Viral infections have been shown to be highly contagious in the immediate vicinity. However, almost half of the respondents did not know that SARS-CoV-2 could be passed from person to person. It is also clear that the general population (44%) currently have little knowledge of when and who masks are worn to prevent infection. According to the World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, labels should only be worn by people who are sick or caring for people suspected of having COVID-19. These findings underscore the need to continue to encourage and emphasize social research as a way to prevent the spread of the virus.

It is worth noting that the government has made significant efforts at all levels, including public awareness campaigns. Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Health (MOH) has launched a comprehensive awareness campaign through its website, TV and various social networks. The Department of Health has provided guidance for COVID-19 to provide residents with accurate and protective information in more than 10 languages. The Ministry of Health also works with the public and the media, particularly through social media platforms. These early steps to engage the public in measures to prevent and control and combat gossip and misinformation have greatly expanded. In particular, the KSA is in a unique position to successfully respond to two viruses of related viral origin. This unique experiment has enabled the government to take immediate action and prevent the prevention of COVID-19 in order to control its spread.

The key predictors of participants’ knowledge in this study were age, gender, level of education and income level. This finding is supported by other studies that have found older, older, and more educated respondents to be more aware of emerging infectious diseases.

References

Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen Y-M, Wang W, Song Z-G, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature. (2020) 579:265–9. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

2. Zhou P, Yang X-L, Wang X-G, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. (2020) 579:270–3. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

3. Riou J, Althaus CL. Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020. Eurosurveillance. (2020) 25:2000058. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.4.2000058

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

4. Chan JF-W, Yuan S, Kok K-H, To KK-W, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. (2020) 395:514–23. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

5. Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. COVID-19 infection: origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. J Adv Res. (2020) 24:91–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

6. Phan LT, Nguyen TV, Luong QC, Nguyen TV, Nguyen HT, Le HQ, et al. Importation and human-to-human transmission of a novel coronavirus in Vietnam. N Engl J Med. (2020) 382:872–4. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2001272

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

7. Parry J. China coronavirus: cases surge as official admits human to human transmission. BMJ. (2020) 368:m236. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m236

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

8. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. (2020) 382:1199–207. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

9. WHO. Coronaviruses (COVID-19) 2020. Available online at: https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses (accessed 1 April, 2020).

Google Scholar