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Research Paper on Nursing Practice Problem university history essay help: university history essay help

The nursing shortage is a global problem affecting all countries, threatening the future quality of care delivered to the patients. The problem is defined as a lack of enough nursing staff to care for the patients compared to the high number of patients requiring their care. Literature suggests that there are various factors linked to the nursing shortage worldwide and that the problem should be addressed to preserve the integrity of patient care. Mar et al. (2019) stated that some factors include a high drop-out rate from the profession for either students or practicing nurses, harsh working conditions, job dissatisfaction, ineffective leaders, and intense nursing courses, which compels students to take other routes. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the issue and develop strategies to address the issue. The suggested plans include accelerated nursing courses, new education models, increased professional associations, and mentorship programs for nursing students (Clancy, 2020). However, these strategies experience several barriers that hinder the positive outcomes of the measures, which include ineffective leadership and inadequate government support. The nursing shortage is a global problem that needs to be addressed more keenly through partnerships with government agencies and healthcare institutions.
Current Nursing Problem
Nursing practice problems are issues that arise in patient care by registered nurses related to the delivery of patient care. Although it may be referred to as a medical problem, nursing practice problems are different since they focus on issues experienced during patient care, such as comfort, health education, and coordinated care delivery. In professional environments, some systems and elements support and control care delivery to patients by nurses. Research studies in the medical practice globally reveal that the most common nursing practice problem is a shortage of registered nurses and inadequate staffing in most public hospitals and some private institutions.
Also, there are increased rates of nurses leaving the practice rising to 80,000 in 2020 from around 40,000 per year in the previous decade. Their nursing workforce is aging since statistics show that almost one million registered nurses are over 50 years meaning they would retire within one decade. This poses a problem to the entire profession since there is a low enrollment rate, and a limited number of qualified nurses that medical schools can produce due to the limited number of students, according to Fagan et al. (2019). Current shortages of nurses are spread across the world but experienced most in the united states due to a large aged population that demands more nursing care than the workforce can offer. Additionally, inadequate staffing leads to increased medication errors since they deliver them fast to cater to the increased number of patients.
Analysis of literature for Efforts to Reduce the Problem
Over the years, when the nursing shortage problem has been experienced, healthcare leaders and managers have put in efforts and proposed strategies to handle the situation. Additionally, researchers have conducted studies and recommended several ways to address the problem globally. To begin with, Wada (2020) suggested that healthcare institutions leaders could do various ways to resolve the issue of inadequate staffing and nursing shortage in their hospitals. The paper presents that managers and agencies should design new education systems suitable to the demands of healthcare and focus on pooling the training resources. Additionally, they proposed that technological advancements such as databases could project the needs of different faculties to ensure they are staffed appropriately and collaborate with training schools to create agreements that support training and nursing practice in the future. Another study by Shamsi et al. (2020) proposed that offering schooling scholarships to nursing students is the backbone of increasing the supply of RNs in the united states and would save the nursing profession from the shortages it is experiencing currently.
Management and healthcare leaders should enact policies that give guidelines for the retention and boost an understanding between employers and the nurses to boost their satisfaction and reduce the intent to leave. Wada (2020), this was who suggested that creating proper working conditions for nurses would mitigate the problems of nursing shortage. In the nursing training process, students are put under pressure to grasp all the knowledge taught in class, and it could be intense and hectic for the students, which may compel them to leave for another course. Mar et al. (2019) stated that this is the main contributing factor to the reducing number of RNs despite measures to retain the acting nursing practitioners. As suggested by Fagan et al. (2019), accelerated courses could enable students to complete their studies within a short time and customize them to ensure that they have the skills required to enter the nursing profession. The guidelines under the accelerated course will increase the ability to acquire experiences and clinical skills. This would help encourage more young people to pursue the system, increasing the number of RNs and thus reducing the nursing shortage problem.
A study conducted by Clancy (2020) reported that reduced interaction between nursing graduates and the experienced mentors in the field is one factor that contributes to the reduced number of practicing nurses since most of them leave for alternative careers due to a lack of motivation. Therefore, the study recommended that enhanced interactions between new nursing members and their mentors offer them an incentive, access to resources, scholarships, and other opportunities that affect the personal and professional growth of the nurses. Clancy (2020) added that lack of exposure for nursing students limits their interest in completing the career, but mentoring through professional associations with the students creates a pathway to retention in employment, helping partly curb the nursing shortage problem.
Bvumbwe et al. (2018) also suggested that it is costly to replace nurses since it requires transferring resources and money. However, he means that when managers work together with the nurses and create effective policies to keep the PPE safe and positive and promote communication and interaction could be a way to maintain nurses in the profession. Therefore, the literature proves that several strategies could be used by healthcare leaders, government agencies, and nursing schools to address the problem of the nursing shortage in the world.
Barriers that Impede Implementation of Strategies
Despite the suggestions of various strategies that could be used to address the issue of nursing shortage globally, there is still a worrying trend of nursing shortage. This suggests that several barriers impede the fulfillment of the proposed measures. First, the lack of effective managers and leaders in healthcare is a factor that leads to the failure of the enacted policies in nursing practice. Management and effective leadership play a massive part in organizing, motivating, and inspiring nursing members, thus promoting job retention. However, most institutions continue to experience leadership challenges which means that the staff is not motivated, and the intent to leave the profession is increased. Wada (2020) suggested that the other possible barrier is inadequate government support in funding and legislation. The proposed measures require financing, resources and concrete policies for their success, such as a new education model, nursing scholarships, and professional associations. Without enough government support, however vital the measures employed, they will still fail, and the problem continues to affect the world. Therefore, the common barriers to the strategies to address the nursing shortage include ineffective healthcare leadership and insufficient resources and governmental support.

Bvumbwe, T., & Mtshali, N. (2018). Nursing education challenges and solutions in Sub Saharan Africa: an integrative review. BMC nursing, 17(1), 1-11.
Clancy, T. R. (2020). Technology Solutions for Nurse Leaders. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 44(4), 300-315.
Fagan, J. M., & Coffey, J. S. (2019). Despite challenges: Nursing student persistence. Journal of Nursing Education, 58(7), 427-430.
Mar, M., Bartosiewicz, A., Burzyska, J., Chmiel, Z., & Januszewicz, P. (2019). A nursing shortagea prospect of global and local policies. International nursing review, 66(1), 9-16.
Shamsi, A., & Peyravi, H. (2020). Nursing shortage, a different challenge in Iran: A systematic review. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 34, 8.
Wada, Y. (2020). Discuss Reasons for Acute and Chronic Problems with The Crisis of Nursing Shortage concerning Nursing Education and Review the Strategies and Solutions. Nur Primary Care. 2020; 4 (4): 1-4. Department of Human Nursing, Sonoda Womens University, Hyogo, Japan.

Narran training and relationship to Community women’s rights history essay help

Opioid overdoses caused by heroin, oxycodone, and Vicodin can be reversed using naloxone, which is not a prohibited substance and does not pose a risk of misuse. naloxone is now available via prescription in 47 states and the District of Columbia as of January 2017 for persons who may encounter someone who has overdosed (i.e., a third party prescription) or on standing order from their health care practitioner. (Kahn, 2022) Additional ways for states and municipalities to make naloxone more widely available to drug users and the people who care about them include implementing programs to train first responders in administering the drug, such as emergency medical technicians (EMTs), firefighter/police department personnel, and others.
Fighting the present drug pandemic will take years of dedicated effort. Six hundred thousand people have an OUD from heroin and 2 million from prescription opioids. Whatever efforts are taken, these figures are expected to rise. Surprisingly, a third of those treated with heroin for OUD died from a heroin overdose or other OUD-related issues. Even if the government greatly increased therapeutic access, death rates would continue to rise. Reducing new cases of prescription opioid-induced OUD and reducing opioid addiction will involve consistent and targeted. What can be done to avoid iatrogenic addiction, overdose, and death? This chapter examines opioid use, OUD, and mortality. Evidence from policies adopted at the jurisdictional level (usually a state or nation) differs from clinical therapies targeting individual patients and encouraging prescribers to use opioids responsibly and educate the public about the hazards of opioid misuse.
It is possible to recognize, treat and manage substance use disorders effectively. The best method to treat a substance abuse issue is to intervene early. Because of this awareness, health care practitioners are screening for substance abuse and acting early on when necessary. Today’s treatment options include drugs, counseling, and other forms of assistance. These services have not been extensively implemented because of a lack of financing, training, and staffing. 5. Attention should be paid to substance abuse disorders and physical or mental health issues. About 10% of those with a substance use disorder receive any form of specialized treatment. With little or no primary or general health care involvement, a large portion of treatment is in specialized substance use disorder programs (Drainoni, 2022). However, a change is taking place to integrate early intervention and treatment services into the mainstream of health care delivery.
Methods employed in the fight against disease (this may include actions to improve health through changing the impact of social and economic determinants on health; the provision of information on behavioral and medical health risks (Williams-Hall, 2022)alongside consultation and measures to decrease them at the personal and community level; nutritional and food supplementation; oral and dental hygiene education; and clinical preventive services such as immunization and vaccination of children, adults and the elderly, as well as vaccination or post-exposure prophylaxis for people exposed to a communicable disease).

Early discovery of health problems as a result of secondary prevention leads to better health outcomes (this comprises activities such as evidence-based screening programs for early detection of diseases or prevention of congenital malformations; and preventive drug therapies of proven effectiveness when administered early stage of the disease). Primary prevention must always come first if secondary prevention is to be effective. (James, 2022) Patients may be put at risk if abnormalities are not swiftly recognized or treated by other healthcare practitioners unaware of them. A well-functioning primary health care system with a registered patient population is essential for implementing effective population screening programs.
The goal of secondary prevention is to lessen the harm that has already been done due to an existing disease or injury. As quickly as feasible, this is done to halt or limit its progression, encourage personal measures to prevent reinjury or recurrence, and create programs to return people to their former health and function. (Hoskote, 2022)Regular physical examinations and screening tests for early disease detection are two examples of this (e.g., mammograms to detect breast cancer). Aspirin at a modest dose taken every day, together with a healthy diet and regular exercise, can help prevent another heart attack or stroke. Workers who have been injured or unwell can return to their occupations with appropriate work modifications.

Kahn, L. S., Wozniak, M., Vest, B. M., & Moore, C. (2022). Narcan encounters: overdose and naloxone rescue experiences among people who use opioids. Substance Abuse, 43(1), 113-126.
Drainoni, M. L., Knudsen, H. K., Adams, K., Andrews-Higgins, S. A., Auritt, V., Back, S., … & McAlearney, A. S. (2022). Before an intensive community-level intervention, community coalition and key stakeholder perceptions of the community opioid epidemic. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 108731.
Williams-Hall, S. L. (2022). Development and Evaluation of a Nurse-Directed Opioid Education Discharge Process to Bridge the GAP to Outpatient Services (Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University (Delaware)).
James, C. (2022). Moral Distress in the Care of People Living with Moderate to Advanced Dementia: A Narrative Exploration of Family Carers Experience of Home-Based Care Provision towards the End of Life (Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University).
Hoskote, A. R., Croce, E., & Johnson, K. E. (2022). The Evolution of the Role of US School Nurses in Adolescent Mental Health at the Individual, Community, and Systems Level: An Integrative Review. The Journal of School Nursing, 10598405211068120.

Assignment on addressing how a society should be driven history assignment ideas: history assignment ideas

Apart from being value-driven, the social policy also addresses how a society should be driven. In the past, most government policies challenges are intractable. Policies applicable in the past are cultural competence, Evidence, and taking symbols seriously. Social workers can identify their affiliations to the culture and recognition. In current government policies, social justice, service, integrity, and dignity worth of the person are addressed in social works of service and are set by the employer as an ideal for every social worker to aspire to.
Cultural competence is a vast literature value that shapes past government policies whereby social workers exercise the whole premise of democracy that employers derive the right to rule freely chosen by the social workers. A rule is translated into government, and the employer’s actions shall depend on the citizens based on their culture. Evidence is another value exercise in the social workplace. Social workers do not act responsibly and professionally to promote the ethical practices they are affiliated with (Perry and Szalavitz, 2017). However, in the current policy, social work is rooted in values such as social justice, wherein every social worker carries social challenges on behalf of vulnerable individuals or groups. The main aim of social workers is to eradicate poverty, unemployment, and discrimination. They are pursuing a social change to promote sensitivity and understanding of oppression and ethnic diversity.
Further, recognizing the importance of human relationship is another value social workers considers (Lundahl,2014). Social workers know that relationship among them is significant for the change. They engage workers to be friends, thus strengthening relations to promote and maintain social groups.
As a social worker, the ideal values that I aspire to are honesty and respect for every individual. It aligns with this profession’s values since its mission is to practice consistently to ensure workers act in a trustworthy manner. Furthermore, work also encourages social workers to treat their fellow with respect and inherent way. These values will not interfere with the performance of the workplace, but rather it will continuously strive to increase knowledge, thus enhancing professional expertise in the workplace.










Lundahl, B. W., & Hull, G. (2014). Applied Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Pearson Education (US).
Perry, B. D., & Szalavitz, M. (2017). The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog (3rd Edition). Hachette.


Effective treatment programs for drug addicts ap american history essay help


In order to develop effective treatment programs for drug addicts, it is essential to maintain a basic knowledge of the physiological basis of their cravings. Given social and political mandates calling for a cessation of drug abuse or at the very least for the implementation of harm reduction, it is just as important to administer to those exposed to addictive substances as it is to develop methods of preventing exposure. In addition, an ability to explain the neuro-scientific effects of drug use allows those that are responsible for prevention to provide potential users with deterrents that are less dogmatic and more circumspect. To these ends, neuroscience has developed a new understanding of the reasons for addiction.

Behavioral neuroscience has taught us that humans, like other animals, crave certain pharmaceutical agents. Studies have enabled scientists to better understand the neuro-chemistry of pleasure and of cravings. A side effect of these studies is that scientists are now armed with many more methods of artificially inducing pleasure and other moods in the human brain.

The agents that have provided the strongest reaction include opiates and amphetamine-like psycho-stimulants. Two of the most emotionally attractive types of drugs have been narcotics such as morphine and heroin, and psycho-stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines. Studies have shown that animals share the human propensity to self-administer these drugs if this opportunity is available to them. This is because these drugs interact with specific receptors in the brain. These receptors normally help mediate various pleasures and psychic excitement. This In the example of heroin addiction, considered one of the most socially disruptive opiate-derivative addictions, the brain contains mu-opiate receptors. According to Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions by Jaak Panksepp,

These receptors normally control an animal’s urges to maintain various brain and bodily balances (i.e., homeostatic balance) via feeding, sexual/social behavior, and so forth. The psychic reflections of doing “the right thing biologically” are feelings of satisfaction and pleasure. Which of the many brain opiate systems actually mediate this subjective feeling is not well understood, but animals will self-administer opiates directly into various parts of the brain. The most effective locations are in the brain stem, near the central gray of the midbrain, and the ventral-tegmental area, where the A10 mesolimbic DA cells are situated.

Panksepp 118)

Cocaine and amphetamines also increase DA availability at synapses of the mesolimbic circuit, causing the same addictive effect. Self-administration of psycho-stimulants declines when this system is damaged. The normal function of this system is to energize appetitive behavior – that is – to provide motivation for action. This function is integral to the brain, in that the chief end of the human brain is to provoke action by making these actions appetizing. The psycho-stimulant allows animals to bypass other brain functions that contextualize desire and appease the brain’s desire centers directly. These brain systems might normally motivate an animal to explore and to vigorously pursue courses of action. Therefore, the effect of self-stimulation is duo-fold: it not only taxes brain centers that are responsible for the creation of appetite, but are eventually pulled from their innate desires to better themselves through pro-active conduct. The appeal of cocaine is tempered by the dopamine reuptake site; knockout mice without this receptor do not desire psycho-stimulants. The main receptor stimulated by psycho-stimulants is the D2 type of the receptor rather than D1, the dominant receptor.

Scientists hypothesize that other addictive behaviors, such as compulsive gambling, are controlled by internal urges brought about by dopamine chemistries. One of the key questions faced by neurologists is how to diminish these cravings once the desire to diminish them has been established. In the case of cocaine, scientists have been able to diminish cocaine addiction in animals by inducing them to create antibodies to the substance.

Many scientists argue that the abatement of addictive propensities can be accomplished through the disassociation of things that provoke addiction with desire. This has been explored in depth by those wishing to tackle cigarette addiction. According to Russell Leaf et all, who propose a psychological process that will wean people away from their addictions. This team claims that when nausea is used as an unconditional response, aversions develop to undesired activity after a relatively small number of trials.

The physiology of neurological appetites and aversion has been studied at length. These studies included stimulating animals electronically with implanted electrodes. Scientists confirmed that overt behaviors such as flight, threat, or defensive areas were directly correlated to chemical imperatives in the brain. These effected the periventricular-periaquenductal gray matter and parts of the amygdala. Stutied found that electrical stimuli were an example of how to abate cravings thought of as undesirable, such as heavy drug abuse.

Thompson, Dews and Barrett 129) According to Oriental scientists.

Moreover, a correspondence between the aversive behavior of laboratory animals and subjective discomfort was established when patients undergoing stereotaxic neurosurgery reported strong feelings of fear, impending death, or nonlocalized pain sensations caused by electrical stimulation of the amygdala (Chapman et al., 1954) and of the dorsal midbrain, near or inside the periaqueductal gray matter.

Thompson, Dews and Barrett 129)

There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is genetic and inherited from one generation to the next, pointing to the existence of certain metabolisms that are particularly susceptible. Studies have showed that the children of alcoholics were four to five times as likely to develop drinking problems as the children of non-alcoholics. Whereas a margin of error could be attributed to environmental factors common to the children of alcoholics, this variance doesn’t statistically allow us to discount the effect of inhereitance. Although “no precise biological mechanism corresponding to metabolic imbalance has ever been located, the best that can be said about this theory is that the treatment program based on it, methadone maintenance, has helped a certain proportion of addicts.”

Some psychological theories associated with drug use also stress personality differences between people who use drugs and those who abstain. Although these theories deserve our attention, they are secondary in importance to studies of addiction and brain physiology in that they are less likely to describe the nature of addiction and more likely to reflect an individual’s proclivity to accept societal norms. Even if we can prove this to be a physiological distinction, this predilection is materially different from the mechanism of addiction.

Most behavioral neuroscience points to the idea that breaking addictive propensities would entail the forcible dissociation of the act of using a drug with its pleasurable effects. Unfortunately, many of the methodologies utilized in the laboratory on animals aren’t suitable for use with humans, such as using electric currents to generate nausea. Despite this, neuroscience has taught medical practitioners the nature of addiction as an illness and helped medical experts, psychologists and drug counselors to recognize its propensities. With time, new methods could be developed that could readily divorce people from their unwanted addictions.

Works Cited

Bolles, Robert C., ed. The Hedonics of Taste. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991.

Isralowitz, Richard E., and Darwin Telias. Drug Use, Policy, and Management. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.

Leaf, Russell C., and Stacy Lamon. “5 Development of a New Clinical Procedure for Conditioning Aversions to Cigarette Smoking with Perceptually Induced Nausea.” Affect, Conditioning, and Cognition: Essays on the Determinants of Behavior. Ed. Brush, F. Robert. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1985. 75-76.

Overmier, J. Bruce, and Richard L. Solomon. Affect, Conditioning, and Cognition: Essays on the Determinants of Behavior. Ed. Brush, F. Robert. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1985.

Panksepp, Jaak. Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Schore, Allan N. Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self: The Neurobiology of Emotional Development. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1994.

Thompson, Travis, Peter B. Dews, and James E. Barrett, eds. Neurobehavioral Pharmacology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1987.