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The conceptual issue involved in Downwards Communication ap american history essay help: ap american history essay help

The conceptual issue involved in Downwards Communication

Downwards communication is a form of communication where orders are given from the superior of a company to the subordinate level or employee. It is important to have effective communication in the workplace. In workplaces, there are different kinds of personalities from each individual and each individual has a different way of taking in information or instructions. The different kinds of personalities include disability, intellectual ability, ethnicity, physical ability. Downward communication follows a chain of command. These instructions or messages are usually delivered in different ways and they include meetings, digital media, memos, and speeches.

According to studies done employees become effective in their workers if their employers provide reliable and clear communication. There some issues faced with downward communication and they include: specific information is left out or altered intentionally or unintentionally sometimes to benefit the person delivering the message. It can also be slow delivered especially when it is going through several people in the company.  The problem of explanation since sometimes the information may come without details or no explanation and the employees may need in-depth explaining. The relationship between the management and the employees is destroyed. Feedback from the employees to the superiors is not given. Employees do not get to present other ideas, reactions to the message. This type of communication is authoritative hence employees lack motivation.

Example of business leaders who have failed

Nokia company was one of the largest phone manufacturers until the company lost its competitive edge especially due to the phone industry market increasing. Most of the company’s problems came from poor communication which led to the unstrategic way of introducing new phones to the market. Enron is another company that was affected by downward communication. The company lacked openness to their employees (Groysberg and Slind, 2020). Piyasvasti Amranand was the CEO of Thai Air lost his job as CEO and according to a media report, it was because of poor communication between him and the board which hindered them from reaching its profit target.

The objective of Downward Communication

Work information is delivered through this method. Superiors assign work to the employees through downward communication. The company’s policies and plans are explained through these communications. Departmental responsibilities are distributed through these systems. These systems are useful in evaluating employee’s performance. Discipline is established through downward communication. These system helps employees and their superiors cooperate and coordinate with each other.

Effects of downwards communication

Effects of Downward communicating on performance. A positive workplace increases employees’ work performance. Behaviors such as the inclusion of employees to decision making plans, allowing feedback from employees can increase the company’s performance. Implementing diversity management strategies can increase the effectiveness of downward communication. Such strategies include effective diversity programs and diversity in groups. Job attitude increases perceive organizational support, organizational commitment, job involvement and satisfaction, employee engagement. Job satisfaction is brought about by job conditions, pay, personality and corporate social responsibility. The outcomes of job satisfaction include organizational citizenship behavior, job performance, life satisfaction, and customer satisfaction.

Job dissatisfaction leads to absenteeism. When jobs are readily available, dissatisfied employees have alternatives leading to a lot of absence. The jobs are limited employees do not have a lot of options which leads them to stick to the same job. They become unsatisfied with their workplaces and these lead to low performance.


Situation strength theory

Situation strength theory suggests that the strength of the situation affects the style of personality which interprets into conduct. Researchers have come up with four elements for situation strength which include jobs with high clarity which increase strong situations because employees can willingly control what to do. Those jobs with high reliability produce a strong situation when all the cues point the same desired behavior jobs with high consistency. Those jobs with constraints lead to limited individual discretion when it has many constraints leading strong situation (Robbins and Judge, 2015). There are consequences when the company does not allow room for mistakes there is a strong condition.

Trait Activation theory

Trait activation theory forecasts the traits or personalities brought about by events or situations. Using this theory, it can be predicted which job is best for which trait. It applies to personality tendencies. For instance, when a company applies electronic monitoring in the work environment it can bring about the trait of fear of failing which leads to low job performance. Both of these theories show that they both affect behavior.


In conclusion, the disadvantages of downwards communication can be neutralized through using various platforms to communicate such as emails, SMS and memos. Those delivering the message should be clear and audible enough and if the employees need any clarity or explanation on the message, they should approach the person. Companies should allow room for employees to provide new ideas and collaborate with them in developing those ideas. Teamwork should be highly encouraged since leadership roles emerge from these teams which allows better communication. Positive work environments should be increased through ways such as increased transparency. Leaders who practice effective managerial skills adopt communication skills that increase their relationship with employees. Dialogue is encouraged rather than monologue


Groysberg, Boris, and Michael Slind. “The Silent Killer of Big Companies.” Harvard Business Review. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2020.

Robbins, Stephen, and Timothy Judge. Organizational Behaviour. Pearson Education, 2015. Print.






This paper presents the study of flow inside the boundary layer by applying the CFD method.  The overall aim of this report is to look at the development of boundary layers across various bodies, for example, flat plates, and to gam an understanding of the effects of the boundary layer growth on different aspects of the flow field, such as separation and reattachment To do this a wind tunnel facility was required and the experimental results from this validated against CFD results The combinations of experimental and numerical analysis allowed the author to describe scientifically such effects. Boundary layers, although unnoticeable to the naked eye, are a characteristic found where the velocity of a fluid relative to a solid surface is zero, hence in the vicinity of this surface a region of velocity increases rapidly from zero up to mainstream velocity This has the undesirable effect of causing turbulent flow over

long surfaces, which reduce the performance of moving solids (examples being cyclists, automobiles, aircraft) by introducing frictional drag forces It has been noted that skin-function drag is strongly enhanced by the onset of turbulence, however, in turn, this turbulence is also greatly enhanced by the separation of the airflow In combination this laminar flow separation and skin-function drag decrease lift effects and/or increase pressure drag on aerodynamic surfaces, resulting in decreased efficiency, that is, increased fuel consumption This research aims to examine the development of the boundary layer Specifically the study will look at the effects of separation within the boundary layer and on its impact on the development of the boundary layer and other aspects of the fluid flow.


         The accuracy of numerical simulations strongly depends on the mesh resolution and quality. In complex flow problems, it is difficult to determine the adequate mesh resolution a priori. In such cases, an initial mesh is used to get an approximate flow solution; this mesh is then adapted using a posteriori error or correction indicators, i.e., based on the approximate numerical solution. This process is carried out iteratively to attain a given level of accuracy. For the overall adaptive process to be efficient, the resolution needs to be changed or adapted locally. This can be done by locally modifying the mesh elements based on a size field. One option is to use scalar error indicators to determine the desired mesh size field, leading to isotropic elements. However, most flow problems of interest exhibit highly anisotropic solution features such as boundary layers, shear layers, shock waves, etc. These features are most efficiently resolved with anisotropic elements, i.e., where elements are oriented and stretched in a certain manner.

The overall aim of this report is to look at the development of boundary layers across various bodies, for example, flat plates, and to game an understanding of the effects of the boundary layer growth on different aspects of the flow field, such as separation and reattachment To do this a wind tunnel facility was required and the experimental results

from this validated against CFD results The combinations of experimental and numerical analysis allowed the author to describe scientifically such effects.

We consider the incompressible stationary flow of a fluid past a flat plate. This is a very old and well-studied problem and is discussed in most introductory texts on fluid mechanics [1]. In 1908, Blasius [2] gave a solution in the form of a power series. Howarth [3], in 1938, used the Runge-Kutta numerical method and did hand computations to analyze the flat-plate flow. Lock [4, 5], in 1951, studied the laminar boundary layer between parallel streams. Later, Potter [6], in 1957, investigated laminar boundary layer solutions for mass transfer across the plane interface between two-current parallel fluid streams. Blasius solution for flow past a flat-plate was investigated by Abussita, in 1994, and the existence of a solution was established [7].

The classical theory of flat plate boundary layer reflects an airflow with high velocity to direct friction effect on the flat plate surface. Much research on the boundary layer theory has been conducted worldwide. Zhou et al. used numerical methods to solve N-S equations and calculated the frictional resistance of a flat plate in laminar flow. Li et al. adopted the Fourier pseudo-spectral and massage passing interface parallel method to simulate the laminar-turbulent transition process of an incompressible boundary layer on a flat plate. Ferrante et al.and Dou et al. discussed the flow mechanism of the turbulent boundary layer. Itoh studied the effect of localized disturbances on the plate boundary layer. Akervik et al. studied the stability of a two-dimensional flat plate boundary layer using global eigenmodes. Vigdorovich proposed a complete theory of turbulent boundary layer flow over a flat plate with uniform wall suction. Kanai et al. reduced the frictional resistance on a wall and explained its mechanism from the modulation of the three-dimensional structure of the turbulent flow.


CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) with its wide ranging applications, has been widely used throughout both industry and research since its inception in the middle of the last century This has of course included investigations into boundary layers The use of CFD has been incorporated into the analysis of boundary layer control hydrofoil flow [43] Rhee et al reported how the results of their study into the BLC (Boundary Layer Control) flow around a hydrofoil, when validated with the available experimental data, compare very well and hence reinforce the validity of the CFD technology for this application Palikaras also used CFD to study the effects of free-stream velocity profiles on the transition of laminar to turbulent flow on flat plates Reports indicated that the k-e models gave satisfactory predictions regarding the predicted velocity distributions These k-e models are computational models used to aid m solving the flow problem These models will be discussed m detail m Chapter 3 Section 3 5 Recently Hwang incorporated the use of CFD into the design of a new technology for reducing turbulent skin friction, called the Micro blowing Technique (MBT) The combination of both experimental and CFD results show that this technology could potentially reduce turbulent skm friction by more than 50% of the skin friction over solid flat plates for subsonic and supersonic flow conditions It was noted by Hwang that this has the potential to be applied to all types of air flow, but m order to push this technology forward to real world applications large scale experiments will need to be conducted.


Centro Atomico Bariloche has proposed the construction of solution-adapted meshes is addressed within an optimization framework. An approximation of the second spatial derivative of the solution is used to get a suitable metric in the computational domain. Mesh quality is proposed and optimized under this metric, accounting for both the shape and the size of the elements. For this purpose, a topological and geometrical mesh improvement method of high generality is introduced. It is shown that the adaptive algorithm that results in recovers optimal convergence rates in singular problems, and that it captures boundary and internal layers in convection-dominated problems. Several important implementation issues are discussed. 1 Introduction Quite recently, we have developed mesh optimization algorithms suitable for both 2D and 3D unstructured meshes [1]. We aimed to relieve the (frontal, Delaunay, etc.) meshing algorithm from the strict element-shape restrictions imposed by numerical solvers.

Kedar C. has proposed Simulations of turbulent flows are challenging and require tight and varying mesh spacing’s near the walls that depend on the turbulence models used. Semi-structured meshes are often used in the turbulent wall boundary layers due to their ability to be strongly graded and anisotropic. To reduce the discretization errors in the solution, an adaptive approach becomes essential due to the lack of good a priori error indicators. Properties of the turbulent boundary layers can be directly calculated from the flow physics and can be used to guide adaptivity. This paper introduces a new approach for the adaptivity of the mesh boundary layers using flow physics indicators, in combination with classical numerical error indicators. The effectiveness of the adaptive techniques is analyzed by applying them to transonic flow problems with a shock wave and boundary layer interactions.

Onkar Sahni, have proposed Multi-element wings are popular in the aerospace community due to their high lift performance. Turbulent flow simulations of these configurations require very fine mesh spacing’s especially near the walls, thereby making use of a boundary layer mesh necessary. However, it is difficult to accurately determine the required mesh resolution a priori to the simulations. In this paper, we use an anisotropic adaptive meshing approach including adaptive control of elements in the boundary layers and study its effectiveness for two multi-element wing configurations. The results are compared with experimental data as well as nested refinements to show the efficiency of adaptivity driven by error indicators, where superior resolution in wakes and near the tip region through adaptivity is highlighted.

Rao V. Garimell, have proposed viscous flow problems exhibit boundary layers and free shear layers in which the solution gradients, normal and tangential to the flow, differ by orders of magnitude. The generalized advancing layers method is presented here as a method of generating meshes suitable for capturing such flows. The method includes several new technical advances allowing it to mesh complex geometric domains that cannot be handled by other techniques. It is currently being used for simulations in the automotive industry.

Xiaoming Zheng, have proposed an adaptive remeshing algorithm for meshes of unstructured triangles in two dimensions and unstructured tetrahedra in three dimensions. The algorithm automatically adjusts the size of the elements with time and position in the computational domain to resolve the relevant scales in multistage physical systems to a user-prescribed accuracy while minimizing computational cost. The optimal mesh that provides the desired resolution is achieved by minimizing a spring-like mesh energy function that depends on the local physical scales using local mesh restructuring operations that include edge-swapping, element insertion/removal, and dynamic mesh-node displacement (equilibration). The algorithm is a generalization to volume domains of the adaptive surface enmeshing algorithm developed by Cristini et al. in the context of deforming interfaces in two and three dimensions.


When fluid flows past an immersed body, a thin boundary layer will be developed near the solid body due to the no-slip condition (i.e., fluid is stuck to the solid boundary). The flow can be treated as inviscid flow outside of this boundary layer, while viscous effects are important inside of this boundary layer.

Beginning with the continuity, Bernoulli, and Navier-Stokes equations, we will derive the boundary layer equations for laminar flow. The derived expressions will then be applied to flow over a flat plate, and the Blasius solution for laminar flow will be presented. A displacement thickness expression will also be derived. Local and total skin friction drag equations will be written for the problem well.

In this section, we will derive the continuity and momentum equations for the boundary layer. We will assume that the flow is two-dimensional and steady. Further, the fluid is taken to be Newtonian and incompressible with constant properties. Gravity is neglected, and the radius of curvature of the body is large. This last stipulation is included so that centrifugal forces can be neglected and also ensure that flow separation does not occur. The boundary layer equations that we will derive do not apply to a region of backflow. Because the boundary layer is very thin, pressure does not vary in the direction that is normal to the surface. The boundary layer equations as follows:

4.1 Extension to Boundary Layers

The methodology outlined above works well for unstructured elements. When working with boundary layers we want to preserve their structured nature, and using this technique directly does not guarantee that. To extend anisotropic adaptively to boundary layer meshes we instead use the approach described below.

Figure 4(a) shows a conceptual decomposition of the boundary layer mesh. The boundary layer meshes can be viewed as a product of a layer surface (2D) and a thickness (1D) mesh. The lines which are orthogonal to the wall are referred to as the growth curves, and the triangular surfaces parallel to the wall are referred to as the layer surfaces. Each layer of elements is formed with the help of the layer surfaces above and below, connected by the growth edges in between. The mesh size on the layer surfaces is referred to as the in-plane or lateral size and that on the growth curves is referred to as the normal spacing or thickness. The ellipsoid in Figure 3 can be decomposed as an ellipse projected on the layer surface and a normal component aligned with the growth curve. This concept is

shown in Figure 1(b).

Figure 1: Conceptual extension of the Hessian approach to boundary layers

Adaptively is carried out in two stages; an in-plane adaptation that achieves the required mesh sizes on the layer surfaces and does not affect the thickness, and thickness adaptation which changes the normal spacing of the boundary layers. The in-plane adaptation is driven by the mesh metric field calculated from the Hessian as described in this section.


5.1 Geometry and governing equations

To give the problem practical dimensions, all the cases considered were modeled using a 2-D flat plate with a total length of 3 m, with treatment limited to the middle 1 m only. The physical structure can be encountered in numerous real-world applications, such as automobiles, ship hulls, aircraft wings, etc. The freestream velocity chosen for cases reported was 33 m/s which corresponding to a Reynolds number of 2×106 based on a characteristic length Lc = 1 m. The Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Reθ, is 4000 at the start of the grooved section. These values were specifically chosen to facilitate the necessary validation with the experimental data for a comparably grooved flat plate with square grooves done by Wahidi et al.

Tested grooves were square, triangular and semicircular. Various widths and depths were tested and comparison is presented for 2 mm wide, 2 mm deep grooves (1 mm radii semicircular) that are 20 mm apart. Comparisons are made between grooved middle sections and a comparable (middle 1 m) smooth section of the plate. Initial studies show that any pertinent effects of slight curvature can be neglected for purposes of this study. Deviation from true 3-D behavior is addressed in Section 4. The flow is governed by the steady, incompressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, shown below in the dimensionless, primitive variable form,

The k–_ model set of equations for eddy viscosity, turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, and closure coefficients can be found in any basic text on turbulence for example). Double precision is used for all variables and a free stream velocity of 33 m/s and the air was chosen as a base case. Standard velocity inlet boundary condition was used for the inlet and standard pressure outlet was used for the exit. The plates were assumed stationary with a dimensionless roughness height of k+s= 0.5. The boundary condition for the outer part of the flow for the rectangular domain is an important issue. The specification of the realistic pressure-far-field boundary condition is incompatible with the incompressibility assumption. Therefore, the symmetry boundary condition was specified at the top of the modeled region. This usually alters the physics of the flow because the presence of a solid surface is assumed at twice the height of the modeled region. To get around this artifact, the displacement thickness is precalculated using a generic 1/7 power law turbulent profile, δ∗ = 0.046xRe−1/5x, and the inlet velocity was corrected accordingly to give the desired Re and Reθ values

at the start of the grooved section.

5.2 Boundary layer resolution

The presence of solid surfaces greatly affects the behavior of turbulent flows, both in terms of velocity as well as turbulence variables. The solid surface is where the gradients are the largest, and, more importantly, it is where the flow turbulence kinetic energy and vortices are produced. These vigorous fluctuations in momentum and other scalar transport variables have to be resolved accurately to have a faithful description of the secondary variables of interest. The turbulence model of choice (the k–_ model) is known to be primarily valid for turbulent core flow, away from solid surfaces. To ensure accurate prediction of variables throughout the boundary layer, particularly in the near-wall region, mesh resolution must be fine enough, but not finer.

Also, the RNG (renormalization group theory) version of the standard k–_ turbulence model was used for this study. This model is similar to the standard model but includes an additional term that improves accuracy for rapidly strained flows.1 While computationally more demanding, the convergence rate and solution quality of the RNG model justifies its use in such and similar flow simulations. Numerous experiments have shown that turbulent boundary layers can largely be subdivided into three layers: the viscous sublayer, the log layer, and the defect layer. Turbulence models are usually modified to enable the boundary to be resolved with a fine mesh from the outer edge of the boundary layer to the wall, including the viscous sublayer. This approach was followed here for accurate prediction of wall shear stress, frictional drag, pressure drop, turbulence variables, and similar variables of interest. The complete resolution of the turbulent boundary layer usually imposes a considerable computational load on the solution algorithm. One would want to have a boundary layer formulation that is fine enough to resolve the turbulent sub-layers, particularly the (laminar) viscous sublayer, and, at the same time, be coarse enough to facilitate realistic modeling turnaround times. To accomplish this goal, the Fluent TM two-layer model with enhanced wall functions is used.


Creating the Geometry

Creating geometry is the first step in Star-CCM+ to create a mesh. The flat plate geometry can be created in CAD software, Rhinoceros. Then the geometry is imported as a surface. Be careful not to import it as a volume. It is a single surface and since we want to name the walls, the symmetry plane, the inlet, and the outlet, we will have to separate these.

Creating the Mesh

Meshing is a vital step for CFD simulation. Mesh is defined as geometry and space on the model being solved by mathematical methods of fluid dynamics. Star-CCM+ is equipped with a powerful meshing capability. The semiautomatic meshing tool allows user ease of generating both surface mesh and volume mesh. The tool allows a user to focus solely on interacting with the region and boundary of the model, rather than mesh elements. Meshes are automatically generated upon the user’s inputs and expected to be valid and of good quality.

Surface mesh serves as the starting surface for volume meshing. It is typically originated by CAD software; generally, it is not of good quality, unless created and exported into mesh files. STAR-CCM+ volume meshes contain three different types of volume mesh, each of which offers advantages and disadvantages of their kinds. These three types are tetrahedral, polyhedral, and trimmed mesh. Trimmed mesh produces trimmed mesh based on hexahedral shape-based core mesh. It is similar to the structured mesh and provides high-quality grids. Its methodology is robust and efficient for both simple and complex mesh generation problems. It utilizes a hexahedral template mesh in which it is trimmed based on the starting input surface. Unlike tetrahedral and polyhedral, the trimmed mesher is independent of the quality of the starting surface. This means that bad quality of surface will not lead to bad quality of volume mesh, and implies that it likely will produce good quality volume mesh in most circumstances. For the reason above, the trimmed model is chosen to be a volume meshes used in the simulations, because it provides efficiency, quality, and robustness of generated mesh. The result of mesh generation can be seen in fig. 1&2.

Figure 3. Meshing and boundary conditions

Figure 4. Meshing near the plate surface Setting up the physics model and values

Physical modeling is a step in which physical condition is applied to the models. It defines every environmental condition within the modeling domain that will be simulated during computation. This is the most critical step before running the simulation. The process must be done with great care because slight errors may cause an alteration of results. Therefore, all physical criteria expected to be simulated should be precisely defined in this step.

STAR-CCM+ has designed its functions to make physical modeling as simple as possible. It defines different categories, step by step for ease of operation. The physical conditions defined by STAR-CCM+ are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1. Physical conditions for simulation.


In this paper, the turbulent flow over transversely grooved surfaces was numerically studied. Three different groove geometries were constructed and compared based on a reduction in the total skin friction coefficient. Skin friction values and behavior inside the grooves were a good indicator of how the flow exiting them would disturb the main flow and to what degree. The optimum groove was one that succeeds in terminating the boundary layer but does not introduce high crossflow at the beginning of the next straight section of the surface. In general, square grooves outperformed comparable triangular and semi-circular grooves in the medium turbulent Reynolds number ranges. It was found that the dynamics of the flow inside the grooves, the nature of separation and reattachment of the flow, and the location of the stagnation point influenced what happens downstream of the grooves greatly. For the studied groove sizes and spacing, the results favor square grooves for the Reynolds number range reported herein. Higher Reynolds number simulations would shed more light on the dynamics of interaction between the flow inside the grooves and the main parallel flow but then compressibility effects must be considered, which are not the subject of this paper.


[1] Symmetrix MeshSim 8.0. Symmetrix inc., 2013-05-20.

[2] G. C. Buscaglia and E. A. Dari. Anisotropic mesh optimization and its application in adaptivity. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 40:4119{4136, 1997.

[3] M. J. Casto-Diaz, F. Hecht, B. Mohammadi, and O. Pironneau. Anisotropic unstructured mesh adaptation for ow simulations. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 25:475{491, 1997.

[4] K. Chitale, O. Sahni, S. Tendulkar, R. Nastasi, K. E. Jansen, and M. Shephard. Boundary layer adaptivity for transonic turbulent ows. In 21st AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2013. AIAA Paper 2013{2445.

[5] K. C. Chitale, M. Rasquin, O. Sahni, M. S. Shephard, and K. E. Jansen. Anisotropic boundary layer adaptivity of multi-element wings. In 52nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting (SciTech). AIAA Paper 2014{0117, January 2014.

[6] R. V. Garimella and M. S. Shephard. Boundary layer mesh generation for viscous ow simulations. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 49:193{ 218, 2000.

[7] N. Gregory and C. L. O’Reilly. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0012 aerofoil section, including the e_ects of upper-surface roughness simulating hoar frost. In R&M 3726. National Physical Laboratory, January 1970.

[8] C. L. Ladson. E_ects of independent variation of Mach and Reynolds numbers on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0012 airfoil section. In NASA TM 4074. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, October 1988.

[9] C. L. Ladson, A. S. Hill, and W. G. Johnson. Pressure distribution from high Reynolds number transonic tests of a NACA 0012 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel. In NASA TM 10052. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, December 1987.

[10] X. Li, M. S. Shephard, and M. W. Beall. 3d anisotropic mesh adaptation by mesh modi_cations. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 194:4915{4950, 2005.


A GPS DEVICE MARKETING PLAN. history essay help: history essay help


What is a GPS Device?

Global Positioning System (GPS) has had a major effect on both worldwide mapping, navigation, and tracking systems, and has grown through the decades to a level where it is utilized in virtually every area of our activities. To calculate the location, distance, and altitude of an element, GPS systems use a system called trilateration. Tracking systems measure the distance and time required for the GPS waves from the satellites to transmit to the earth. To have a specific location the system needs signals from a minimum of four satellites. Location precision is further improved by data from other satellites. Each satellite is solar-powered and it revolves around the Earth 2 times a day, constantly transferring signals. There are primarily two choices when choosing the correct GPS tracker; battery-powered portable trackers, and hardwired tracking tools. GPS monitoring device software can be used to tell a person or any object exactly where it is, whether it is stationary or moving.

How to Sell the Product.

The GPS product needs more features, more user-friendliness, more concealability, and a need to work with most cellular providers. It needs to be developed as cost-effective, and with feasible target market solutions. Relationships would be critical for clients such as the channel business resellers, and institutional customers. For them, the production business will become a revenue-generating partner, not just a seller, thereby making these consumer segments more responsive to the offers. It must also accurately express the future monetary value of the partnership, as well as its inherent value in being able to offer the end-users and participants life-saving and user- friendly GPS devices. The device needs to convince customers of the tremendous benefits of Personal Locator Systems in their lives.

Benefits of GPS Device.

Features including real-time mapping, route data, geofence regions, and incident warnings enable users to provide family members with personal safety measures and increase driver safety. The data generated by GPS systems can be used by fleet companies to reduce running costs and promote healthier driving habits. Also, worried parents and family members will use GPS locator systems to keep an eye on their dear ones. The ability to monitor a person’s location in real-time and provide immediate updates of critical incidents can make the GPS tracking device one of the best in the business for safety purposes.


Comparison of  two prominent graphic designers in America global history essay help

Comparison of  two prominent graphic designers in America


The graphic design industry has been viewed by many as a newly evolved industry. To many, graphic designs entails; artistic advertisement, incredible spreads in the magazine and eye-trapping graphics on the website – laundry list – (Bernal et al, pp 295-320). Though these examples partially fit under the definition of graphic designs. Graphic designs encompass a lot, including, infographics, book covers, logos, firm cards, and posters. To list these examples is a good start in trying to define what graphic design is. Though they will not shape the entire picture of this creative career field.

The industry has been growing for decades at the face of countless designers. To appreciate this am compiling two famous designers in America that have done much in shaping their graphic designs in many ways. From those that have specialized in different sectors; typography, magazine designs, album cover, and posters have made a mark in the industry and shaped it in one way through their hard work. With this let us look at the two famous graphic designers in America. The position presented by this paper will focus on the similarities, differences and the works of the two major graphic designers.

Milton Glaser

Milton Glaser was born in June 1929 in New York City. He then schooled at music and art schools, where he graduated from cooper union school of Arts. After school, he started to explore his career field in the real ground (Mirola et al, pp5). He is among the eminent graphic designers of the twentieth century in America. He has specialized in designing logos and posters. He is recognized for his prominent design of the most distinctive logo of the century. Amongst his noticeable works is the bullet logo that he designs. He also designed posters, for example, the DC Comics poster. Besides, he owns studios that design posters and shape images for prominent names in America and the neighborhood. To date, he is still an active graphic designer.

In 1974 he founded Milton Glaser Inc, which is still producing worthy artworks to date. He has co jointed with many designers to form artwork studios. In 1952, he founded Pushpin studio in conjunction with Reynold, Seymour, and Edward (Mermikides & Alex, pp32). The studio focused on the study of the fine arts and commercial arts. The studio usually reviews the ideas and suggestions and making them more attractive. Illustrative posters, magazines and books covers include the concern of the studio. Among the studios, he has also founded the New York magazine. He partners with Clay Felker and established the magazine. Their style and design became a reference and motivation for many city publishers.

Glaser has been the head of the magazine firm until 1977. He later joined with Walter and formed a publication graphic design firm. The firm becomes the best, monopolizing the field in designing magazines, newspapers, and journals(Glaser et al, pp4-14). It used to produce over 50 products daily. Besides partnering with other designers, Glaser also founded his design firm in 1974. He referred to it as Milton Glaser, Inc. The studio produced a wide range of products from a different discipline.  Among the products are logos, brochures, and signage. To some extend the firm use to produce corporate to top firms in the region. In addition to the responsibility of the firm was to design the environment-related issues and the interior.

Among the corporate clients for Glaser were Eleven Madison Park, JetBlue and Rubin Museum of the Art. His work has been felt by many, he uses to host the exhibition, and showcasing. For instance, he has hosted an exhibition in Italy.  Italian government looked up to his work and commissioned him to present an acknowledgment to Italian artists during the exhibition done in 1991. To quantify, Glaser was all-pervasive, he has also been involved in investment in the creation of the energy to both commercial enterprises and the educational aspects. In 1961 he was the board master and the consultant of the visual school of Arts. Later he became the deputy president of the American Institute of graphic designs.  Due to his appreciable works, he has received many awards including, the national design award for lifetime achievement that was presented to him in 2004 and the national medal of Arts that was presented to him by the US president Barack Obama in 2009.

David Carson

David Carson was born in September 1954 in Texas. Thereafter he went schooling at San Diego State University, where he graduated with a bachelor’s degree in Arts. After his graduation, he uses to tour designing classes at the Arizona University, Oregon college of commercial Arts, where he went and learn mero graphic designs.  In addition to his degree, he attended a three weeks workshop that was held in Switzerland. He also once took a job in the Californa high school where he used to teach  Arts for years. David Carson started his designing work in the early 1980s. Besides his designing career, he had many talents including surfing, wherein 1989 he was ranked the best surfer in the world.

David Carson is claimed to be the father of grunge typography since he introduced the typographies in the magazine of Ray Gun (Lester & Paul, pp 77-86). Initially, David Carson worked as a designer in different disciplines such as magazine, self, and music, amongst his experiences includes working for the Transworld Stakeboarding magazine firm. This firm among others shaped his skills of designs. He even became the director of a magazine in the year 1984. The session during the directorate in the design magazine enabled him to achieve many. For instance, he developed a signature format using photographic styles. In 1989 he secured a job in the Beach culture where he served as the Art director. Carson popularised his name during this section. His design styles were distinctive, he even introduced typography in the firm.

His appreciatable works earned him many rewards. Later in 1992, he worked in the  Ray Gun, his publisher saw potentials in his graphics skills. Once more he armored his name through his unique design skills. His design skills in the magazines attracted many and result in many readers of the magazines. His work was distinctive, in terms of typography, patterns and chaos photos that overlap. This disarray has a meaning to him. To many, his work was good, in contrast to some they were bad because of the disordered nature. To those who considered his work as good were attracted by his unique visual communicative techniques.

Many were even attracted by these communicative skills. In 1995, David Carson switched this job and formed his studio. He referred to it as the David Carson Design. His clients include Nike, Ray-Bans and MTV Global. In addition to his graphic designs in the studio, he uses to publish graphic books that were comprehensible and experiential. For instance, The End of Print, this was an agraphic book that he published in 1995.


Both are all popular designers of America who have shaped the design industry in many ways as a result of their appreciatable hard work. Milton studied music and Arts in the cooper union schools and later started his design skills. He uses to design logos and posters. His work was recognizable, with the unique skills he introduced. For instance, he has designed a distinctive logo for the twentieth century. Like Milton, David Carson studied Arts in the San Diego university.

David started his design work much later than Milton he started them in the early 1980s. Like Milton, he introduced unique skills in different firms he ever worked for. For instance, he introduced the typography in the magazine of Ray Gun firm. They all have distinctive ideas in their designs works. Their distinctive works brought differences in both the public and the firm the worked for. For instance, David Carson attracted many readers of the magazine when he introduced distinctive designs. Milton did a wonderful job during an exhibition he hosted in  Italy and was commissioned by the Italian government.

Both of them use to design logos and posters. They have worked to influence and motivate many designers in the region. Both of them owned their studios as a result of their hard work and commitment. Milton founded his studio in 1974, which he christened as Milton Gastler, Inc while Gansler founded his studio in 1995, which he referred to as David Carson Design (Campbell et al, pp 45). These studios review designs ideas and shape them to be more attractive. In addition to reviewing, they shaped the produce from popular clients.


The position presented by this differential analysis will focus on the aspects of the timeframe and philosophical works of the focused designers. Despite their similarities in the design industry, the mentioned designers had contrasting traits in terms of their timeframe. Milton was born earlier than Carson. He was born in 1929 in Newyork city. While David Carson was born in 1954 in Texas.  Due to this differential, Milter Gasler started his design works early than David Carson. He started his design works in the early 1980s when Milton has already owned a stud(Carson et al, pp 45-54). About this differential time frame, Milton is an elder designer while Carson is a modern designer.

In addition to these differentials, they studied at different institutions and different periods. Milton Gansler studied in Cooper union school of Arts while Carson studied at San Diego University.Milton majorly focused on potentials new evolving talents and contributions to much extend to design works. He also once serves as a professor for the School of Visual Art. While Carson has only influenced people by his distinctive design ideas. He was once a tutor in sociology, psychology, and surfing. Carson started his design works much later than Milton. He started his designs works in the early 1980s.


Both the designers discussed are among the prominent heroes that have shaped the design industry in America. Each with his unique traits in their distinctive design works.  As the nature of our socialization, everything starts from scratch. Both designers discussed started their design work just like a normal hustler but their commitment and hard work yielded. David Carson`s design ideas are distinctive and experimental. He is constantly innovating and committed about the traditional font, instead of him studying new applications of media in designs, he focuses on the letters and ink.  Milton designs are also unique in their own. He keeps the public in his mind during his design with creativity, vivid comprehensive and extensive designs font. Milton Glaser’s design is closer to the public, with just the right graphic creativity, vivid illustrations, and various types of font design.


Bernal, Pilar, Juan P. Maicas, and Pilar Vargas. “Exploration, exploitation and innovation performance: disentangling the evolution of industry.” Industry and innovation 26.3 (2019): 295-320.

(Carson et al, pp 45-54)

Mirola, William A., Michael O. Emerson, and Susanne C. Monahan. Sociology of religion: A reader. Routledge, 2019.

Mermikides, Alex. Performance, Medicine and the Human. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2020.

Glaser, Steven D., and Anne Tolman. “Sense of sensing: from data to informed decisions for the built environment.” Journal of infrastructure systems 14.1 (2008): 4-14.

Lester, Paul Martin. “Typography and Graphic Design.” Visual Ethics. Focal Press, 2018. 77-86.

Campbell, Gordon, and Thomas N. Corns. John Milton: life, work, and thought. Oxford University Press, 2008.

Carson, Jenn. Yoga and Meditation at the Library: A Practical Guide for Librarians. Vol. 64. Rowman & Littlefield, 2019.