Papers will be evaluated for quality in both content and form. The content should be as expressed above. The FORM should conform to the Microsoft Word template provided on Blackboard for use o=in constructing the CA Papers. Length should be about four and no longer than six 8½” by 11” pages with 1” margins on all sides, using 12-point, Times New Roman font. The header should contain your name and the CA Paper number. The footer should contain the page number. The paper must be logical and fluid in organization. Your thoughts must be intelligible, use correct grammar, and contain no spelling errors. Papers will be submitted to the instructor electronically as an e-mail attachment in Blackboard.
upd: please double space
Company Law8 Company Law Question 1 [600 words] Issues According to the
Question 1 [600 words]
According to the facts, Marlow is both the Executive and Managing Director. The key issue is to avoid any claims of breach of contract by the company when Marlow resigns. According to the constitution, the company is only allowed to provide advice to the companies that want to invest in IT. The approval of the board in order for the resignation to take place is another issue for determination.
Rules and Application
In order to determine the procedure for resignation, the first place to look is the articles of association of the company. Although the decision would be unilateral, Marlow would have to notify the company about his impending resignation. This allows them to look for a replacement. It has to include the reason, and an explanation of what he would like to do about his shares in the company. The fact pattern does not indicate whether the permission of the board is necessary. This means that the resignation would take effect when it is officially communicated to the directors. The company has to pass a resolution on the resignation that was communicated by the director. If the board delays or refuses to pass the resolution, the resignation would not take effect.
However, courts have held that the minute that the board is notified, the director is deemed to have resigned. This is unless the constitution of the business requires permission from the board for the director to resign. The fact that the company is unlisted means that there would be fewer impediments to any resignation by the director. In the resignation letter, Marlow can opt to put the resignation subject to the permission of the board. It is important to avoid placing the approval as a condition. This is because if they reject the resignation, then Marlow would be forced to continue with his duties.
Corporations Act 2001
The statute prevails over any articles of association made by the company. This is unless the law has deferred to the agreements by the corporation as governing the particular aspect. In section 194, it details the voting method when a director has a proprietary interest in the investment opportunity. It requires that the first issue is that the director has to reveal his interest in the matter. This involves explaining the amount and how it relates to the company. If it was applicable to this situation, my answer would change. I would advise Marlow that he does not need to resign. This is because he can vote for the opportunity despite any objections by his partners. Since he owns sixty-seven percent of the shares, he can push the transaction through. He would have to call a meeting of the board then disclose his interest before requesting for a vote.
The identifiable reasons that would allow Marlow to resign from the company are twofold. In the first place, he believes he has identified a more promising career opportunity. In particular, he is going to be part of another venture. The other explanation is the disagreement with the board about the future direction that the company should take. Marlow has the option of selling, transferring or keeping his shares in the company. The constitution of the company is the key in identifying whether the resigning director has to dispose of his shares. However, since the fact pattern is silent on the issue, it means the choice is up to Marlow on what to do with his shares. He has liberty to dispose of them. He could choose to continue holding the shares and remain a member of the corporation.
Bhagat, S., Carey, D.C. and Elson, C.M., 1998. Director ownership, corporate performance, and management turnover. Bus. Law., 54, p.885.
Birds, J. ed., 2004. Boyle & Birds’ Company Law. Jordans.
Deakin, S.F., Morris, G.S. and Morris, G.S., 2005. Labourlaw(p. 386). Oxford: Hart publishing.
Question 2[393 words]
The issue to be determined is the suitability of setting up a company for Ellis and Sam’s venture.
Rules and Application
Salomon V Salomon Case
The plaintiff had established his company and changed it from a sole proprietorship. The members were his family, including him. The corporation paid Salomon for the transfer through a secured debenture. When the company was being liquidated, Salomon’s fee placed him at a priority to creditors who did not have security. Since Salomon owned the majority shares, the creditors sued him intending to extend the liability to Salomon. The House of Lords ruled that because it was incorporated, the company was a separate person. Salomon could therefore, not be held personally liable for any debts incurred by the corporation.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Incorporation
The first type of company they could form is a private limited company. In this case, the members have full liability for any debts incurred. This means that when winding up, the shareholder’s assets could be seized to pay the creditors. The first advantage of incorporation is that it sets up the company as a legal person. This means that it would be separate from its shareholders. In essence, they would not be liable for any activities of the corporation. The second advantage is that even on death of the members, the company would continue to exist. It is also possible for a company to own property. The other advantage is that it can sue or be sued. The public limited company is another option. This means they would open their shares to the public. It can raise finances through numerous methods such as sale of shares, debentures or get bank loans easily. The main disadvantage of a company is the high cost of setting it up. There are numerous fees for the lawyers and necessary paperwork. A company belongs to the shareholders according to the number of shares they hold. Any sale of their shares would mean that they lose power in running the affairs of the company. This is because they would be submitted to a vote of the shareholders. It would also result in a board being set up, which may not include Sam and Ellis. It is possible for the court to lift the veil.
From the above analysis, it is clear that incorporation is the best option.
Hamlin, F., 1972. Advantages and disadvantages of incorporation. The Veterinary clinics of North America, 2(3), pp.449-462.
Rea, R.C., 1963. Advantages and disadvantages of incorporation. Journal of Accountancy (pre-1986), 115(000004), p.80.
Question 3[374 words]
The issue in this question is the applicability of Section 588GA of the Corporation Act
Corporation Act 2001
Section 588GA discusses any measures undertaken in order to save the company. The provision takes effect when a person learns that the company may end up insolvent. It then provides for the acceptable actions in order to rescue it. The section defines the better outcome as a result in which the administration or liquidation would not happen immediately. This includes delaying the insolvency of the corporation. The other requirement in order to rely on the provisions of the section, it is necessary for the individual to take the actions within a reasonable period. It imposes the evidentiary burden on the individual responsible. It also sets out the method of determining whether the activities would lead to a better outcome for the corporation. I will review whether Lola can rely on the statutory protection offered.
In this case, Lola meets the first two requirements since she was advised about the possible outcome of insolvency. It is also evident that her actions were made with the intention of saving the company. It means she wanted a better outcome. She started her activities in May, and the company was wound up in September. She delayed the liquidation by about four to five months. Since she was informed in late April and implemented them in May, the period taken is less than thirty days. This means that she acted within a reasonable period of time. In the first place, Lola informed herself of the financial position of the company. By convincing the Chief Financial Officer to resign, she also took steps to ensure there would be no misconduct by employees of the organization. By giving the books to the accountant, Lola took steps to ensure that the financial records of the corporation were kept appropriately. Considering the small nature of the business, it is evident that she chose a method of keeping records that is consistent with the size of the business. The mentor has to satisfy the condition of being a qualified individual.
It is evident that the plan was intended to rescue the corporation by improving its position financially hence section 588GA is applicable.
Finch, V. and Milman, D., 2017. Corporate insolvency law: perspectives and principles. Cambridge University Press.
Swire, P.P., 1993. Reply: Safe Harbors and a Proposal to Improve the Community Reinvestment Act. Virginia Law Review, pp.349-382.
You are the senior partner of a large accounting firm based primarily
critical analysis 3 Essay Business Assignment Help You are the senior partner of a large accounting firm based primarily in the UK but with branch offices in several parts of the world. Most of your staff are working in your audit, tax and sustainability advisory departments with clients who are either major UK listed companies or their employees.
You should prepare a detailed briefing document for your staff which addresses ONE current or emerging issue in
C) corporate or personal taxation.
Consideration should be given to relevant theoretical underpinnings and practical considerations. Only one current or emerging issue is to be selected.
You may not choose either of the topics that were given as choices for the Formative Assessment (不能選遺產稅!!). You may choose any topic covered in the course or another contemporary issue in taxation of your choice.
Good starting points for further information on your chosen topic include:
the website of the IFRS Foundation – http://www.ifrs.org – which lists a number of financial reporting projects both past and present with which the IFRS Foundation and its associated bodies are engaged.
the website of the International Integrated Reporting Council (http://integratedreporting.org/),
the Global Reporting Initiative (https://www.globalreporting.org/Pages/default.aspx) – which includes reports/frameworks on recent developments and research.
the tax pages of the website of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – http://www.oecd.org/tax/ – which provide data, guidance and discussions on a range of tax and tax related topics.
the website of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW), which provides guidance on professional ethics for accountants; this includes specific guidance on professional ethics for tax accountants:
Your briefing paper should comprise a coherent and critical appraisal of relevant academic, professional and regulatory literature on your chosen issue.
The purpose of the briefing paper is to update your staff on why this topic is important, the background to the current practice and policy situation, a critique of current practice and policy and any likely future changes.
Electronic copies of your detailed briefing paper should be submitted.
Overall word limit, 2500 words maximum.
The word count should (字數計算規定)
Include all the text, including title, preface, introduction, in-text citations, quotations, footnotes and any other item not specifically excluded below.
Exclude diagrams, tables (including tables/lists of contents and figures), equations, executive summary/abstract, acknowledgements, declaration, bibliography/list of references and appendices.
However, it is not appropriate to use diagrams or tables merely as a way of circumventing the word limit. If a student uses a table or figure as a means of presenting his/her own words, then this is included in the word count.
Research Proposal 8 Graphic Design Research Proposal 1 GRAPHIC DESIGN RESEARCH PROPOSAL
Research Proposal 8
Graphic Design Research Proposal 1
GRAPHIC DESIGN RESEARCH PROPOSAL
This research proposal is concerned with the area of advertising and graphic design. Advertising refers to the art of promoting various products to the consumer market. It does this through direct communication with consumers in the market. This communication is in a bid to woo or attract customers. Graphics are texts and images that are used to ensure efficient communication. Examples of graphics include: pictures, diagrams, maps, geometric and line art, symbols and numbers.
Graphic design refers the skill of creatively employing graphics on advertising material to attract consumers (Barnard, 2013). Graphic design can be found in places such as books, brochures fliers and billboards. This research aims at answering the following questions: first, what is the relationship between graphic design and advertising? Second, what is the role of graphic design in advertising? Third, how do changes in trends of graphic design affect the advertising industry? Fourth, how effective is the employment of graphic design in advertising?
Several doctrinal areas will be helpful to my research. These include: economics, sociology, aesthetics and psychology. All these fields have a role to play in the advertising industry. All firms must have a grasp of these fields to ensure that they effectively employ graphic designs to advertising.
Economics refers to the philosophy of production, distribution and consumption of products in the market. It is the science that analyses the conversion of raw materials to finish products that are used to satisfy the consumer demands. This will an understanding of the consumer behaviour (Solomon et al. 2014). Understanding consumer behaviour will help establish whether advertising is effective or not.
Sociology refers to the study of the existence and functioning of the human society as a whole. The human society is a web of social relationships that are dependent. These social relationships are the fabric that holds human society together. Psychology refers to the study of the functioning of the human brain. The human brain is the organ that determines human behaviour. Sociology and psychology will help identify consumer patterns (Mullen and Johnson 2013). Identification of consumer patterns will act as a plumb line against which effectiveness of advertising can be measured.
Aesthetics refers to the establishment and synthesis of artistic expressions. Graphics are a form of art. Art has to be creative and meaningful. This field will help analyse the use of art in graphic designs. It will also help identify various trends followed in the graphic design industry. It will help analyse how graphics are effectively and efficiently employed to come up with quality advertising material.
There exists a relationship between graphic design and advertising. Graphic design in advertising is a way of communication to the consumers (Barnard, 2013). It employs visual capabilities. Through this way of communication, a business is able to market its products. Graphic design is therefore a channel through which businesses are able to communicate to its customers. Graphic design is therefore very essential to advertising. Advertising influences graphic design. Graphic designs also influence and affect the advertising industry. Being a digital era, graphic design goes to the very core of the advertising scene. This relationship is as discussed below.
Graphic design is effective in advertising as it uses graphics that are easy to understand and interpret (Poulin, 2011). The use of graphics aids in this. Images and texts are employed in a creative manner to ensure proper understanding. The art in graphics is easy for the human brain to interpret and understand. Due to ease in understanding, more customers are attracted to the products being advertised. The more the customers, the higher the profit margin for the firm. This proves effective and efficient use of advertising.
Firms employ graphic designs in advertising as a competitive strategy. This leads to emergence of various new trends in graphic designs (Meggs and Purvis 2011). Firms that operate in the same consumer market must employ competitive strategies. These strategies will ensure that they gain competitive advantage. This is to make sure that they dominate the consumer market. One of these strategies is the use of the most efficient graphic designs. This results in innovation and development of new creative ways of the use of graphics. New trends emerge as a result.
Trends in the graphic design world in turn determine the whole scene in the advertising industry. For example, in this year, the glitch effect has gained popularity amongst the graphic design and advertising industry. Most firms found new ways to use and employ this design in their advertising material. Advertising as a result is an industry that is ever evolving and changing (Dahlen and Rosengren 2016). New trends come and others fade away and are no longer in use. Some trends however, re-emerge. An example of this is the 80’s and 90’s Retro that has gained popularity this year. The emergence and re-emergence of various trends results in the growth of the advertising industry.
Graphic designs vary. Each field of advertising has its own rules of employment of graphics (Lupton, 2014). Graphics employ visual communication. The typography employed depends on the nature and type of advertising involved. This shows that advertising too has a role to play in determining the kind and type of graphics to be employed in an advertising material. An illustration is where advertising is required for funeral services and for a party. The graphics employed in the advertising for funeral services will most likely be moody and dull. The graphics employed in the advertising for a party will be vibrant and joyful.
The advertising industry is one that is regulated by laws and policies. It is subject to regulation by various authorities. In the United Kingdom, the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) is in charge. It regulated the advertising industry and makes sure that quality and ethical advertisements are put out. In employing graphics, one must make sure that they adhere to any laws and regulations required (Golombisky and Hagen 2013). This calls for careful and mindful development of graphic designs to be used for advertising. The various aspects such as space and color should be compliant with any statutory rules developed concerning them (White, 2011). Laws governing the advertising industry therefore have power to determine how graphic designs are to be developed and employed.
The quality of graphics employed determine the effectiveness of advertising (Bestley and Noble 2016). The development of clear, meaningful graphics ensures efficient visual communication. This in turn leads to effective advertising. Use of vague, meaningless graphics leads to poor visual communication. Poor visual communication results in inefficient advertising. Graphic designers therefore should produce high quality graphic designs that will in turn ensure effective advertising.
Advertising requires creativity. Graphics design provide an avenue which marketers and advertisers can showcase their creativity (Lidwell and Butler 2010). Creativity ensures competitive advantage. This is because new and better ways of attracting customers are devised. This leads to increased customers and high profit margins. Graphics design is a great avenue for a firm to exercise creativity to gain competition advantage. It therefore leads to creativity in the advertising industry. They are a symbol of creativity employed in marketing. The more creative the marketers of a firm are, the higher the competitive advantage.
Graphics being an instrument of visual communication, have the ability to influence and manipulate the human psychology (Elder and Krishna 2011). This is because graphics easily catch the attention of consumers. They also register strongly with the human mind. This is used by firms to their advantage. They can easily manipulate the feelings, emotions and outlook of consumers through employment of graphics in advertising material. They can easily entice and attract customers. This leads to efficient advertising. They are however subject to regulation as earlier mentioned. They are not supposed to deceive. Liability results if the graphics deceive the consumers on the characteristics of the product being advertised. Regulations require that advertisements portray the true nature and characteristics of products being advertised.
Graphic designs offer mobility to advertising (Dabner and Vickress 2017). Graphics are very mobile. They can be put on various objects such as billboards, mugs, books, bottles and clothes. Graphics can be employed on and off the internet. This makes them very flexible. They can be employed on a very wide range of products. This therefore means that advertising is made more mobile. Advertising can be done on a very wide range of products. It is not just limited to writing alone. Graphics have enabled advertising to be done online not just offline. This has resulted in the growth of the advertising industry as a whole. Graphics therefore promote growth and development of the advertising industry.
Graphic design is the modern form of visual communication. The digital age is here with us and therefore employment of graphic designs in advertising is inevitable. Firms should therefore incorporate it in their advertisement strategies. This will ensure that they have effective advertisement. This means that they will get return on investment used on the advertising process. Employment of graphic designs lead to effective advertisement.
Barnard, M., 2013. Graphic design as communication. Routledge.
Bestley, R. and Noble, I., 2016. Visual research: An introduction to research methods in graphic design. Bloomsbury Publishing.
Dabner, D., Stewart, S. and Vickress, A., 2017. Graphic design school: the principles and practice of graphic design. John Wiley & Sons.
Dahlen, M. and Rosengren, S., 2016. If advertising won’t die, what will it be? Toward a working definition of advertising. Journal of Advertising, 45(3), pp.334-345.
Elder, R.S. and Krishna, A., 2011. The “visual depiction effect” in advertising: Facilitating embodied mental simulation through product orientation. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(6), pp.988-1003.
Golombisky, K. and Hagen, R., 2013. White space is not your enemy: A beginner’s guide to communicating visually through graphic, web & multimedia design. Focal Press.
Lidwell, W., Holden, K. and Butler, J., 2010. Universal principles of design, revised and updated: 125 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design decisions, and teach through design. Rockport Pub.
Lupton, E., 2014. Thinking with type: A critical guide for designers, writers, editors & students. Chronicle Books.
Meggs, P.B. and Purvis, A.W., 2011. Meggs’ history of graphic design. John Wiley & Sons.
Mullen, B. and Johnson, C., 2013. The psychology of consumer behaviour. Psychology Press.
Poulin, R., 2011. The language of graphic design: An illustrated handbook for understanding fundamental design principles. Rockport Publishers.
Solomon, M.R., Dahl, D.W., White, K., Zaichkowsky, J.L. and Polegato, R., 2014. Consumer behaviour: Buying, having, and being (Vol.10). London: Pearson.
White, A.W., 2011. The elements of graphic design: space, unity, page architecture, and type. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
Case Study 8 Q1: Cultural intelligence abilities Cultural intelligence drive; this refers
Case Study 8
Q1: Cultural intelligence abilities
Cultural intelligence drive; this refers to the personal motivation that one can draw upon to drive her desire to build competences in effective functioning across a diverse cultural setting. Lisa could be motivated by her intrinsic interests for international travel and free time on her hands to explore and enjoy the new cities. By joining the Bryn-Mawr Country Club in Philadelphia (US); the MacDougall’s were motivated by a desire to expand their cultural experiences by directly interacting with their local American neighbours, as opposed to restricting their experiences to an expatriate community. This would boost her self-confidence as well as self-efficacy in international mobility and cultural exchanges. These qualities would make her an invaluable addition at a multinational’s team, while her abilities ensure a conducive work environment where cultural diversity is embraced.
Cognitive cultural intelligence; this refers to a mastery of business, interpersonal and socio-linguistic pro and cons of a particular culture. By amassing knowledge on the relative similarities and differences between various culture, Lisa would be uniquely qualified in integrating her global cultural experiences into the work environment. These abilities are essential in the development of functional global teams, and drawing synergies despite the members diverse cultural backgrounds. This ability would be particularly important for Lisa in her quest to establish the cultural stereotypes and barriers to employment that she would face in China. Her love for foreign travel and ‘hobby Mandarin’ would suffice as the foundational background upon which she can build on her cultural knowledge of China’s economic and legislative landscapes, as well as interpersonal values, social norms and beliefs.
Strategic cultural intelligence; this calls for the immersion of an expatriate into a diverse cultural setting in order to make sensible judgement about their experiences. For Lisa to develop cultural intelligence strategy; she would have to develop an innate understanding and appreciation of the existing cultural setting. Second; she has to adequately plan about probable cultural interactions, and be appreciative of the process as a life-long learning process where actual experiences may differ from cultural expectations.
Actionable cultural intelligence; having amassed a cultural drive, knowledge and strategic focus, Lisa would be better placed to develop verbal and non-verbal ‘adopted behaviour’. In the international workplace; cultural intelligence for action is a sort-after ability that would permit Lisa to genuinely interact with persons (clients) from diverse cultural backgrounds. This is a critical ability in the creation of meaningful bonds and client relationships at a given work environment. For instance; Lisa’s role as an early career researcher (in Singapore) required that she interacts with other researchers from diverse cultural settings. The efficacy of their research work as a team would be directly impacted by the team’s working environment, more so their behavioural interactions. Productivity would be enhanced when all researchers in the team have mastered behavioural flexibilities to accommodate the different cultures present at the workplace.
Q2: Contemporary issues facing businesses
Talent management; today’s businesses are increasingly faced with the challenge of maintain a productive workforce across their domestic and global operations. Talent management is an integral part of increasing productivity especially for businesses keen on growing their global footprint. Operating in an international setting requires a unique set of competences, including cultural intelligence and strategic focus, which directly impacts on the labour demand at the international workplace. This demanding labour requirements at the global stage have varied impacts on the career paths of expatriates. Those who have the desired competences like Lachlan experience an upward trajectory in their career paths, whereas those who were ill-prepared like Lisa end up giving up their career paths to accompany their partners as trailing spouses.
Growing operational costs; ‘expat packages’ are becoming expensive for businesses with global operations to sustain, and as such, more of their international moves are facilitated on a local or local-plus package. Despite their effort to minimize on their operational costs, relocation expenses are an essential item for any of their employees considering taking international assignments. Many global companies are also looking for a combination of skillsets that would enable their employees to operate effectively at the global stage, and they are willing to meet associated costs. Lachlan’s rare skillset characterized by family mobility and growing cultural intelligence had interested a number of head-hunters, in Singapore, keen to secure his coveted services.
Taxation; the applicable tax regimes in different jurisdictions is a critical element for consideration by both businesses and employees. High corporate taxation greatly influences where local firms chose to set up base for their global operations, and this directly determines the spots available in international workstations. Similarly; local employees considering taking up international assignments will gravitate towards countries with low income tax regimes. For instance; an international move to China without the local-plus package which facilitated Lachlan’s tax equalization benefit, would have been impossible given the country’s high-income tax rate -about 50 percent- compared to Singapore’s 20%. Consequently; Lachlan’s career would have taken a different path away from the ‘highly taxed’ Chinese workplace, in favour of Singapore or even Sydney.
Q3: Impact of travel on career and personal life
Loss of personal and career identity; Having not worked full-time for over 6-years, in the US, Lisa felt invisible and increasingly frustrated. The international moves could not let her anchor down a career in a field she loved -research- but rather, she was relegated to being ‘Lachlan’s wife’ and attending the less-interesting charity works often designated for old, trailing spouses of expatriates. The frequent travel of her expatriate husband also left her behind feeling bored and constrained. The element of loss of identity is evidenced by Lisa’s surprise to the fact that being a ‘trailing spouse’ was a fact that no longer bother her, as it would have a few years ago – during their first international move. She even laments on her lack of a job title or business card to her own persona, further underscoring a sense of loss of identity.
Disruption of her family unit; the international travel also threatened the cohesion of her family unit. Lisa wanted the best education for her two daughters, just like any parent would, but the international travel could no longer guarantee her a level of stability and certainty that she deemed conducive to bring up a family. For instance; she was concerned that a move to Shanghai would not provide her with the most conducive environment to take her budding career to the next level, partly due to her Mandarin-communication challenges. In light of this; a move to China would be a big career gamble, as she was not convinced that she could secure another job on relatively permanent terms. She was also not convinced that uprooting her daughters from arguably the best school in Asia was the best move to make at the onset of their schooling life. With these uncertainties, Lisa struggled to find reason why the whole family had to move to China whereas on Lachlan’s career seemed like the outright beneficiary of this international move.
Rented housing; the international move from Sydney to Chicago (US) exposed the MacDougall’s making necessary adjustments from own housing to rented units. However; Lisa’s concerns over the impermanence of living in a rented house, and all its ‘inconveniences’, were heightened as she contemplated the probable move from Singapore to China, given that they now had two more family members (Amelia and Emily) to consider. Given that she was now raising a family, Lisa preferred having their own home to renting, but international travel on local-terms could not guarantee own-housing given the limitation of different visa STATUS. In Chicago; their visa status could not allow Lisa to work nor the MacDougall’s town a home, and she (Lisa) feared the same could be replicated in China more so with housing.
Financial dependence; the general disruptions, of international travel, on Lisa’s career brought about an increasing financial dependence on Lachlans’s career. As her husband’s career flourished ‘on the road’, her professional career tanked as she could work while in Chicago and so did her financial freedom. Lisa affirmed that she had lost her voice with regards to family decisions where financial considerations were pertinent given her new-found role as the supportive non-working spouse.
Q4: Repatriation issues
Loss of personal identity; Lisa observed that repatriation was no longer an issue that featured in their considerations for international moves. She feared that this would forever relegate her to a ‘Mrs Nobody’ given that she identified herself to a large part by her career, back in Sydney. Unfortunately; this career was fast slipping away by every subsequent international move, and her financial independence with it too. However; thanks to her own efforts to turn the tide around, Lisa choose to further her education and attained a doctorate. This allowed her to delve, as an insider, into a field of research that she was quite well-served with. As a researcher on expatriate matters; Lisa was able to reinvent herself, and gradually her career begun to gather momentum – She was attending international conferences as a guest speaker, on the subject matter, and writing articles in industry periodicals. She was also able to secure a part-time teaching job at John Cambell College. Singapore had allowed Lisa to regain her career footing, and reclaimed part of her self-esteem and lost identity, but the impeding move to China threatened to, once again, undo these gains.
Proximity to family and friends; one of Lisa’s greatest concern with their international moves was how much they had drifted away from their friends and close relatives in Sydney. In her reflection of the impeding move to Shanghai, Lisa acknowledged that relocating to China would bring their family close to Australia. This proximity of China to Australia would allow the MacDougall’s to visit the close friends and family, back in Sydney, without expatriation.
Dimmed career prospects; the MacDougall’s international moves had exposed them to high flying global career prospects, given their acquired set of unique skills including family mobility and cultural intelligence. Lisa observed that her husband’s career trajectory to a Regional VP of a Singaporean SME, could comfortably support their ‘expat lifestyle’ despite being there on a local package. Lachlan was earning more than his wife, Lisa, could have ever earned as a tenured professor. Consequently; repatriation to Sydney would translate to extinguishing their ‘on the road’ global career prospects to facilitate their settling down in Australia or another newfound home.
Cultural identity for her daughters; having been on the road since they were born, Amelia and Emily, had no country to call ‘home’ despite their dual Australian-British citizenship. Lisa was concerned that raising her children as ‘third culture kids’ exposed them to psychological and emotional stresses, that would interfere with their culture identity. Given the daughters were in their formative childhood years, Lisa was weary that the international moves would entrench a sense of rootlessness and migratory instinct. In light of this; repatriation would be a good thing for the MacDougall’s, as it would help anchor down, and integrate, their daughters into a local culture and embrace its identities.
Q5: Issues affecting women
Disruption to their career prospects; the intrigues of the international workplace can result in disruption of otherwise well-placed women careers. Management consultancy is a high-flying career in Australia, and Lisa would have fairly relatively well in her ‘home’ country. She could also have continued with the education, and upgraded her competences along her career path and secured more financial independence at her home. However; the career disruptions to women at the global marketplace may import artificial barriers for their progression into an essential part of global management teams. In light of this; Lisa lamented that the duality of being a career woman, and at the same time, a trailing spouse was not an easy fete to accomplish as many times the two factors acted against each other. It was important for women in the international workplace to strike a balance between supporting their spouses, and at the pursuing their own career interests.
Relegation to supportive non-working wives; most often than not, it is the women who are ‘forced’ to give up their local careers in support of their spouses’ ‘on the road’ careers. When Lachlan stumbled upon an opportunity for an international move, Lisa had begun charting her own career path as a management consultant but had to give it up in support of her husband’s career move to Chicago. In the international workplace; there are also limited career opportunities for trailing spouses, who many a times happen to be women. In Chicago; the MacDougall’s visa permit could not allow Lisa to work in the US, and as such, she had time on her hands to explore the new city and its cultural settings.
Career reinventions; the renowned author, Robin Pascoe, recounted how having been ‘on the road’ with her foreign-service spouse, she had to reinvent herself several times. Her career journey having started as a journalist, to a public speaker and finally author-publisher. The career reinventions are driven by the challenges and opportunities present in the international workplace, and the unique skillsets that these women pick up in the international travel assignments. In similar fashion; Lisa had undergone a career metamorphosis from a management consultant in Sydney, to a trailing-spouse in the US and researcher in Singapore. Women professionals who have reinvented their careers by developing essential skills like cultural intelligence and international mobility are better placed to become an integral part of global management teams.