Prevalence In female criminality crime In the US and the UK
According to Kim and Merlo (2014) report addressing female offenders in the US, a general reduction in female offenders between 2015 and 2019. Further, while reporting on property crimes on whether there is a gender difference in the probability of being arrested based on extensive administrative data set for the US, Kim and Merlo (2014) find a high gender probability of arrest. The researchers outlined several explanations for this fact, including ability, choices, effort, search costs and the underlying risk aversions. These findings, however, diverge from the claims by Becker & McCorkel (2011) and Banarjee, Islam & Khatun (2015), who argues that women are more likely to receive shorter sentences. In some instances, some of the women are not sentenced to serve a jail term.
Additionally, the scholars posit that judges and police officials tend to be more lenient with female criminals conferring an advantage on women regarding the expected implications of engaging in criminal activities. The study by Barberet (2014) and Brennan et al. (2012) however, reject the assertions by Kim and Merlo (2014), the researchers claim that based on the data from both the US and the UK, the study demonstrates an increased rate of female criminality in both countries. Thus the study recommends further empirical investigation that compares the criminality among women in the UK and that of the USA and whether the number of crimes committed by women has been on the rise.
female criminality in the UK and the US. history homework: history homework
Causes of female criminality in the UK and the US
Regarding the causes of female criminality, the primary source by Wijkman and Kleemans (2019) explains that most women engage in crime due to several factors including, the probability of being caught and ending up behind bars, the profit margin of engaging in this criminal activity. The study further showed that women engage in criminality due to economic constraints and impairment in social and economic backgrounds. In agreement with these findings, Banarjee, Islam & Khatun (2015, p.14) associates socio-economic responsibilities and judiciary leniency to changes in social roles in modern society and technological advancements to female criminality. The researcher also argues that modern trends have created more social freedom for women away from traditional housekeeping roles. Also, conforming to the primary data, Von Lampe (2012, p.62) claims that the judiciary, on its part, still demonstrates some level of leniency and impartiality when dealing with female offenders. Additionally, Kim and Merlo (2014) also allude that female criminality can result from biological factors as explained by the individual-level perspective. Von Lampe (2012, p.65) agree with these claims by alleging that women are therefore more sensitive to pain than men; thus, women are more deficient in moral senses, like revenge and jealousy, and are therefore bound to engage in cruel vengeance.
Wijkman and Kleemans (2019) suggest that female criminality is expressed differently using the orientation roles of men and women. According to them, women take up several duties and roles that only men initially held; hence, they will face men in most criminal activity, although delinquency by men was more influential than women’s delinquency. To this extent, sex roles are seen as multidimensional in criminality since the attitude liberated towards the family and work are not related to delinquency in women as delinquent behaviour in women was associated with their behaviours. In support of these claims, Carson (2020, p.18) asserts that a change in opportunity amid perception will ultimately increase women’s crime. The author also says that women have naturally branded themselves to be committing those crimes that were initially their criminal and noncriminal capabilities. On the same note, Naffine (2015, p.18) supports the above claims by arguing that most women’s criminalities resulted from more restricted access women had towards social reward and satisfaction as men were assigned to the public sphere while the women to private arenas, which was viewed as a matter of economic discrimination.
According to Kim and Merlo (2014. p.45) and Von Lampe (2012; p.27), it is alleged that several biological explanations, including the physiological reasoning nature of women, account for female criminality. Wijkman and Kleemans (2019) also add that most female criminality occurred when women are in peer groups and that most girls say they are not likely to cause a problem when they are in the company of just one male. Kajustura (2019: p.21) associates with these findings by claiming that the female criminality as observed from several perspectives, including the relevance of structured sex roles, reveal that women undergoing menstruation may be exposed to stressful events, and the menstruation period, together with the accompanying symptoms, result in social influence. However, the researcher acknowledges that it is not clear enough to assume that menstruation directly causes criminal behaviour since none of the studies has been conducted to investigate menstruation’s impact on female criminality. ThusThe author also confirms that menstruation cannot explain why there are lower rates in female criminality than in men; or does it account for much variance in female criminality claims supported by Chesney-Lind & Pasko (2012, p.38).
Lynch, Stretesky & Long (2016, p.85) investigated the delinquent acts, and group nature among low-class girls in their teens’ age revealed that those who were part of a regular group were likely to be more delinquent. The research also showed that the groups liked spending more leisure time together. Thus, the researchers show that girls are most likely to involve a crime whenever there are groups of mixed-sexes, of which there was a stronger relationship between the whites than the blacks. Lynch, Stretesky & Long (2016, p.85) confirm that considering both delinquent and non-delinquent groups, the girls who had non-romantic boyfriends were more delinquent compared to others; this perceived that men would serve to educate women in some contexts of co-existence. The researcher further concluded that based on the micro-level analysis, it is suggested that women’s criminality occurs when women are in these peer groups with male members acting as educators or representing delinquent role models.
Several challenges that limit an individual’s capacity. help with history assignment
The preparation process is intricate and requires an in-depth understanding of the concept that an individual intends to present. Several challenges that limit an individual’s capacity to present an effective and impassioned speech exist, including stage fright, unclear goals, limited ideas, fear of early judgement and playing the devil’s advocate, lacking imagination, cognitive bias and abundance of idea killers. While I may be confident in person, I suffer from intense stage fright. My preparation is hampered by my underlying fear of presenting a speech to a large audience. I will overcome this problem through continuous practice and developing an in-depth understanding of the subject. I also so frequently have an immense challenge with goal setting. While I may be aware of the topic of the speech, the primary objective of selecting the topic is often unclear. As a result, I only select subjects that I’m passionate about or which I am convinced have an immense impact on the audience. I commonly develop writer’s block and run out of ideas prematurely, resulting in a lengthy preparation period. Whenever I settle to develop a topic, I struggle to select the most suitable for the specific context. I will overcome this problem by developing a pre-defined list with numerous ideas from which I can select. Of my biggest fears is being judged or negatively perceived by the audience. I am frightened by the prospect of being considered boring, too serious or lacking imagination. As a result, I often prepare adequately and extensively. I frequently play the devil’s advocate and exhibit a cognitive bias where I consider certain ideas unfeasible before exploring them. In such instances, I examine the concepts intricately and discard those without a strong evidence basis.
The topic of cultural diversity. help with history assignment: help with history assignment
The topic of cultural diversity, multiculturalism, and globalization have been proven to be an interconnected array of topics. Using the perspective of the properties of cultural diversity, we can conclude that globalization influences culture to steer it into a stage that it had never been before. In today’s world, several people have assimilated several different cultures to their way of life. This paper also shows the importance of shifting our view of globalization, which destroys culture into one that offers exchange and interaction.
Mortality and mobility from chronic illnesses. as history essay help
The book looks at nutrition and diet as vital controllers of mortality and mobility from chronic illnesses and the high levels of biomolecules in dietary vegetables and fruits essential in health maintenance. The author successfully brings together different ideologies from different scholars on the various aspects of foods, supplements, and plant extraction, all to promote healthy practices.
Fortunately, the author does provide the most concise, current, scientific evaluations of the efficacy of crucial constituents and foods medicine in dietary plants in preventing illnesses and enhancing a good lifestyle. Finally, does usher in new theories and a more comprehensive conclusion on the impact of the various bioactive component on what we consume, particularly from fruits and vegetables, to enhance good health.