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CREATIVITY IN ADVERTISEMENT African History Assignment Help


UNDERSTANDING ABOUT A CAR DETAIL as history essay help: as history essay help

How often should I detail my car?

We love our cars. They help us run our daily errands with convenience. Years of car use can take a toll on the appearance of our vehicles. As a precious possession, we desire to maintain the vehicle’s condition in both the interior and exterior. If you desire to keep the car looking brand new and maintain the refreshing smell, you need to complete a car detail.

What is a car detail?

A car detail goes beyond the regular washing of the vehicle. It entails a thorough vehicle cleaning both on the outside and the inside of the car. It serves to improve the overall appearance of the vehicle giving it an uplifting look and feel. Many experts provide different methods of car detailing. The detailing package depends on the auto shop you choose.

Most car owners ignore car detailing. If your vehicle is splattered with bird waste and tree sap, it is time to consider proper detailing. If the excess heat, rain, and fust have compromised your car’s comfort, you also need to consider a car detail and regain your car’s freshness and warmth. Investing in your car’s aesthetics is essential.

How often should you detail your car?

The appropriate intervals for car detailing are a subjective issue. Most experts recommend detailing every four to six months. However, car detailing depends on the common environment where you drive your vehicle and your habits as the driver. If you live in places where there is constant rain or use hard tap water in washing your car, spots might form on the paintwork and the windows. A regular detail in such a scenario is essential to eradicate possible stains on both the vehicle’s exteriors and interiors.

If you are a tidy person who cleans their car daily or weekly intensive detailing is okay three to four times a year. However, if you are not keen on cleaning your car, scheduling regular professional detailing is important. Daily use of the vehicle further dictates the detailing schedule. When it comes to car detailing, it can never be too much. The more you use the car, the more the internal and external components are prone to wear. A professional detail is recommended to ensure a proper vehicle revamp each time.

A professional auto detailer pays attention to detail and restores the aesthetics conditions of the vehicle. If funds are not an issue for you, getting your car detailed often is a great option.The constant the detail, the better the condition of your vehicle.

Importance of car details

Car details help in maintaining a flawless look of the vehicle despite constant use and age. Apart from the looks, car details eliminate possible contaminants on both the inside and outside of the car. The car is exposed to harmful contaminants throughout the day. Detailing is a great strategy in preserving leather, vinyl and paint on the vehicle.

A car detail enhances the vehicle’s performance. It helps maintain a smooth and comfortable ride to the occupants. It leaves the vehicle smelling fresh, and the airflow makes the ride a nice experience. Despite the cosmetic value, a car detail dust, dirt and other grime build up on the car’s exterior. It cools the engine and makes the ride smoother.

Thorough and constant car detailing is a great strategy ideal in maintaining the value of the car. Reselling the vehicle becomes easy since it’s well-maintained to match the market needs. If your car is among your prized-possession, invest and schedule regular detailing as important car maintenance.


The normal vitals sign for infant’s toddlers history assignment help online

Vital signs consist of blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and respiration rate. It is important to understand your individual’s vital signs ranges since it enables one to identify the issues at the right time and be able to encounter the problems before they get worse.

The normal vitals sign for infant’s toddlers include;

i) Respiration rate. For 0 to 6 months, toddlers have 30 to 60 breaths per minute (bpm), while those between half to one year have 24 to 30 bpm. For preschoolers of 1-5 years should have a range of 20-30 bpm, while 6-11 years have 12-20 bpm. The respiration range for school-age teens is 12-18 bpm.

Ii) Heart rate. Infant toddlers” normal range is 100 to 160 beats per minute. The preschoolers’ normal range is 70-120 bpm. For school age, the normal range is 60-100 bpm.

iii) Temperature. The normal range for both infant toddlers, preschool kids, and teens in school is 97.4 to 99.6 F. All ages have an average temperature of 98.6 F.

iv) Blood pressure. The normal range of BP for 0 to 6 months toddlers is 65 to 90/45 to 65 mm Hg, while for those between 6 to 12 months is 80 to 100/55 to 65 mm Hg. For preschoolers, the normal blood pressure range is 90 to 110/55 to 75 mm Hg, while for school ages, it is 110 to 135/65 to 85 mm Hg.


Daymont, C., Bonafide, C. P., & Brady, P. W. (2015). Heart rates in hospitalized children by age and body temperature. Pediatrics, 135(5), e1173-e1181.


The Religious perspective on spirituality history assignment help: history assignment help

Religious perspective on spirituality and ethical nature is determined by Christianity. It resists that spirituality is a theological and religious prism that describes God’s concept in terms of how, who, and what. God is observed as an omnipotent and eternal being over everyone and everything. Christians believe that God exists as the father, son and Holy Spirit. In nursing, the love of God is seen in a whole person. Patients are given high respect and treated as living things because they are formed in God’s willingness and image. Conversely, postmodern relativism argues that there is no existence of truth on earth. It argues that facts are conceived and not discovered. Markedly, relativism suggests that only individual reasons exist. According to relativism, humans live not in a more special case than other living and non-living organisms. Therefore, in the nursing field, everyone finds it hard to work in a place with little truth and murder is not seen as a wrong thing.
Scientism refers to a belief that all things can only be described using the concept of science. For instance, people who trust in religion get information through societies that have passed many eras. Scientism fully relies on the view that knowledge can only be assimilated through science, which is the opposite of faith and Christians. Scientism arguments propose that there is life after death and that God is in control of all of us. Science denies the fact that there are supernatural powers since it involves what is seen. However, life after death, reincarnation may be considered scientific. The process of reincarnation is yet to be proven, but some scientists and Christians support it. Scientists also argue that Christianity should never limit the way one reason; hence it should set one free to appreciate things surrounding them.
ultimate reality refers to the act of having the creator of the earth and all things in it as God. God is the giver of all the living freedom we wish, and He needs us to follow the laws in the bible and pray always. Therefore, there is a supernatural creature who controls the whole universe and is above our understanding, unable to appreciate our availability without a strong belief.


King, P. E., & Boyatzis, C. J. (2015). Religious and spiritual development. Handbook of child psychology and developmental science, 1-48.

Stenmark, M., Fuller, S., & Zackariasson, U. (2018). Relativism and Post-Truth in Contemporary Society. London: Palgrave Macmillan.


The Turf Reinforcement Mats 101 Concept help me with my history homework

Turf Reinforcement Mats 101: Everything you need to know

Soil erosion poses a big threat to the environment. It’s therefore essential for any contractor to try and minimize the adverse effects that arise from this natural phenomenon. And what better way to do this than to use turf reinforcement mats, one of the most effective ways of controlling soil erosion at your site?


Turf reinforcement mats are synthetic, non-degradable erosion control solutions that are buried to add soil stability on slope and channel applications. These permanent installations are usually soil-filled and vegetated after attachment and may sport an organic bit to support plant establishment.


In this article, you will find all you need to know about turf reinforcement mats, including what they are, what they are used for, their advantages, and how best to use them. We will also explore whether this is the right product for your needs. But first, proper erosion control requires an understanding of erosion and its effects. Let’s dive in.

What Is Soil Erosion?

The ground we stand on may not be as solid as it seems since the soil is generally affected by the environment. What’s more, environmental elements like wind and water make the soil susceptible to erosion – the natural wearing away of topsoil occasioned by natural forces.


These erosion agents lead to the loss and transportation of soil materials through a 3-part process of detachment, movement, and finally deposition.


Other than wind and rainwater, there are other factors affecting soil erosion, such as:


Type of soil
Slope gradient, length, or roughness
Soil texture – loose, compacted, or uncompacted

Controlling Soil Erosion

With erosion control, the emphasis is on curbing air and water erosion by preventing it from taking place in the first place. The effective implementation of erosion control measures helps prevent or eliminate soil loss, surface runoff, and water pollution. These control measures often take place in the following areas:


On agricultural land.
In construction sites.
In coastal areas.
Along Riverbanks.
Across land development.


Soil control measures also help minimize erosion potential by making the soil stable, lessening raindrop impact, and reducing the speed of moving water. While erosion control takes place on virgin land through vegetative reinforcement, human activity – farming, construction interferes with this natural process. Thus, modern erosion control methods aim to replace this process.


Urban development such as building asphalt roads in natural areas also affects subsurface drainage significantly. The roads affect how rainwater spreads across a given land area. Fortunately, turf reinforcement mats present a dependable solution by imitating vegetative reinforcement, thus preventing erosion and protecting both soil and water quality.

What Are Turf Reinforcement Mats?

Turf reinforcement mats (TRMs) are a form of permanent erosion protection. They are ideal for providing immediate high-performance erosion protection in locations that require such interventions. TRMs are particularly useful in areas that get exposed to acute flow conditions that go over and above the limits of the natural vegetation. In this case, turf reinforcement mats play an essential role in the long-term stability and support of vegetative soil.


The mats consist of non-degradable nets, filaments, wire mesh, synthetic fibers, and other similar long-lasting elements. These components undergo compression to form a permanent three-dimensional matrix that helps to reinforce vegetation. TRMs thus help boost vegetation’s natural ability to protect the soil from the elements. Also, they encourage vegetation’s roots and stems to develop.


In addition to erosion protection, TRMs provide long-term turf reinforcement and also allow for accelerated vegetative growth. Given their excellent value, they are a more affordable alternative to hard-armoring riprap.TRMS are built for permanence in order to:


Protect both soils and seeds.
Enhance germination
Reinforce established vegetation.
Provide ample strength, thickness, and empty space to allow for soil filling.


Like erosion control blankets, TRMS are a form of rolled erosion control products. They are usually combined with grass and other similar seeds and used across a wide range of slope and drainage site conditions. Once installed, the vegetation and soil shield the synthetic components from the sun and other natural elements, thus preserving and maintaining the matting’s structural integrity.

Where to Use Turf Reinforcement Mats

Turf reinforcement mats are designed for use in situations that require 2-3 times the regular erosion protection. They are best suited for hydraulic applications in areas where the anticipated concentrated water flow is too much for unreinforced vegetation to resist naturally. In other words, the natural vegetation is unable to withstand the anticipated flow velocities and shear stress values.


Where there are higher flow channels or steeper slopes and shorelines, high-performance turf reinforcement mats are also available and provide enhanced reinforcement and stabilization.


TRMs are also ideal for use in:


Areas with bare soils or limited vegetation establishment.
Where hard armor such as concrete and rip rap is visually unappealing or unnecessary.
Locations where stormwater quality and the removal of sediments or pollutants is desirable.


TRMs are thus suitable for use in the below areas:


Outfall areas
Steep Slopes
Fluctuating water levels
Pond and lake Shorelines
Inflow and outflow structures such as culverts
High flow ditches or channels
River, stream, and canal banks

Benefits of Using Turf Reinforcement Mats

TRMs typically lessen channel, sheet, and rill erosion by even more than 90 percent. They are particularly effective in delivering short-term protection against erosion caused by raindrops and strong winds. But these are not the only benefits. Below are more of the advantages of using TRMs:


Their installation is quick is relatively easy.
They can weather high-level hydraulic shear stresses and speeds.
They provide a permanent and enduring vegetation reinforcement.
They don’t degrade over time like rolled erosion replacement products (RECPs).
They prevent pollution of the waterways.
They slow down runoff, allowing sediment to settle.
More water gets to filtrate into the aquifer through the porous mat.
They enable you to use green alternatives in place of rock and concrete.
They are more aesthetically appealing than concrete, rip rap, or other hard armor techniques.
They can also stabilize ground with difficult-to -establish vegetation.
They are more affordable than hard armor techniques.


Now, let us take a more in-depth look at some of the above advantages:

TRMs Provide Permanent and Enduring Vegetation Reinforcement

Properly-installed TRMs provide immediate erosion protection as well as enhanced vegetation establishment. And once established, they control erosion permanently. While many traditional TRMs offer limited erosion protection before full vegetation establishment, newer products come with higher, rock-like erosion resistance.


Traditional hard-armor techniques, including rip rap as well as reinforced paving systems, are relatively successful in averting erosive activity in areas prone to high erosion. But, while these measures are permanent and can withstand considerable hydraulic forces, they are quite expensive. Additionally, unlike vegetated systems, they don’t remove pollutants.


It’s important to note here that a number of TRMs use natural, degradable fiber material in the initial vegetation establishment. However, the permanent reinforcement construction comprises non-degradable synthetic materials only.


TRMs Help Prevent Pollution Within the Waterways

TRMs are also applicable in the construction of lasting solutions in stormwater management. The type of components that TRMs might support include vegetated ditches and channels, infiltration sites, ponds, sedimentation basins, and vegetated buffers next to surface waters.

TRMs Help Stabilize Ground With Difficult-to-establish Vegetation.

In addition to providing permanent reinforcement of vegetation, TRMs also protect disturbed surfaces immediately after installation (and prior to the establishment of vegetation). This benefit is important for preventing soil loss and protecting newly seeded areas.

Disadvantages and Limitations of Using Turf Replacement Mats

TRMs are extremely effective in their work, but still, they have their downsides as well as limitations. Some of these are:


Proper product selection and installation determine TRMs performance.
They may require hard armoring after withstanding a given amount of flow.
Slashing and grass mowing could result in the cutting and the destruction of TRMs.
Synthetic products like TRMs have limited usage in areas inhabited by animals since they can get enmeshed in the matting.
Mat removal, such as during relocation or widening, may result in the removal and eventual disposal of valuable topsoil.
The turf reinforced mat might not withstand grass fire, raising concerns about areas where it is used as lining in catch drains.
Precautions are necessary when planting non-grass on the synthetic mats since they can choke off a larger plant’s rooting system.
A number of environmental challenges could arise out of using non-biodegradable materials in the site locations.
It is not easy to repair a damaged turf resistant mat.


How Effective Are TRM Installations?

If you mow the vegetation over a turf replacement mat too low after installation – up to the point where it gets sun exposure – it can drastically reduce TRM effectiveness over time. It is best to avoid this type of activity. In practice, the effectiveness of TRMs depends heavily on:


The type of turf replacement mat.
The level of surface preparation.
The type of installation practice, for example, staking pattern, seeding, and site conditions, e.g., rainfall, slopes, and soils.


How to Choose the Perfect Turf Replacement Mat

Given the wide array of turf replacement mats available today, choosing the perfect mat for your needs might prove a challenge. Still, your choice for the perfect solution to meet your erosion control goals depends on three main factors; the intended use, the design concerns and limitations, if any.


For best results, select your preferred mat depending on the expected water velocity and shear stress. For TRMs that bear non-degrading, 3D matrices, flows, and shear stress values ranging around 16.45 km/hr (15 feet per second) and 48.8 kg/ per square meter (10 pounds per square foot), respectively are manageable. But above these limits, vegetated structures like articulated block and cable concrete present more viable options.

Installing Turf Reinforcement Mats

Proper product selection might be the first step when it comes to installing RECPs, but this is just half of it. Without proper installation, the battle against erosion can prove untenable. Many people might consider this the easiest part, but truth be told, most unsuccessful applications of erosion control products result from incorrect material installation.


Again, it’s also crucial to appreciate the objective behind the installation. This allows you to pay attention to key details and get the installation done properly. For instance, two central objectives of proper TRM installations are:


To hold the TRM firmly in place, thus enabling continuous contact with the surface. This is key for the TRM to protect the soil while allowing unhindered vegetation growth. If the TRM base fails to connect and interact with the underlying soil surface, it will provide minimal erosion protection. Furthermore, this could hinder long grassy stems from emerging through the TRM structure and ultimately destroy the vegetation.


To stop water from flowing beneath the TRM while undercutting terminal edges as well as mat seams. If this occurs and gaps exist between the TRM base and the soil, the result is erosion underneath the mat. Again, unprotected soils eroding along terminal edges could undercut the mat and progress underneath. Once this erosive activity gains momentum, it’s most likely to continue until repairs halt its progress.


Fortunately, some TRMs come equipped with features that boost conformance with the underlying soil. Such integrated but flexible growth media makes it much easier to achieve the above objectives.


Now, to help you get the most out of your turf replacement mat, below are some useful guidelines on how to install TRMs in the right way:

Follow the Manufacturer’s Instructions

TRMs are fabricated to tackle specific site conditions, including slope length, shear stress, water velocity, UV exposure, seed type, and eventual soil fill. The thing is, if you take the time to do it in the appropriate manner, proper installation can be a simple affair. However, merely rolling out your TRM and attaching a few staples to anchor it is hardly enough to ensure its effective performance. Needless to say, following the manufacturer’s instructions is paramount.


To reiterate, knowing the basic steps of how to go about the installation is useful, but you still need to adhere to the specific guidelines for the best results. This will guarantee that:


No water flow will get beneath the mat edges.
The TRM lies in direct contact with the soil, with almost nil void spaces.
The TRM is anchored strongly enough to resist uplift and retain continuous soil contact throughout any given flow conditions.

Adjust Installation to Location

Proper installation requires you to know the type of application requiring the TRM. For instance, when working with the most common TRM applications, namely slope, channel, and shoreline installations, bear in mind that installation details vary with each application. Secondly, TRMs vary in thickness, and most of the thinner TRMs are designed for placement directly above seeded bare soil surfaces.


On the other hand, the thick open weave varieties may undergo staking down first, followed by seeding, then final covering using a thin layer of soil. Yet, there are applications that specify for mixing the seed with the fill soil before spreading. Where a turf replacement mat is put in place before seeding and soil filling, some applications may need you to install an erosion control blanket. This would protect both seed and soil within the matrix before dense growth occurs.


As you can tell from the above variations in application, it is essential to abide by the manufacturer’s recommendations regarding usage, anchoring device selection, installation, and final maintenance. Doing so will ensure you get the best possible outcome – instant protection and enduring performance.


Nevertheless, no matter the prescribed order for TRM installation, seeding, and surface cover, there’s still a need for proper preparation in regard to bare soil area or channel. Let us explore this further below.

Guiding Principles for Turf Reinforcement Mat Installations

For a contractor, conducting a proper turf reinforcement mat installation means avoiding costly project failures. Thus, it’s crucial to always remember basic erosion control principles that guide the installation procedures and product usage in order to achieve effective TRM installations.


Minimize erosive forces. The goal here is to increase resistance to the utmost. This is because erosion occurs when the erosive energies acting upon the soil override its resistance. Hence, for effective erosion protection, the TRM must always maintain continuous, direct contact with the surface.
Grading and preparing the soil. The installation process should always begin with terrain preparation. This involves grading the soil and getting rid of any substances, including limbs, large rocks, protruding roots, and other debris that could hinder the TRM from adhering to the soil. Besides, fine grading helps to create a smooth seedbed which makes it easier and faster to conform and secure the TRM to the surface.
Vegetation is important. Since TRMs are designed for areas where strong erosive forces prevent natural vegetation from establishing growth, such as steep slopes, ensure to use prescribed vegetation types. The goal here, therefore, is to build reinforced vegetative protection with immediate erosion resistance that resembles rock riprap or concrete blocks.

How to Anchor Your TRM Installations

To secure your turf re[placement mat to the soil surface, use mats to the ground surface, use either wire staples or metallic geotextile pins. U-shaped staples are the best, and they should be ideally 8 gauge or much thicker. For metal pins, go for a minimum of 0.2 inches ( cm ) in diameter along with a 1.2 inch ( ) stall washer.


For flatter locations, it’s okay to use degradable stakes. You can also utilize these in places where metallic anchoring types might be dangerous if dislodged by accident. These include areas next to airport runways. For sloped ground, riverbanks, and channels, the ideal anchors are wire staples, metallic pins with washers, and percussion-driven anchors. Other recommendations include:


Apply 6-inch ( ) anchors on rocky soils.
Use 12-inch ( ) anchors on loose clays or silty soils.
Apply 18 – 24-inch ( ) anchors on sandy silts or loose sands.


As usual, follow the manufacturer’s directions on anchor spacing. In general, though, standard configurations are an anchor per square yard for flatter grounds, 2 anchors for steeper slopes, and 3 on channels and shorelines. Always drive in the anchors until they are flush with the mat’s surface but be careful not to bury them.

Problems That Can Occur During TRM Installation

While TRMs provide excellent protection against erosion, it’s not unusual for unforeseen problems to occur during installation. Some of the ensuing challenges may be due to human error, but others might arise out of external factors beyond human control. These include:


Incorrect installation
Poor soil contact.
Not using enough staples.
Wrong mat selection for the given location.
More water flows than the structure design can handle.

How to Maintain Turf Reinforcement Mats

After installation, there’s not much to do in terms of maintenance. That being said, maintaining slopes, banks, channels, and all other transition structures helps guarantee the reinforced vegetation a long life. For instance, if the TRM needs to be vegetated, then ensure to water the vegetation as necessary. Also, it’s advisable to conduct regular inspection of the ground surface for signs of rill or gully erosion below the matting.


Continue with this inspection until full establishment. If there are erosion signs, matting tears, or you notice instances where the matting is loosely anchored to the ground, carry out immediate repairs.


Below is a helpful outline on what needs to be done where:


Carry out an inspection of the mat installation site as soon as seeding occurs to confirm seed coverage. After installing the TRM, check soil contact, staking patterns, anchor slot backfill, and proper shingling. Pay attention to installations along lengthy steep slopes and beneath waterlines in channels and ditches. Keep away foot traffic, equipment, and vehicles off the TRM.
Monitoring. Conduct half-yearly monitoring and do likewise after any significant storm event. This entails checking the vegetation’s condition as well as that of all long-term erosion control systems, noting sediment deposits that require removal, and testing irrigation systems.
Repair and maintain vegetation types as per their original design. This means maintaining turf areas at adequate cover, mowing grass in accordance with local jurisdiction schedules, plus re-seeding and soil-filling unvegetated areas where applicable. Avoid mowing TRM sites until the vegetation attains a height of about 8 inches ( 2-.3 cm) and keep blades 6 inches ( 15.2 cm) off the mat to prevent snagging.
Damaged Sections. This involves replacing missing or damaged sections of the turf replacement matting according to the installation guidelines. For instance, patching holes using similar matting material. Remove sediment and debris with care to avoid damaging the mat but use a visual spotter if excavating within 12 inches (30.4 cm) of the mat. Alternatively, use your hands to remove the sediment deposits.
Sediment and Debris Deposits. When sediments and debris accumulate, they might reduce a channel’s hydraulic capacity, clog structures placed within inlet and outlets and destroy existing vegetation. As such, removing sediments or debris forms an essential part of TRM maintenance.

Dos and Don’ts of TRM Installations and Maintenance

Follow the below dos and don’ts for successful TRM installs:


Conduct all your surface preparation, seeding, and TRM installations during the dry period.
Assemble all the necessary equipment such as mats, seeds, anchors, and topsoil cover before starting the installation.
Set up the final grade for the channel, ditch, bare ground, or swale that requires seeding and protection.
Test the soil, adjust pH as well as fertility accordingly. Apply your seeds to the soil surface prior to installing the mat.
Add amendments like lime or fertilizer, and wet the soil, if necessary but avoid fertilizing the channels.
Ensure all soil surfaces are smooth, consistent, and sport a crumbly texture.
Make sure the mat lies flat, maintains intimate contact with the soil, and features no bulges – without stretching it.
Avoid mulching sites where you will place a TRM mat.
When installing TRMs on stable slopes, irrigate as need be to establish or maintain the vegetation.
Using manufacturer-specific anchors only, secure every 3 feet ( 91.4 cm) along slopes and 2 feet (60.9 cm) beneath ditch and channel flow lines.
Avoid the use of tracked equipment or making sharp turns on the mat – only rubber-tired equipment should operate on the mat.
Consider soil filling for optimal performance.
Note the requirements for using check slots to affix slope and in-channel executions.


When applying soil cover, go for sandy, loam, or topsoil, specified by the manufacturer but only use dry soil since it spreads easily. Use a rake to lightly spread the soil on the mat and fill and voids fully but try to avoid any quick movements that may lead to the mat bunching up. Remember to keep equipment away from the mats if the soil becomes wet and avoid covering the mat completely with soil.

Final Thoughts

TRMs provide an excellent solution for erosion control. Typically buried beneath the ground to provide permanent soil stabilization, they are effective in preventing erosion and supporting vegetation on slopes and drainage sites. They are particularly noted for their excellent performance against modern day’s frequent extreme storms and flooding activity.


However, for best results, always follow the manufacturer’s specific instructions when selecting, installing, and caring for your TRMs.