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Monique and the Mango Rains Research Proposal history assignment help australia: history assignment help australia

Monique and the Mango Rains

Answer to Question ONE: What makes rare connections possible?

The fact that Kris Holloway had joined the Peace Corps and was willing to give up two years of her life to leave Ohio and travel to troubled Africa for an assignment that would be challenging speaks volumes about her as a person. Had she stayed in Ohio and hired on to a more traditional post-graduate job, she most likely never would have been in touch with a woman Like Monique. Meantime, Monique Dembele would never have met Holloway or even heard about the Peace Corps if Holloway hadn’t come into the village. The question to be answered is, “What makes these kinds of relationships possible?”

The short answer is that when you join the Peace Corps, you have opportunities not only for travel but you have opportunities to interact with cultures that are as distant from the American culture as Africa is from Ohio. The more thoughtful answer is that these kinds of relationships between people of vastly different cultures and stations in life are extremely rare. In her Introduction, Holloway explains that the “lives of women in Maliare not easy” (p. 3). Women in Mali get married young and give birth to six or seven children, “one of the highest fertility rates in sub-Saharan Africa” while ironically Mali is a place where “the risk of death during childbirth and pregnancy is among the top ten highest in the world” (p. 3). So Holloway volunteered for this assignment, worked side-by-side with Monique, the midwife in a small village, as an assistant and a loyal friend, and it led to an unexpected long-term friendship based on Holloway’s altruism and courage. The rewards for Holloway — beyond the actual value of the experience of working in a foreign country where people desperately need help — have paid off handsomely for Holloway in the publication and popularity of her book. That shows that her karma was very positive: giving altruistically and willingly has brought an unexpected return in many ways.

Answer to Question TWO: The hardest part to adapt to in Mali?

Holloway’s experience is not anything like what I would have imagined a Peace Corps assignment to be. No doubt if you volunteer for the Peace Corps, you may not have a choice as to exactly what you will be doing in your chosen country, but if Holloway had known she would be assisting a midwife rather than planting trees, she may have opted for more training in the healthcare field. There are many “hard parts” for me to have been able to adapt to in a poverty-stricken village of 1,400 people; one, certainly, would be having digestive track movements with no available toilet paper. I know that in some developing countries they use newspaper or grass for toilet paper — but using the left hand? That would be difficult to adjust to.

Also, no clean drinking water would be both difficult to consume and dangerous. Any number of microbes that could make a person sick lurk in dirty water. We in Western society are very comfortable and enjoy the good life. So it wasn’t too surprising when Holloway explained (p. 12) that a third of the volunteers did not last the full two years and that sickness, injuries and homesickness took “its toll.” And Holloway’s job wasn’t just about helping give birth to babies; in the morning villagers would be waiting to be seen by Monique for ailments including “oozing infections to enervating malaria” (p. 13). I’m not sure I would be able to deal with running out of tampons — especially when there was no toilet paper. How horrible.

What would I miss coming back to the U.S. Probably I would miss the close friends from the Mali culture, such as Monique. There is also a certain innocence in a developing country like Mali; even with disease, dirty drinking water and packs of feral dogs roaming and dangerous, the innocence of Africa that might be missed. And for certain I would miss the sky at night, with the cosmos so bright and clear because of no city lights to pollute the sky.

Answer to Question THREE: Can we learn from Monique?

Culture has everything to do with how a person approaches childbirth. In the U.S. A woman has prenatal care and when her due date is near she has healthcare professionals keeping track of everything about her condition. And if the husband and wife grow frustrated with the delay in the birth, they opt for cesarean and the doctor just goes in and gets the recalcitrant baby. On pages 88-89 Holloway makes a point about the difference between Mali culture and American culture when it comes to childbirth. “I was astounded at the rate of Cesarean sections (around one quarter of all births) in such a healthy, rich country (could they all really be necessary?). Here is Kris Holloway in a pitiful little building with pregnant women lined up to see Monique, and she reflects on the fact that in the U.S. “the medical establishment” had taken “control” over the birthing process.

Quite dramatically different was the culture in Mali, where giving birth was “a family and community event” albeit birthing lacked “almost all modern medical interventions.” What we can learn from Monique is how most of the world — certainly the developing world in particular — treats childbirth (with more of a sense of community good will than in the U.S.). And yet a mother like Bintou died after giving birth because she bled to death. “During the pushing, some women tore horribly and then had to get stitched up” (p. 88). The good news is that Monique was a capable midwife and could do the stitching. The bad news is that the morality rate for mothers giving birth is very high in Mali. I would rather give birth in a modern, clean hospital environment — or in my home if a competent midwife cared me for. I would never wish to give birth in a place with filthy water, limited toilet facilities, and disease all around me. It just seems that would be bringing my child into the world in a risky setting.

Answer to Question FOUR: What affect Kris had on Monique.

I believe that Kris Holloway had a dramatically positive affect on Monique. One can read between the lines and be certain that not only was Kris a huge source of physical and emotion support, she became like a member of Monique’s little family. Monique had to put up with some horrific situations, and Kris was there for her every step of the way. And of course these conditions were not new to Monique, she nonetheless had to put up with some terrible working conditions. How sad for Monique to deliver baby after baby for a woman like Oumou, who on page 91 had lost yet another child. “I cannot have more children, Fatumata, please,” said Oumou. “I lose them. I had nine. Now I am left with five and this one,” she said, pointing to her belly. “Too many have died, and yet my husband, Daouda, he wants to have more.” How sad that the husband can’t be respectful of his wife’s desire to avoid further childbirth — but that is part of the culture and Holloway made the necessary adjustments, which certainly helped Monique.

There in Africa, Kris Holloway was learning that death is part of the package when you help a midwife in a very rural and remote area of abject poverty. Holloway’s life would never be the same having seen malnourished women giving birth to children they can scarcely afford to feed. With very little information available about contraception and men being ignorant about what damage they were doing to their wives, it had to have a dramatic (and negative) impact on a bright, eager, open-minded person like Holloway. With everything else in the local environment being problematic (shabby, unclean, well-meaning and yet wholly incomplete) — and in the birthing room the equipment was rudimentary, bare bones or less — now in the rainy season terrible storms brew up and on page 90, Holloway reports that “the damage was extensive” from the violent rain and winds.

Answer to Question FIVE: The importance of weather in the book.

During the long very hot dry season the villagers have to dip deep down into dirty wells and fetch water that is filthy. The only precipitation that falls in the dry season is light rains that arrive in February and March. They are called Mango rains because, as Holloway writes, “They come when the earth is dry and the heavy rains sill far away to make the mangoes sweet.” Those mango rains are a metaphor for the few tiny and sweet blessings that survive in a country that is not sweet at all, but rather bitter, especially to a person from the United States. One of those sweet blessings is Monique, because she does so much for the community — and is indeed one of the few positive things that happens to these downtrodden people.

The heat is oppressive and because of that heat Holloway had to endure “an overpowering stench” in the birthing room. Walking into that room on a day that was probably over 100 degrees Holloway (p. 6) said the building “was like an oven, baking all the secretions [from pregnant and post-partum women] into a rank casserole” (p. 6). Holloway said she felt like she was “drowning in the smell of flesh, body fluids, and leftover food” — all made more aromatically spicy by the torrid head in the dry season.

The fierce storms that arrive in rainy season have a huge impact on the village and on the story that Holloway is telling. In many countries, the rainy season would be a blessing after a long, hot dry spell. But the rains that arrive in Mali as the rainy season started are terrifying. “I was startled out of my thoughts by a clap of thunder that rattled the roof,” Holloway writes (p. 91). “The noise was deafening, as if herds of miniature beasts were crisscrossing at breakneck speed along the roof.” The rain was so fierce that it was “threatening to break through the bricks” (p. 92). “What a trade,” Holloway writes on page 92. “Life giving rains came at the expense of devastating erosion.” Topsoil that was badly needed for crops was “washed away by the very thing needed to make it flourish.”

Answer to Question SIX: “Every act of development necessarily involves an act of destruction.”

I don’t agree entirely with that passage. Sometimes in order to create a better facility the old one must come down. But there are situations where you start from scratch and build where nothing has been there before — hence, there is no destruction just constructive building. And there are situations like the birthing house that needed a new roof but that didn’t mean tearing the entire building down and starting over.

Do Americans and other foreigners have the right to intrude in another culture? It depends on the meaning of “intrude.” Clearly in the past Americans have pushed their way into other cultures trying to help — and failing. Certainly the occupation of Iraq by U.S. troops was an intrusion that was totally unjustified. Especially in hindsight, given that there were no “weapons of mass destruction” to be found, one of the justifications given at the time of the invasion of Iraq.

But American Peace Corps members come to countries with permission, and they are trained to be gracious guests and learn ahead of time what their role is to be. If Peace Corps members tried to force the Western culture on the people they were supposed to help, that would be very wrong. But in the case of Kris Holloway, the help the Peace Corps provided was not only totally appropriate, it was sorely needed.

Answer to Question SEVEN: Values.

Yes there are certain values that transcend borders and cultures. The universal values that come to mind include health, safety, and the sanctity of life itself. Every person in every country around the planet wants to be free of illness and from the misery of serious disabilities. Good health depends of course on the availability of food, clean safe drinking water, and medicine. When Holloway went to Mali, it was her duty to help in any way she could to make villagers healthier — and it turned out she played an important part in a midwife’s livelihood. Monique and Kris Holloway both offered healthcare services, especially maternal healthcare to the female members of the village.

Holloway and Monique shared the value of preserving life. As women, they identified with the women in the village from that perspective; but they also shared a powerful empathy for women who were malnourished and otherwise struggling.

Some human rights are inalienable; indeed, according to the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights (in 1948), all nations in the UN should “Recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.” Dignity in this context means that all humans have a right to enough food, safe water, shelter and freedom (peace). We all know that not everyone enjoys those rights but that should be the goal — and the Peace Corps volunteers are certainly doing their part.

Answer to Question EIGHT: How can North Americans help the developing world? Individuals are making contributions in many ways to help Africans by donating to various international organizations. But the U.S. could do much more, if the will was there. By providing the resources to African nations that will accept foreign help — resources like agricultural aid, healthcare resources, wheat, rice, and other staples — the U.S. could make a dent in the most depressed areas. Already there are many organizations like that are providing needed materials; in this case, nets to keep mosquitoes out of African homes and hence to prevent more people from contracting malaria. For most people in the U.S. And other well-off Western societies a good way to help is to find a public charity that is truly making a difference in Africa, and give a regular monthly sum to that foundation or nonprofit. Small gifts from millions of people, even tens of thousands, can make a big difference.

Answer to Question NINE: Am I hopeful about Africa based on reading about the amazing work of Monique? I am hopeful that there are more people like Monique, and I am hopeful that more people like Kris Holloway are able and willing to dive into a terribly dangerous and poverty-ridden society and do what they can to help. But what is very scary are the wars in some countries like Sudan, Darfur, the Congo, and elsewhere; and we’re not just talking about war, we’re talking about genocide where hundreds of thousands of innocent people are driven from their homes into refugee camps and slaughtered in mindless explosions of violence. It does seem overwhelming and Monique’s unique humanity notwithstanding, the situation is grim in Africa. Worse yet, so many resources in the U.S. And elsewhere go into funding weapons and other war materials. It’s a vicious cycle and there seems to be no end to it.

Works Cited

Holloway, Kris. (2007). Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years with a midwife

In Mali. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

The Publication and the Issue that it Presents help me with my history homework

Elective Delivery

The Publication and the Issue that it Presents

The article entitled Born too early: Improving Maternal and Child Health by Reducing Early Elective Deliveries was published on NIHCM Foundation, Transforming Health Care Through Evidence and Collaborations. The article discusses the issue of possible negative health consequences that early elective deliveries poses on infants, mothers and on health care system collectively, along with additional costs as an unnecessary burden. Infants might face an increased risk of:

Poorer brain mass.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS).

Low birth weight.

Feeding problems.

Longer stay at hospital.

While mothers face an increased risk of:

Cesarean delivery.

Post-delivery depression.

Longer stay at hospital due to complications.

Price to the Health Care System:

Early Elective Deliveries (EED) are linked to an increased risk of cesarean delivery, which costs about 50% more than the costs of vaginal births, on an average. Moreover, premature infants, born before 39 weeks, are susceptible to get admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at a substantial increased expense for both Medicaid and commercial insurers (NIHCM Foundation, 2014).

2. The type of health care organization that I would like to work for in the future and the implications of this issue to that organization and to at least two groups of its stakeholders

I would like to work for National Child & Maternal Health Education Program (NCMHEP) in the future. To reduce elective deliveries, NCMHEP is educating doctors and patients about the risks accompanying electric delivery before 39 weeks. The first step was to educate healthcare professionals. They developed a course of Continuing Medical Education (CME) for nurses and doctors to discuss the newest research and best practices about reducing elective deliveries (Shriver, 2013).

The two other stakeholders discussed here are BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina (BCBSSC) and South Carolina Hospital Association.

BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina (BCBSSC)

In July 2011, BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina (BCBSSC), in partnership with South Carolina Department of Health and Human Services and many other organizations, made an effort to reduce EEDs, which is known as the Birth Outcomes Initiative (BOI). The focus of BOI was to achieve goals like:

Termination of elective induction without medical indications prior to 39 weeks.

Reducing health differences among new-borns and promoting breastfeeding.

Reduction of average length of stay at NICUs.

Making 17P accessible to all pregnant women at-risk.

Employing a universal screening and referral tool (SBIRT), that will screen pregnant women for tobacco use, domestic violence, depression and substance abuse (BCBSSC, 2014).

South Carolina Hospital Association

South Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (SCDHHS) worked diligently with the South Carolina Hospital Association (SCHA) in the process of procuring letters from the hospitals, which agreed to terminate the practice of early deliveries. Additionally, Birth Outcomes Initiative (BOI) in collaboration with SCHA, patients, other state agencies, suppliers and insurers, is working to achieve goals like:

Easy access to affordable progesterone treatment to reduce preterm births.

Employment of screening tool to screen pregnant women.

Recognizing and targeting health discrepancies amongst minority populations (March of Dimes, n.d.)

Some of the questions that one would need to ask, resources one might need to access, or actions one would take to prepare his organization for change or to exploit opportunities

The said discussion about EEDs very well answers to some questions like ‘will this agreement to end EEDs decrease cesarean deliveries?’ or ‘what tools are present in California for expectant mothers?’ or ‘what can be done to educate expectant mothers about EEDs?’ and indicates the decreasing rate of EEDs in South Carolina. Now, one can take certain actions to prepare his/her organization by:

Maintaining documentation requirements for early deliveries, in medical record.

Generating a scheduling form to check estimated gestational age on due date of delivery and medical indication for deliveries prior to 39 weeks.

Making sure how far in advance induction can be planned.

Electing experienced OB nurses to schedule cesarean deliveries and inductions.

Making sure that office practice schedulers establish consistent communication with expectant mothers in all their interaction with the system (National Quality Forum, 2014, 8-9).

Educating their doctors and expectant mothers about the risks involved.

Waiting as long as possible against a cesarean delivery, unless medically indicated.

Response to the two of the following questions:

a. Do you see changes arising from this situation to be a boon to patients? Why or why not?

No known benefits for EEDs have been recorded yet; however, the risks it includes for mother and baby are noteworthy. Infants born at <39 weeks might suffer serious health complications due to underdeveloped vital organs like the brain, liver and lungs. As per studies, about 50% of cortical volume growth takes place between 34-40 weeks. Moreover, the infant’s brain, at 37 weeks, weighs only 80% of the brain of an infant born at 40 weeks (Astho, 2014).

b. Do you think that government will create regulation relating to this topic that you will need to comply with?

Private and government insurers have started penalizing hospitals for EEDs, while some of them are giving rewards to limit the same. In 2012, the state asked hospitals to modify their policies for inducing labor, which decreased the EED rate from 9% to 4.6% as a result. The federal government has also started to reform payments for EEDs through Medicare. While Tony Keck, the director of state’s health and human services, declared that if voluntary effort was unsatisfactory, the state would discontinue paying reimbursements to hospitals for these deliveries. The expenses directly controlled by the South Carolina’s government were of Medicaid only (Rosenberg, 2014).


Astho. (2014). Issue Brief: Early Elective Delivery. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. Retrieved from

BCBSSC. (2014). Birth Outcomes Initiatives: Claims Coding. Live Fearless BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina. Retrieved from

March of Dimes. (n.d.). SC Hospitals and Medicaid Partner to Reduce Preterm Births. Retrieved from (1).pdf

National Quality Forum. (2014). Playbook for the Successful Elimination of Early Elective Deliveries. NQF Maternity Action Team. Retrieved from

NIHCM Foundation. (2014). Born too early: Improving Maternal and Child Health by Reducing Early Elective Deliveries. Retrieved from

Rosenberg, T. (2014). Reducing Early Elective Deliveries. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Shriver, E.K. (2013). About the NCMHEP and the Initiative to Reduce Elective Deliveries Before 39 Weeks of Pregnancy. National Child & Maternal Health Education Program. Retrieved from

Stopping of Female genital mutilation ap us history essay help: ap us history essay help

Female genital mutilation should be stopped

Female Genital Mutilation or FGM can be explained as a procedure that is performed or inflicted on women and girls in some developing countries (Klein et al., 2018). FGM entails the altering or cutting of female genitalia. There are many known consequences of inflicting FGM on women including viral and bacterial infections, psychological problems, and obstetrical complications. The FGM topic has been taken up by activists in areas where the practice is rampant. The FGM topic has fundamental societal importance, cultural, significance, and ramifications. In this informative piece, the implications and consequences of FGM are discussed. There have been many efforts put in place to eradicate the FGM vice although certain societal and cultural dynamics have allowed FGM to be deeply rooted in some regions. It is important for more interventions to be instituted in the communities where FGM is practiced as a ritual in order to have realistic chances of eradicating this practice. Concerted efforts are necessary for the purpose of developing programs and studies that increase the level of awareness on the consequences of FGM.

Female circumcision is the practice of manipulating, removing or altering the exterior genitalia of women and young girls (Klein et al., 2018). FGM is conducted using some sharp object like a blade or glass by some unskilled town, religious, or traditional leader. In some instances medical professionals conducted FGM. FGM is quite different from male circumcision in that it unlike male circumcision that has real health benefits female circumcision has no known medical benefits (Kandala & Komba, 2018). It is widely agreed upon that FGM violates the human rights of the victims and increases the health complications of the person on whom it is inflicted (Kandala & Komba, 2018). According to the World Health Organization, FGM intentionally causes injury to the genital organs of the female without any medical reason (WHO, 2018). There are no health benefits associated with the FGM procedure. FGM procedure can result in serious urinating problems, bleeding, infections, later cysts, and childbirth complications. FGM also increases the possibility of infant mortality (WHO, 2018). If indeed it has been proven that FGM is a vice that must be destroyed in the modern day world why is it that it still persists?

There are many cultural practices in the developing world that have been retained to this day. Some of these cultures include FGM and other torturous activities all done in the name of rites of passage. Some of the rituals have no health implication although FGM is one of those backward and retrogressive cultures that the society must be trained to abandon. Surprisingly some underage girls have been indoctrinated into accepting these retrogressive cultures. There is news of young girls who leave school to get married to elderly men. Some girls go through FGM willingly. Others abandon their education for marriage life without cognizance of the repercussions involved. The vicious cycle of FGM and early marriage makes high infant mortality, FGM related diseases, and infections, and poverty inevitable. This is why society must be enlightened on the need to abandon some of these retrogressive and dangerous self-inflicted cultures.

The World Health Organization statistics indicate that an excess of 200 million women and girls living today have undergone FGM in thirty African countries, Asia, and the Middle East (WHO, 2018). Furthermore, FGM has been found to be commonly inflicted on children and young girls ranging from infancy to 15 years of age (WHO, 2018). This is a violation of women rights and human rights as well. The people who perform FGM have influential roles in the communities they come from. Traditional circumcisers use unorthodox methods to conduct the procedure such as using the same knife or blade on many girls hence risking their health with infections and terminal illnesses. Healthcare professionals may be involved in FGM due to unfounded beliefs that medical FGM procedure is safer. According to the recommendation from the World Health Organization, health professionals are strongly advised against conducting any FGM procedures (WHO, 2018). If there is a universal consensus from the World Health Organization that FGM is wrong why is the retrogressive practice still persistent?

FGM is widely recognized as an illegal practice that violates human rights and the rights or women and young girls (WHO, 2018). It is a reflection of the in-depth inequality and discrimination of sexes. FGM is a depiction of extreme discrimination perpetrated against women but yet it persists in this modern day. FGM violates the rights of women and girls to their physical integrity, security, health, freedom from cruelty, torture, degrading and inhumane treatment. FGM violates the victims living rights when the FGM procedure leads to their death. FGM experiences exacerbate the short term and long term health consequences for girls and women affected by the vice. It is unacceptable from the health and human rights perspective. With FGM the risk of adverse health outcomes increases FGM severity. The world health organization opposes any form of FGM (WHO, 2019). The organization is also resolute in its opposition to this practice among healthcare providers. FGM, according to WHO should not and must not be done even medically (medicalization of FGM is against WHO resolution).

Some of the short term FGM health risks include the following.

Excessive Bleeding: IF the clitoral artery or another blood vessel suffers a cut then the FGM procedure may result in hemorrhage (WHO, 2019).

Severe Pain: The mutilation of the sensitive tissue in the genitals and the never endings can result in extreme pain (WHO, 2019). Owing to the fact that most FGM procedures are conducted illegally anesthesia is seldom used and if used, it is not effective. The process of healing is torturous due to the excessive pain involved. FGM type III involves extensive mutilation procedures that take longer to heal hence making the duration and intensity of pain extreme (WHO, 2019).

Swelling of genital tissue: Owing to the local infection or inflammatory response involved the genitals may swell resulting in discomfort and pain (WHO, 2019).

Shock: This can be occasioned by the hemorrhage, infection or pain.

Infections: The use of unsterilized equipment can result in contamination. Some traditional circumcisers use the exact instruments on many genital mutilation procedures. The infection can continue to the healing period and cause further irreparable complications (WHO, 2019).

HIV: The link between HIV and FGM is unconfirmed although genital mutilation using the same instruments in the absence of sterilization is likely to increase the chances of HIV transmission among the women and girls who undergo FGM together (WHO, 2019).

Some of the short-term risks of female genital mutilation include urination problems including urinary retention and pain when passing urine, impaired healing of wounds, psychological consequences, and death. The shock, pain, and physical force employed during FGM makes the procedure a traumatic experience that can result in psychological problems. Some the infections sustained during FGM including hemorrhage and tetanus are likely to cause shock and death.

There are also health risks that can be sustained long-term as a result of FGM. Some of these perpetual FGM consequences include pain, infections, extended pain when urinating, menstrual problems, keloids, HIV, impairment of sexual health, obstetric complication, obstetric fistula, perinatal risks, and psychological consequences (WHO, 2019). Menstrual problems come from obstruction of virginal passage and this is likely to cause pain during menstruation a condition known as dysmenorrhea (WHO, 2019). FGM can also cause problems with passage of menstrual blood and irregular menses especially in FGM type III (WHO, 2019). Keloids involve the formation of excessive scar tissues where the cut is inflicted (WHO, 2019). FGM damages the genital tissues that are highly sensitive, more so the clitoris (RC & V, 2014). This impacts on sexual sensitivity of the woman and hence results into sexual problems like diminished sexual pleasure and desire, pain while having sex, the difficulty experienced during penetration, the absence of an orgasm (a condition known as anorgasmia), and reduced lubrication when having intercourse (RC & V, 2014). The trauma associated with the memories of FGM, the pain, and the formation of scar tissue can cause sexual problems in future (RC & V, 2014). Obstetric complications may cause difficulties when undergoing child labor, increase cesarean section risks, cause postpartum hemorrhage, and obstetric lacerations (WHO, 2019). FGM is also directly associated with obstetric fistula although the association is not established yet.

In conclusion, the psychological consequences of FGM can cause terminal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety disorders (WHO, 2019). Some societies still hold on to the cultural relevance of FGM without paying regard to the psychological complications involved in the procedure. Researchers like Julios (2018) have proposed an intensive social media awareness campaign against FGM. The only way FGM can be conquered is through an intensive online and government-sponsored campaign against the retrogressive and demeaning procedure. FGM discriminates against the sanctity of the female body and perpetuates dishonor and abuse of women rights. Women all over the world should stand up for their peers who suffer under the disguise of generational traditions and cultures that steal the dignity of their fellow women. In this day and age FGM should not be even a concern. It has been proven that the practice has no health benefits, unlike male circumcision. There should be global standard and national laws against FGM. Anyone caught practices FGM should be held in contempt and subjected to jail time.












Julios, C. (2018). Female genital mutilation and social media. London: Routledge

Kandala, N.-B., & Komba, P. N. (2018). Female Genital Mutilation around The World: Analysis of Medical Aspects, Law and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Klein, E., Helzner, E., Shayowitz, M., Kohlhoff, S., & Smith-Norowitz, T. A. (2018). Female Genital Mutilation: Health Consequences and Complications – A Short Literature Review. Obstetrics and Gynecology International. Hindawi Limited.

RC, B., & V, U. (2014). Immediate Health Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C). Place of publication not identified: Knowledge Centre for the Health Services at The Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH.

WHO. (2019). Health risks of female genital mutilation (FGM), Sexual and Reproductive Health. Retrieved 27 February, 2019 from

WHO. (2018). Female genital mutilation, World Health Organization. Retrieved 27 February, 2019 from

Communicable Disease HIV Essay do my history assignment

Communicable Disease – HIV

Since its discovery as a wasting disease, “gay-related immune deficiency” and “slim” in the mid-1980’s, HIV has posed a significant health problem for the United States and the World. Initially considered mysteriously devastating, HIV ultimately caused the deaths of hundreds of thousands, yet failed to attract sufficient funding and attention. Through the efforts of health professionals and activists, HIV was finally accorded the funding and attention it deserved. Today, HIV is addressed globally, federally and locally through multiple well-funded programs/groups and agencies.

History of HIV

According to the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, blood analysis showed that the HIV virus existed in humans as early as the 1940’s and that HIV-1 — the most common viral strain — was transmitted from chimpanzees to humans at some point in the early to mid-20th Century (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). In the early 1980’s medical professionals noticed that a “wasting disease” was spreading in Uganda and that numbers of gay men in California and New York had rare types of cancer and pneumonia (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). In 1984, HIV was identified as the cause of “gay-related immune deficiency” and/or “slim” (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). By 1985, cases were reported worldwide (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). HIV / AIDS was devastating both medically and socially, as early patients were discriminated against in housing and employment, and died with inadequate treatment (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.).

As recognition of HIV’s seriousness and widespread devastation deepened, treatment progressed. The first needle exchange program was introduced in Amsterdam and the first blood test for HIV was approved in 1985 (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). In 1986, AZT was successfully tested as a treatment and remained the only treatment for AIDS through most of the 1990s (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). In 1996, medical “cocktails” including protease inhibitors were prescribed to control HIV, significantly improving the lifespan and life quality of HIV / AIDS patients. Since that time, antiretroviral therapy has continually advanced and health care professionals focused on expanding access to the included medications and on universal access to prevention through the use of condoms, testing and treatment (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.).

Global / National / State / County Statistics on HIV

Though worldwide efforts and progress are being made against HIV, the virus is still a significant health issue. Globally, approximately about 33.3 million people are now living with HIV (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). As of the July 13, 2010 release of the National HIV / AIDS Strategy on July 13, 2010, more than 575,000 Americans died from AIDS, more than 56,000 people in the U.S. were infected with HIV yearly, and 1.1+ million people in America lived with HIV (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). Perhaps the most accurate State and County statistics on HIV are collected by the San Francisco AIDS Foundation, which reports for the State of California: that almost 200,000 Californians have contracted HIV / AIDS and almost 90,000 have died since the early 1980’s; approximately 109,000 Californians are HIV-positive, with 69,728 of that number living with AIDS; there are as many as 7,000 new HIV infections yearly in California (San Francisco Aids Foundation, 2012). The same organization reports for the County/City of San Francisco, from the beginning of the epidemic in the 1980’s to December 31, 2010: 28,793 residents were diagnosed with AIDS; 19,341 died; 15,861 were living with HIV, of whom 9,452 were living with AIDS; there were 399 newly diagnosed HIV cases for 2010, down from 460 in 2009 and 492 in 2008 (San Francisco Aids Foundation, 2012).

Current Prevention Efforts

As stated above, professionals are currently focusing on universal access to prevention through the use of condoms, testing and treatment (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). Prevention interventions in the form of testing and education are being used to identify, inform and change the behavior of people with HIV to reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to their sex/drug partners (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Health care professionals have also found that improving access to high quality health care for populations traditionally highly affected by HIV, including nonwhite and gay/bisexual men, educating/encouraging HIV patients to stay in treatment, and providing preventive measures to the partners of HIV patients are all fundamental preventive strategies (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Through education, testing, treatment access/continuation and preventive measures, the health care industry is directly confronting the significant crises posed by HIV / AIDS.

Future Goals for Prevention

The ultimate goal of health care professionals and agencies dealing with HIV is the prevention of HIV and related illness and death (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). To that end, the National HIV / AIDS Strategy has established 3 primary goals: lowering the number of people becoming infected with HIV; raising health care access and enhancing treatment outcomes for HIV patients; lowering health disparities related to HIV (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Mirroring and aggressively enhancing measures currently used by health care professionals are believed to be the most effective goals/measures for prevention of HIV / AIDS.

Nurse’s Role in Education and Prevention

The nurse’s role in education about and prevention of HIV stems from his/her core value of becoming a knowledgeable, effective advocate for the highest attainable quality of patient care. This core value requires several key activities by nurses, presented here numerically but in equal order of importance. First, the nurse must become educated about HIV-related issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012). Secondly, the nurse must make his/her voice heard. Nurses can make their voices nationally and regionally heard by: joining professional organizations that exert greater impact on the response to HIV / AIDS issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); contacting public officials (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); calling media attention to HIV / AIDS to the epidemic and in pressuring for a more aggressive governmental response (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 4); taking a clear-cut stance on effective education and prevention (Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 2012). Nurses can make their voices locally and specifically heard by: participating in community programs, organizations and support groups dedicated to education, prevention and high quality treatment. In their professional lives, nurses can contributed to prevention by educating patients about the causes, prevention, treatment and day-to-day aspects of living with of HIV / AIDS. Some use a widespread approach, such as published materials like What nurses knowHIV and AIDS (Farnan & Enriquez, 2012); others directly address those issues with their individual patients, such as forming an alliance with the patient to enhance adherence to treatment (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 47).

Community Programs / Organizations / Support Groups

As HIV / AIDS awareness increased, the numbers of community programs, organizations and support groups also increased. Given San Francisco’s large at-risk gay/bisexual male population, for example, there are several key programs, organization and support groups. There is, of course, the San