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Corporate Governance And Social Responsibility History Assignment Example

Global Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility

Microsoft Corporation

An in-depth analysis of all possible factors responsible for the Social efforts

Socio-Economic, Cultural, Technological and Legal Factors

Strategic ideas involved in addressing corporate social responsibility issues

The Unique Composition of Microsoft

Creating Better-Quality Products

Using Conventional and Contemporary Resources

Political acumen

In recent years, augmented degree of interest has been shown on the subject of “Corporate Social Responsibility,” also known as “CSR.” This interest has been shown, both in the international/national business and academic circles, because almost all the current studies indicate that “Corporate Social Responsibility” increases the credibility of the business in the eyes of the stakeholders, both within and outside the organization (Isabelle and David, 2002).

Another reason for the increased interest being shown in the direction of “Corporate Social Responsibility,” both by international/national business and academic circles, is because of the constant emphasis by the global society towards the business community to play a more positive and constructive role in the growth, development and welfare of the society. After debating and discussing this issue for several years, almost all international business circles are now looking at ways and means to increase their economic activities in ways that would result in a social change for the international communities. Furthermore, quite a few international corporations have integrated a certain code of ethics in their activities so as to help the interest of the non-profit groups working to bring a social change in the community (John and Nabil, 1993).

One aspect of “Corporate Social Responsibility” is quite clear; the fact that consumers, stakeholders and societies have started protesting against the social evils that exist in the world and are causing unending misery to their lives. These protest have created awareness in the international business community to start acting in a socially responsible manner. Worldwide protests against deadly diseases, eradicating child labor, globalization, augmenting working conditions (particularly the branded merchandise), and environmental hazards have made the international business circle believe that it is time to start acting in a socially responsible manner. They think that this social responsibility should be directed towards improving the social conditions of the consumers and stakeholders so as to not only increase market access but also to increase customer loyalty (Christine, 2002).

However, the expectation of the consumers, stakeholders and societies has not come to a stand still. Notwithstanding, the present status of the social efforts being made by corporation, they want these profit-oriented organizations to do a lot more for the benefit of the society. These anticipations and prospects have made the business managers quite puzzled and concerned. This is because the corporate world of today is extremely influenced by the lengthy governmental rules and regulations, laws and procedures. Therefore, their task has become extremely complicated, since, certain business customs are gratifying in one community, however, those customs are intolerable in other communities (John and Nabil, 1993).

In light of the issues mentioned above it is imperative that we take an in-depth analysis of an international organization so as to understand the social dynamics that underlie the focus of the present business community towards their social responsibility. The international business firm that has been chosen is Microsoft Corporation. The paper gives a thorough analysis of all the factors that are causing this firm to act in a socially responsible manner. Furthermore, the paper discusses the strategic ideas that have been at the forefront of the corporation. Lastly, the paper concludes by highlighting the future challenges the company is likely to confront and the future direction the company is likely to take.

Microsoft Corporation

Background Information

Microsoft was founded in 1975. Microsoft is the global leading technology firm. It offers its services in software as well as Internet technologies for personal as well as business processes. The company believes in empowering the people with technology. It achieves this objective by offering its worldwide consumers an extensive variety of products and services. (Randall, 1998).

In 1983, Microsoft started its social activities. This made Microsoft the very first tech-oriented company to take a step towards making an effort in improving the socio-economic conditions in the world. Microsoft envisions that by offering the necessary training along with technology-tools, it can assist the unassisted by improving their social and economic prospects. This effort will in turn bring about a change in the backward communities and allow them to make full use of their aptitude (Randall, 1998).

Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft, writes in his critically acclaimed book, “Business @ the Speed of Thought: Succeeding in the Digital Economy,” writes that technology carries with it the inherent system of growth and development. As a result, any dialogue on the subject of “growth and development” eventually brings about the subject of “science and technology” and any dialogue on the subject of “science and technology” brings about the subject of “growth and development.” Bill Gates further writes about the socio-economic dimensions of “growth and development,” particularly the connection amid growth/development/culture/technology, and how culture/technology has not been correctly taken into consideration by both the business as well as the academic community. The writer adds that this disregard has paved the way towards the assumption that “growth and development” is simply tantamount to economic transformation. However, the writer adds that “growth and development” is in fact a complex as well as a three-dimensional progression, which comprises political, social as well as cultural realms.

Randall in his book, “The Microsoft Way: The Real Story of How the Company Outsmarts Its Competition” writes that Microsoft has played a huge role in upgrading modern technology. However, this is not the only reason for the company to have prospered in such a competitive environment. He writes that the company’s social efforts, particularly that of Bill Gates, towards that world community has earned, both him and his company, a great deal of respect in the eyes of the consumers and the stakeholders. Following is the summary of his funds for the year 2003 and 2002:

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An in-depth analysis of all possible factors responsible for the Social efforts

Socio-Economic, Cultural, Technological and Legal Factors

Doug Dayton in his book, “Selling Microsoft: Sales Secrets from Inside the World’s Most Successful Company,” write that while Microsoft has acquired international recognition, by every stretch of imagination, it has been able to sell itself by becoming a major contributor towards the efforts being made all over the world to decrease poverty, disease and illiteracy. Its efforts in promoting its brand name and increasing its profits are particularly visible in regions that lag behind the developed world, that have high unemployment ratios, that have high ratios of starvation, and that have thousands of parents striving extremely hard to give the basic necessities of life to their kids (Doug, 1999).

Doug Dayton further writes that while the primary objective of Microsoft Corporation has been to acquire recognition throughout the world, the secondary objective of Microsoft has been to commit itself to the social cause by assisting non-profit organizations that have the aptitude to bring about a constructive change in the deprived and backward areas of the world. The writer adds that Microsoft aims to produce profound economic transformation and elevation of the living norms. Being a leader in the tech-industry, it aims to achieve this by bridging the digital divide between the underdeveloped world and the developed world. He writes that the under-developed countries are helpless without technology, and since technology has turned out to be a significant factor for the economic progress, it was comprehensible for the international stakeholders and consumers to push this technology giant to expand its horizon and help the deprived areas of the world (Doug, 1999).

In line with Bill Gates (as referenced in Doug, 1999) technology, not only controls the course of economic growth and development of the community, but also establishes vital constituents that play a central function in the social transformation. Moreover, he believes that technology is the driving force behind social change enforcing its personal logic on the social actors as well as on their relationship with the society. Gates believes that technology, in this century, has the aptitude to transform into a more effectual player and bring about a social change in the socio-economic spheres rooting for the basic human requirements. This viewpoint that Bill Gates carries with him has put Microsoft at the helm of philanthropy throughout the world (Doug, 1999).

Furthermore, Doug Dayton writes that education and health care has played a critical factor in the development of the global society, economy, as well as democracy. But the fact that not all the people in the world can acquire quality education and health has made Microsoft founder Bill Gates focus his energies towards bridging the digital gap between the developed world and the underdeveloped world. His efforts have been centered on educating the youth and providing them access to information through Internet and helping non-profits by providing them financial assistance so as to decrease the epidemic of deadly diseases; thereby giving them hope and desire to fulfill their dreams; and giving himself increased profits and recognition (Doug, 1999).

James Wallace and Jim Erickson in their book, “Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire,” write that, in this modern era cultural backwardness exists in many developing countries because of inadequate growth and development in vital sectors such as science and technology. This aspect is considered to be the major reason for the cultural backwardness in the third world. The unregulated technological progress made by Microsoft Corporation has put it at the helm of affairs leading to financial assistance to bridge the cultural gap between the developed world and the underdeveloped world.

Furthermore, the writer adds that this correlation between technological progress and the growth of cultural standards, specifically, the impact of the technology upon social as well as cultural values has been under increased discussion due to its controversial nature. However, the implications put forward by certain quarters of the academia on this subject has not deterred the Microsoft Corporation from backing away in funding the non-profits to bridge the digital gap. It has continued with its efforts to bring a socio-economic transformation in the deprived parts of the world.

Strategic ideas involved in addressing corporate social responsibility issues

The Unique Composition of Microsoft

Shirley Sagawa and Eli Segal in their book, “Common Interest, Common Good: Creating Value Through Business and Social Sector Partnerships,” assert that the influence of the unique composition of Microsoft Corporation on social strategic ideas provokes the dynamism with which it has dealt with its social responsibilities. Furthermore, Marc Benioff and Karen Southwick in their book, “Compassionate Capitalism: How Corporations Can Make Doing Good an Integral Part of Doing Well,” describe the infrastructure of Microsoft Corporation as a role model for all corporations. “The inner fabric of the company possesses firm flexibility, sound legal restrictions, energetic abilities as well as administrative insight of the company’s unique composition (Marc and Karen, 2004; pg 65).” This composite fabric of Microsoft has augmented the number of opportunities on the company’s business as well as social strategy (Shirley and Eli 1999; Marc and Karen, 2004).

Creating Better-Quality Products

Shirley Sagawa and Eli Segal in their book, “Common Interest, Common Good: Creating Value Through Business and Social Sector Partnerships,” assert that Microsoft Corporation is distinguished by substantial cost asymmetries that gives it (Microsoft) the edge with a price-lead in offering socio-economic products that act in accordance with the higher ecological and social values With the purpose of identifying products/companies in the market that fall short of fulfilling the traditional values, Microsoft uses strategic ideas in its social strategy to pressure and manipulate the policy makers so that the regulator compels high standards on the whole business. Such strategies, more often than not, offer the policy-makers with data and statistics in relation to the new course-of-action or develop public opinion in favor of such programs. Once the policy makers ratify the new values, Microsoft Corporation subsequently takes advantage of the price-lead in connection with its competitors. Thereby not only increasing its profits but also creating and producing better-quality products (Shirley, 1999).

Using Conventional and Contemporary Resources

Shirley Sagawa and Eli Segal in their book, “Common Interest, Common Good: Creating Value Through Business and Social Sector Partnerships,” assert that in the context of strategic ideas that relate with the implementation of the social responsibility initiatives, the composite association amid all the assets of Microsoft Corporation play a vital role. The company utilizes the conventional resources, such as, financial and physical assets, as well as the intangible contemporary resources, such as, the social capital, reliability capital and human capital (Shirley, 1999).

Penetration in the Political Circle

Shirley Sagawa and Eli Segal in their book, “Common Interest, Common Good: Creating Value Through Business and Social Sector Partnerships,” assert that an extremely critical resource that has played a critical role in the internal growth and development of Microsoft Corporation, and further in the development of strategic ideas for a social change, has been the shrewd aptitude of the company’s founder Bill Gates. Bill Gates aptitude to manipulate the governmental policies in ways that give him a competitive advantage is exemplary. His penetration strategy has given Microsoft Corporation a huge competitive advantage over its competitors, thereby making him more social-oriented in his corporate policies (Shirley, 1999).


In conclusion, based on the data presented in this paper, Microsoft Corporation should look towards the non-profits for executing its social responsibilities. This is because nonprofit organizations offer the workforce that improves the standard of life within the society. This paves way for strong and wholesome societies, which in turn serve as the foundation for successful socio-economic development.

Furthermore, the dedication of Microsoft Corporation towards its social responsibility should function to assist nonprofits all over the world, and work extremely hard in the direction of its objectives. Microsoft Corporation should consider to following three areas of social responsibility:

1) Humanistic works in the direction of education, health, cultural modernization;

2) Sustaining its relationship with its consumers by philanthropic activities as well as monetary assistance and 3) Conveying ecological commitments that influence the natural elements.

Lastly, Microsoft Corporations should transform its social strategies on a constant basis, since, corporate leaders of today are creating and applying new opportunities and strategies for their social causes. Microsoft Corporation should look to generate strategies that give substantial corporate advantage for its social non-profit activities.


Bill Gates. Business @ the Speed of Thought: Succeeding in the Digital Economy. Warner Business Books; 2001

Christine L. Smith. Corporate Social Responsibility: A Dutch Approach. International Labor Review, 2002.

Doug Dayton. Selling Microsoft: Sales Secrets from Inside the World’s Most Successful Company. Adams Media Corporation. 1999.

David Thielen, Shirley Thielen. The 12 Simple Secrets of Microsoft Management: How to Think and Act Like a Microsoft Manager and Take Your Company to the Top. McGraw-Hill. 1999.

Isabelle Maignan, David A. Ralston. Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe and the U.S.: Insights from Businesses’ Self-Presentations. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 33, 2002.

John P. Angelidis, Nabil A. Ibrahim. Social Demand and Corporate Supply: A Corporate Social Responsibility Model. Review of Business, Vol. 15, 1993.

James Wallace, Jim Erickson. Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1996.

Marc Benioff, Karen Southwick. Compassionate Capitalism: How Corporations Can Make Doing Good an Integral Part of Doing Well. Career Press. 2004.

Randall E. Stross. The Microsoft Way: The Real Story of How the Company Outsmarts Its Competition. Addison Wesley Longman. 1998

Shirley Sagawa, Eli Segal. Common Interest, Common Good: Creating Value Through Business and Social Sector Partnerships. Harvard Business School Press. 1999.

Global Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility

Save the Children International Research Paper history assignment example: history assignment example

Money makes the mare go. Majority of the business today is conducted to multiply our wealth. Yet there are people working for noble cause too. The Non-Profit organizations or the non-government organizations are those working for the betterment of mankind and their purpose of existence is humanitarian work rather money making. While their objectives are different from organizations interested only in increasing revenues and income, these NPOs and NGOs however face same problems related to organizational structure, leadership, governance and ethical issues more or less as same level. This paper analyzes what specific legal, governance and ethical issues are faced by Save the Children International. The Save the Children is described by The Global Journal as one of the leading NGO in the world (Top 100 NGOs list, 2012).

Save the Children International

In 2012, the not for profit organization Save the Children was listed as 18th largest global NGO. The company serves of humanitarian ground since almost a century after it was established by Eglantyne Jebb who worked at Oxford. The purpose of Save of Children was to support ‘children of the enemy’ during World War I. The company claims to have helped around 100 million people that were suffering and it operates in about 120 countries making lives better. The current Save the Children International was formed when 29 separate organizations entered alliance. These companies, to pursue efficiency, combined their assets and expertise.


Save the Children International has the vision to improve lives of children by offering them shelter, food, protection, education, health, child rights governance, and recovery.

Mission Statement

The mission of the company is to have a world in which every child attains the right to survival, protection, development and participation.


The company was initially formed to help the children of the enemies but today it operates in over hundred countries believing that c child in need should be assisted despite his orientation. The company serves children and families during and after floods, earth quakes, and draughts. The recent ventures of the company include flood relief in Pakistan, reconstruction after earthquake in Haiti and serving in Niger for providing food security. The company is highly focused on reducing rates of infant mortality especially in the poor economies. The company operates for children through educational and economic programs. The organization was basically formed to fight miseries in war hit areas and its operations today help children seek opportunities for development too. Today, there are millions of children getting education because of efforts of the company and its projects.

Programs of Save the Children International

Save the Children operates several different projects. The company is working in sectors of protection, survival, education, health, HIV and AIDs, social development and rehabilitation. These programs are briefly introduced below:

Protecting Children:

Save the Children is committed to offer children protection from abuse, exploitation, violence and neglect. The company offers child protection in all the regions of the world. The employees of company find about most vulnerable children. The company seeks cooperation of state, international establishments, and local public partners to improve child protection. The company proudly claims to have helped 3.4 million children in the year 2012.


The survival of child and infant is main concern of the company. Save the Children acknowledges that a child cannot survive without elder’s support. There is a child surviving to live every second and to company makes efforts to maintain child survival through public awareness. Children survival is achieved through controlling factors leading to child death, minimizing newborn complications, diarrhea, malaria, pneumonia, and malnutrition.


The company offers literacy boost programs through which the children are helped to learn through informal methods. The company believes that a child can follow his potential only through education. The education is worth nothing if there is no quality education. The organization does not only focus on child education but also through teacher training. It trains parents so that they can understand the educational needs of a child. The programs of organization educated total 9 million children by 2012.


The company is vigilant in responding to emergency situations in the world. Since it is not known when and which area can be struck by natural disaster, yet it is a common understanding that child suffering is high during such catastrophes. The children are not only helped to recover the trauma of disaster but also to start a normal life once again. The services company offers during calamity are food, shelter, safety, health and comfort.


Reports say that millions of people are suffering from AIDS and about 3.4 million of them are children. The organization works to spread awareness among parents and offers child protection programs against HIV / AIDS. The company says that reducing child abuse and violence would result into reduction and control in HOV/AIDS in children.

Hunger and Livelihoods

Hunger in poor countries is a very critical issue. The company is serving areas affected by hunger and starvation issues. Its projects in rural Guatemala assist and feed undernourished preschoolers. The organization offers support to families so that they can offer them health and education. It improves farming facilities so that malnutrition can be fought.


While the company has served millions of people round the world since its inception, the number of countries is no less than 120 countries. The names of these countries include USA, Europe, Sudan, Uganda, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Haiti, Guatemala etc. The organization does not take time to reach areas hit by war, poverty or disaster. It is among the first organizations to reach the areas where children population is facing health or protection issues. The company serves in African countries too where the poverty is so high that education comes far after health since the child survival is at stake.


The company is working to offer health and education facilities. The company faces the challenges of cultural compliance in the countries it operates. While it is easy to be accepted in poverty hit areas, the company faces challenges in war hit areas. The company is blamed that since it operates in more than half the countries in world, CIA operatives also work in undercover of organization. The company has been working in Pakistan to fight poverty and polio. However, its employees have been alleged to be involved in carrying out CIA operations in the country risking the solidarity of company. Other ethical issues the company has faced are using inappropriate images of the children that violate child’s integrity. Fighting children and poor people images hurts the feelings of those deprived from privileges of modern society.


The company has a worldwide fame but it faced criticism when it used negative images of children in its campaigns. Also, the company was asked to be expelled from Pakistan on September 6, 2012. The state demanded the expulsion of foreign staff since the employees of the company have worked with intelligence forces working to conduct the operations on Osama in 2011. Dr. Shakil Afridi was an employee of the organization who was arrested for conducting fake vaccination campaign that was sponsored by CIA. While the company denied owning Dr. Afridi, the image of the company declined. The country director of Save the Children in Pakistan Michael McGrath is alleged to have recruited Dr. Afridi. The leadership of the organization faces question marks that affect its future operations in the leadership. The management and leadership have a dominant role to define destiny of an organization (Chait, Ryan and Taylor, 2005). The leadership has publically not fought its case. While the case is still not successfully won by the company, Dr. Afridi is still under arrest and his association with company is neither proved nor falsified. The company is facing the challenges to improve its image that it does not collaborate with CIA and complains that CIA operations and intelligence hurts the image of company. The employees of the country also feel unsafe declaring their identities in public areas of poor regions fearing opposition.

The companies also faced another setback when the U.S. Universities Deans condemned the CIA operations in Pakistan under the cover of Save the Children. Thus not only in Pakistan but in America too, the organization was alleged to have unethically supported the intelligence cause. The legal implications of the case can worsen if the medical and healthcare industry feels the same and tries to ban Save the Children since its operations might hurt the image of overall humanitarian organizations. Also, the company faces the challenge to report all its finances to the regulatory bodies in the host country.

Ethical Considerations

In January 2013, the Deans of twelve top U.S. schools of public health sent a letter to President Obama protesting the entanglement of intelligence operations in public health campaigns. In the letter it was mentioned that resistance in poor countries against polio and other vaccinations has increased after CIA and Save the Children’s hunt for Osama bin Laden in 2011. The public mistrust on vaccines has intensified. The John Hopkins School discourages that disguising NGOs for intelligence is a loss of public image in the host countries. The University of Minnesota’s Dean also wrote to Obama for discouraging NGOs from serving political objectives in foreign lands.

Legal Considerations

When the code of conduct is not set by organizations themselves or not followed properly, it provides opportunity for the outer environment to regulate them by law (Fremont-Smith, 2004). The involvement of NGOs in politics and intelligence activities is a threat for any country they operate in. The involvement of NGO employees in anti-state activities generates problems for other companies in the country too. The NGOs are more tightly regulated and their activities are limited by law. The Security and Exchange Commission OF Pakistan suggests legally ensuring and registering these NGOs and to track the funding’s of Foreign NGOs operating in the country. The country plans to discuss in the Economic Coordination Committee that funds of Save the Children and other NGOs will be registered and the company will inform about assistance and donations it receives and SECP will know about disbursement of money.


Save the children is operating since 90 years and in Pakistan since last 30 years. The aim of the company is to serve the children and provide them with education and health o that they can use their potentials. The company needs to increase accountability in the organization. All the employees should be screened for their background. The campaigns should not try to expand organizational operations by exploiting images of poverty hit regions.

The company should make its public image better by serving local needs of poor people rather than the political objectives because it does not only hurt its own operations rather the image of all the not for profit health care and educational organizations. Thus, the decade’s long history of the organization should be saved by staying apart from world politics and working purely for the humanistic cause of health and education.


Chait, R.P., W.P. Ryan and B.E. Taylor, (2005) “Governance as Leadership: Reframing the Work of Nonprofit Boards,” Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Fremont-Smith, M.R. (2004), “Governing Nonprofit Organizations: Federal and State Law and Regulation,” Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press

Top 100 NGOs list, (2012), The Global Journal, Retrieved from:

Pro Bono Resources Term Paper history assignment help writing services

Pro Bono Resources

How Pro Bono resources can increase proficiency levels in D.C. Charter Schools

Pro-bona volunteer services are classified as the community’s help and services provided by the professionals to civil society. According to Rhode (2008) lawyers are renowned for providing legal aid to the improvised communities. The model for pro-bona volunteers includes donations of financial and services in nature. The professionals dedicate their time, expertise, and resources to facilitate the community development. It is also noted that various large organizations encourage their employees to take part in the pro-bona services. The individual professionals from neighborhood also help the institutions and schools that are not capable of hiring their services on commercial basis.

The availability of the resources and service from various professionals as pro-bona volunteers for public charter schools in DC has also enabled to increase the proficiency of these schools. The professionals have provided required help to the public charter schools in gaining required standard of performance through their expert help. The expertise sought to increase the performance of public charter schools has enabled the DC institutions to come in par with the requirements of Tier 1 and Tier 2 status developed by the DC Public Charter School Board.

There are various organizations and individuals taking part in the development of capacity and assisting DC public charter schools the “Raise DC” program is also an example of the volunteers helping schools based on pro-bona principles for IT infrastructure, database management, reporting system development, communication plan, developing school websites, branding campaigns for schools, and professional development initiatives. It is also noted that the performance evaluations and cost saving alternative income options are also facilitated through pro-bona initiatives in DC (Raise DC, 2012).


The public charter schools bridge the gap between privileged and improvised neighborhoods to gain essential education. The neighborhood schools lack the required amount of financial and technical expertise to be in line with the main stream upmarket educational institutions. The pro-bona services provided by the organizations, professional teams, and nonprofit organizations provide required assistance for the schools to develop a strategic plan and manage their resources efficiently in order to serve their mission and goals. The pro-bona services are also regarded as a help form educated and expert individuals towards developing a sustainable plan for educational institutes. It is observed that pro-bona model of volunteer services has facilitated the organizations to improve quality of education and increased their management performance (Cummings, & Rhode, 2010).

Use of pro bono services:

According to Rhode (2005) the pro bono services are offered mainly by the lawyers and professionals in the legal field. The lawyers provide their services to legal aid organizations and they are reflection of the highest professional values form certain organizations. The bar’s pro bono activities include the donations and time dedication for public good. The lawyers have also made significant contributions related to personal sacrifices to allocate numerous hours of services to the improvised clients and communities. The legal assistance provided in the form of number of hours allocated as well as dedicating time by the professionals for assisting the community welfare projects. The pro bono services have gained popularity and it is claimed that it has proved out to be an effective model for delivering free legal services to the community.

Similarly the gain in popularity in terms of legal profession the volunteer pro bono services are adopted by nonprofit organizations for capacity building in various sectors. The educational institutes and other public service sectors are taking advantage of the volunteer services for providing support to the community at large.

Tier one and Tier two Washington D.C. charter schools:

The DC Public Charter School Board (PCSB) is responsible for the ranking and assessment of the performance management framework. The PCSB has developed a criterion for assessment of public charter schools and ranked them according to their achievements. The Tier grades are allocated in accordance with the performance assessment results. The Tier 1 public charter schools are categorized as high performance institutes. Tier 1 schools has demonstrated conformance with the high performance standards. The Tier 2 schools are labeled as they fall short of the high performance criterion however they confirm to the minimum overall performance. The Tier 3 is regarding the schools that fall significantly fall short of the performance standards and as a result the PCSB can decide to close these public charter schools. The charter schools are also most sought by the parents to enter as there is shortage of seats availability. The competition of most sought schools is posing a threat to the poor neighborhood schools as the rules set by the schools indicate preference to students of nearby locations.

Teams of pro bono consultants:

The teams of consultants for pro bono services are dedicated by the organizations and volunteer individuals. The experts in various fields including marketing, information technology, human resources, and strategic management dedicate their time for schools to improve their prospects. The dedicated teams on pro bono basis often pledge their services according to available time. The initiatives taken by the nonprofit organizations and school arranged initiatives provide basis for organization of teams in particular areas of expertise. The pro bono work performed by the professionals is also evident of the concern that public reflects towards education. The pro bono services for neighborhood schools also include the professional’s interactions with the students providing them adequate support without any compensation. The students are benefited with the expert advice and facilitate in skills improvement. The pro bono teams are formed according to the school requirements and required expertise in a particular field (Duhart, 2007).

Capacity building:

The commercial organizations donating towards a charter school projects are not limited to the financial assistance. The businesses had also gained advantage of the pro bono donations to provide their professional services for various initiatives in educational sector. The nonprofit organizations are also particular in providing assistance to the charter schools. The flexible contributions are bro bono based and they can be in terms of a capacity building initiatives including strategy management, leadership development and strategic human resources, marketing, and information technology.

Strategy Management:

The strategy management pro bono initiatives are not only with respect to the assistance for schools management and capacity development. The professionals providing these services also interact with the school students and provide them required guidance for their studies and future careers. The strategy for development of personal management skills is also an essential element in providing the required care for the students. The strategy management capacity building for charter schools also includes the professional support and expertise provided by the volunteers in developing their strategic focus on building an aliened direction.

The strategy management professionals also offer their services to build an organizational capacity in the charter schools. The success of the large scale school programs is dependent on the ability to understand various forms of capacity building initiatives that can be easily facilitated by pro bono volunteers. The pro bono professionals were also treated as strategic partners in order to provide required assistance for planning process, defining the financial goals, targets, target markets, as well as short- and long-term objectives. The capacity of the schools is also enhanced along with a degree of corporate governance structure into the management activities. The public charter schools have also taken advantage of the nongovernmental nonprofit organizations to provide a strategic roadmap for sustenance and development of their capacity to align themselves with the private sector educational institutes.

Leadership Development and Strategic HR:

The lack of leadership skills and style of strategic management plays a vital role in developing an organization’s strategy to success. The strategic human resources professionals providing their services for development of capacity and fulfillment of community needs is an example of assistance provided to the public charter schools in DC. The community help is essential in developing a leadership role within the administrative and curriculum of the educational institutes. The skills and expertise of pro bono professionals can be used to develop programs for enhancing leadership and strategic management of human resources in public charter schools.

The charter school governing boards take advantage of the skills and services on pro bono basis from various renowned organizations to help in developing expertise assessment and performance evaluations tools for their human resources related issues including the teachers and administrative staff members. The strategic support provided by these organizations includes the development of a performance evaluation tool to assess quality of service, management, teamwork and communications, analysis and decision making, leadership, interpersonal relations, and technical performance (Lowe, & Lin, 2006).

The example of such initiative can be quoted as the Boston Renaissance Charter School’s initiative for engaging pro bono services from McKinsey & Company to review their performance. The School Lane Charter School also sought outside professional support form professionals to develop its performance evaluation tool to assess the performance of its management contractors. The Chicago Charter School Foundation and the Friendship Public Charter School (in Washington, DC) also take advantage of the outside consultants to effectively manage their operations. The board staff also provides support for the Friendship Public Charter School to offer the academic programs offered by the management companies (lowe et al., 2006).


The public charter schools also require marketing services and no organization no matter commercial or non-profit oriented can effectively operate in the current environment without having a clear marketing strategy. The nonprofit organizations also have to take advantage of the advertising and marketing services in order to effectively raise their donations. Similarly the charter schools also need to be communicative towards their mission, goals, aims, and objectives. The charter schools need to inform their target audience regarding their achievements, the developments in their ranking, number of seats availability, as well as their significant growths. Marketing is the primary strategic area that can facilitate fulfillment of their financial objectives.

The professionals form various organizations, nonprofit organization members, and civil society provides pro bono services for marketing to public charter schools. The schools also use their rankings and assessment results from public board to promote their mission. The numbers of vacant seats are also advertised through various marketing activities. The individuals having profound knowledge and expertise in marketing provide their services on pro bono basis to public charter schools in helping them develop their marketing strategy, marketing plans, and carrying out marketing activities in effective and efficient ways. The services of professionals’ helps these institutions develop their prospects and highlight themselves in their relevant target markets. The neighborhood help is also sought by the public charter schools to improve their rankings and academic activities.

Information Technology:

Technology is one of the major contributors in optimizing the operations in almost all the segments of life. The extensive use of technology has not only facilitated the organizations to enhance their operations but it also provides a cost efficient solution for various tasks that were performed manually in earlier age. The information technology initiatives also have a diverse nature in terms of pro bono resources in developing educational organizations. The help can be sought in relation to pro bono computer services related to hardware installations and software update. The educational institutes provide their staff trainings to improve their functioning. The IT support from pro bono professionals enables the educational institutions to take advantage and develop automated procedures and performance evaluation tools.

The professionals in information technology can also assist public charter schools to develop and implement management software in order to effectively manage their organization. The professional organizations also provide help to the public charter schools in developing their infrastructure and resources. The information technology operational support is also provided on pro-bona basis in order to help the organizations reduce their maintenance cost. The integration of IT in school operations helps the institutes to keep an electronic track of their progress and costs efficiently monitor their performance. Nonprofit organizations also facilitate the educational institutes to add IT in their curriculum and provide required resources for offering the related courses.

Use of these resources would increase highly effective infrastructures within a Charter school:

The usage of pro bono resources to help the educational institutions build their capacity is a noble initiative taken from various commercial, governmental, nonprofit organizations as well as the professionals in individual capacity can also help the public charter schools. It is also learned that the schools also adopt it as a standard practice to seek expertise from pro-bona volunteers to help them develop the strategic management, IT, marketing, and human resources capacities. The pro-bona-based professionals provide their services to facilitate an educational cause in order to have a positive impact on the society.

The educational initiatives and large scale reforms are only possible through such initiatives as the public charter school lack expertise and financial resources to fund these initiatives at market price. It is also notable that the professional providing these services at a market price is not an affordable option for such small scale organizations. The resources available based on the pro-bona principles are helpful in not only developing the financial capacity of the educational institutes but also provide a detailed input for future prospects of the organization. The individual expert in their fields has detailed knowledge and expertise to assist an institute in building effective infrastructure that can be self-sustained.

The continuous feedback and support of the professionals also help charter schools to keep in touch with the latest developments and as a result they continue to take advantage of the changes occurring within the technology and research paradigms to help achieve their desired objectives. The expert advice of professional’s help the charter schools transform local communities and neighborhoods to be at par with the privileged parts of society. The social divide and access to resources as well as quality education in also facilitated through the contribution of nonprofit organizations and pro-bona professional resources. The schools also develop awareness and expertise in assessing their performance through board members. They can also decide and develop their internal controls to provide them update information on their performance.


Cummings, S., & Rhode, D. (2010). Managing Pro Bono: Doing Well by Doing Better. Fordham law review, 78, 10-05.

Duhart, W.L. (2007). A call to the village: retooling public schools. USA: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

Lowe, A., & Lin, M. (2006, October). Steadying the three-legged stool: Authorizers, charter schools, and education service providers. Retrieved from

Raise DC. (2012). Developing a cradle-to-career partnership. Retrieved from Government of Washington D.C. website: DC – Partnership Summary FINAL.pdf

Rhode, D.L. (2005). Pro bono in principle and in practice: Public service and the professions. USA: Stanford University Press.

Rhode, D.L. (2008). Rethinking the Public in Lawyers’ Public Service: Pro Bono, Strategic Philanthropy, and the Bottom Line. Fordham L. Rev., 77, 1435.

Accounting Cost and Performance Management african history assignment help: african history assignment help

Q1. Explain the differences between cost-effectiveness and performance management. Which performance elements are essential for assessing financial soundness of a nonprofit?


Although sound financial performance is clearly critical for an organization to flourish, cutting costs is not synonymous with performance management itself. An organization can be maximizing its cost effectiveness but not necessarily its performance. Performance management sets specific goals for employees. Goals must be measurable to be clear and effective but not necessarily tangible in nature. Performance management is a whole work system that begins when a job is defined as needed (Heathfield, 2018, par.3). It starts with the hiring process, beginning with an effective job description of each employment position. Each employment position should be linked to specific organizational needs. This is followed up by training and monitoring that evaluates the candidates performance over time based on those needs. Presumably the performance markers are also linked to financial solvency (for example, in the case of a nonprofit, soliciting a certain amount of donations from givers through effective marketing campaigns with strong ROI) but again solvency is not the sole objective.


Financial soundness of a nonprofit is assessed slightly differently than a for-profit organization. Nonprofits are not beholden to shareholders but they must still remain financially solvent and stable. It is important to remember that being a nonprofit does not mean the organization has a lack of concern for financial data. Nonprofit is a tax status, not a way of operating: Positive operating results (unrestricted revenue consistently exceeding expenses) are an indicator of strong financial management (Kramer, 2013, par.6). The ways of tracking financial success may be slightly different for the institutionfor example, versus, overly focusing on the ratio of earned to contributed revenue reliability and a steady revenue stream may be a better indicator, indicating that the organization consistently has enough funds to support its activity (Kramer, 2013, par. 5). But that does not mean ignoring revenue needs entirely.


Q2. How do the board and audit committee utilize activity-based cost reduction information in governance?


Without activity-based cost reduction approaches, a firm is able to lack a clear view of what drives costsand profitability of business units transparent across the enterprise (Using ABC, 2018, par.1). In contrast to other methods, activity-based costing, focuses on activities not responsibilities. It depersonalises the cost review and enables management to value the activities undertaken in relation to the level and/or quality of service provided and factors which cause the costs to be incurred (Using ABC, 2018, par.6). Instead of simply offering information about the financial drain upon the organization, Analysis by activity also allows a fundamental rethink of the way the institution is organised and how it operates and may result in radical reorganization (Using ABC, 2018, par.5). Rather than merely providing a showcasing of the different financial drains upon the organization, activity-based costing gives a portrait of how the organization is currently operating.


Focusing on activities allows the organization to determine how and why, not simply that, certain drains upon potential sources of profit are occurring. Finding substitute activities or more efficient ways to deliver the same service can result in meaningful reductions without impeding organization performance. An audit of efficiency simultaneously with costs prevents managers that have been padding their budgets in an effort to reduce a financial drain upon their bloated departments from benefiting from such financial slight-of-hand. It also ensures that departments that are performing vital but resource-intensive services are not cut to the detriment of overall organizational performance.

Heathfield, S. (2018). Performance management. The Balance. Retrieved from:


Kramer, P. (2013). Top indicators of nonprofit financial health. Nonprofit Finance Fund. Retrieved from: financial-health


Using ABC to reduce costs. (2018). Global FS Consulting. Retrieved from:

The Role of Business in the Economy history homework

Business environment is mainly characterized by various human economic activities including the production, sale, and purchase of goods and services that are carried out with the main objective of earning profits. Generally, the business environment can be described as a set of conditions that facilitate and promote the human economic activities. This environment is basically comprised of the internal business environment and the external business environment. The internal business environment includes the factors that are within the control of business while the external business environment refers to factors that are beyond the control of the business enterprise. One of the most common aspects of the business environment and human economic activities is the economy, which is generally influenced by various factors.

Role of Business in the Economy:

Business is defined as the management and coordination of individuals and resources in order to achieve specific production objectives, with the main goal of making profit. Together with commerce and markets, business generates many benefits for consumers since it’s the basis with which these consumers experience an enhanced standard of living. This is mainly because business enterprises obtain resources like labor and equipment that helps them to specialize in the manufacture of specific products and services. Therefore, the role of business in the economy is to improve the variety, quantity, and quality of products and services available to consumers while the prices of these products and services decreases (“The Role of Business in the Economy,” n.d.). Therefore, business plays an important role in the economy in impacting the consumers’ standard of living. Through the presence of business in the economy, consumers are able to obtain more products and services that enhance their living standards in ways that could be nearly impossible without the existence of business in the economy.

Roles of For-profit and Non-profit Organizations in the Economy:

The for-profit and non-profit organizations play an integral role in the economy because of their significance in the business environment and operations. The for-profit organizations are involved in the production of goods and services as well as the provision of employment in order to generate financial gains or profits. Similarly, the non-profit organizations are involved the manufacturing of products and services as well as the provision of employment. However, these non-profit organizations are not in the businesses with the aim of financial gain or profits. The non-profit organizations generate revenue, employ individuals, and manufacture products and services with the main goal of serving environmental and humanitarian needs. On the contrary, the for-profit organizations assist in improving the living standards of people through taxes that the government uses in providing facilities to individuals and for societal well-being.

Impact of Current Fiscal and Monetary Policy on the Economy:

In nearly every major trend in the market, there are always some underlying economic factors such as GDP growth rates. The underlying economic trends are significant determines of the event that take place to organizations and their stock prices. The economy is usually impacted by two major types of economic policy i.e. current fiscal policy and monetary policy. The fiscal policy is an economic policy that is initiated by the President or Congress through taxation law and government spending. Since taxation is one of the essential tools in fiscal policy, the government can efficiently transform the amount of disposal income that is available to taxpayers through changing tax laws. Through such measures, the disposable income would go the government rather than consumers and then pass on to companies or business enterprises. Secondly, the government can choose to increase spending through direct purchase of products and services from private firms (“Introduction to the Economy,” n.d.). This would in turn increase the flow of money through the economy and enhance the disposable income available to consumers.

The second type of economic policy with which the government can impact the economy is through monetary policy that is initiated by the central bank of a country like the Federal Reserve in the United States. Monetary policy is initiated by this financial institution in order to control the supply of money within the economy. Through its impact on the effective cost of money, the Federal Reserve can influence the amount of money that is spent on businesses and consumers.

The major impact of the current monetary policy is that it has contributed to the steady growth of the economy during the period of economic recovery. However, the rate of unemployment is expected to remain high regardless of the growth rate of economic activity. Secondly, inflation is expected to continue below the predicted levels of consistency over the long-term since the current monetary policy seeks to strengthen maximum employment and price stability. As a result, the Federal Reserve would normally ease monetary policy through the reduction of its target for the rate of federal funds. In contrast, the current fiscal policy is becoming a major aspect of increased consideration because the country’s fiscal position has worsened since the beginning of the financial crisis and recession (Bernanke, 2011). The main impact of the current fiscal policy is that they help in addressing the long-term fiscal challenges in light of the growing challenges.

Accessing Global Markets:

An example of a product that can be used to develop a strategy for accessing global markets is McDonalds’ vegetable burgers. McDonalds is one of the leading firms in the global fast food industry that has continued to thrive across international markets through vital strategies. While the firm has experienced numerous challenges across its operations from time to time, it has been able to deal with these challenges effectively and generated huge profits in all its businesses. In light of the increased health and wellness concerns, the firm’s vegetable burgers are some of the products that could be offered in global markets because they incorporate the health and wellness elements. The vegetable burgers have been produced in consideration of customer needs and wants across international borders for nutrition and healthy products. The appropriate strategy for accessing global markets for this product is includes incorporating product differentiation. The vegetable burgers should be manufactured differently in every country in order to appeal to local consumers without affecting the health and nutrition elements. The second aspect is to use demographic segmentation strategy in which all the main target segments are effectively considered. The demographic segmentation strategy will be critical in developing suitable promotional strategies for every group in the target market.

Impact of McDonalds’ Social Responsibility on the Community:

As one of the leading global firms, McDonalds Corporation recognizes the need to act responsibly in order to meet the expectations of its stakeholders across all its operations. In its social responsibility initiatives, McDonalds has had a major impact on the community through sustainable agriculture and environmental defense. Through these initiatives, McDonalds has been able to implement conservation practices and sustainable agriculture as well as lessening solid waste through significant packaging changes (“McDonalds Issues,” n.d.). The initiatives have had a significant impact on the local communities as the firm gives back to them.

In conclusion, the business environment in increasingly characterized by human economic activities that have significant impacts on the economy. While the activities are geared towards various objectives, their overall goal is to improve the living standards.


Bernanke, B. (2011, February 9). The Economic Outlook and Monetary and Fiscal Policy.

Retrieved November 3, 2012, from

“Introduction to the Economy, Fiscal and Monetary Policy.” (n.d.). Retrieved November 3, 2012, from

“McDonald’s Issues First Worldwide Social Responsibility Report.” (n.d.). CSR Press Release.

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“The Role of Business in the Economy.” (n.d.). Module 16 — Markets and Commerce. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from