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Communications And Culture In International Negotiations Help Me With My History Homework

 

Communications and Culture in International Negotiations

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Communications and Culture in International Negotiations

Definitions

Negotiations: Negotiations are a strategic debate that settles the dilemma in a reasonable way for all sides.

Communications: Communication is an act utilizing mutually understood indicators, signs, and semi-regulations, which transmit interpretations from one person or community to another.

Summary

The article Communication conduct can be described as tactical during various forms of negotiations, as is used to facilitate a target. Therefore, tactics are not used in solitary confinement but rather in conjunction to construct a technique deliberately or normally. So, aside from any real-world interests in cross-cultural ties, studies and comprehension of cross-cultural contact are very useful. The article says that the way a person socializes a culture influences their own experience and how they communicate with others (Helmold et al., 2020). In successfully creating the different phases of negotiations, such as planning, recognizing the interests of the various parties in the negotiations, and an awareness of the implications of the agreements’ failure, cross-cultural contact plays an important part. Every party seeks a shared aim to satisfy the other side’s needs in a successful negotiation situation. The paper focuses on the role and value of cross-cultural contact in all aspects of efficient negotiations.

The article explores the perception of the existence and significance of competencies in political circles, in the international labor force, in the boardrooms of significant multinational corporations and organizations, hospitals and clinics, colleges and universities, and a wide range of other environments. Communication in various forms of negotiations can be described as a strategy since it is used to facilitate a purpose. Nevertheless, strategies are not used in isolation, but in conjunction to form a plan either consciously or accidentally. The article notes that cross-cultural contact helps explain how people function in institutions with staff, buyers, and vendors from multiple cultures, both in corporations and worldwide.

Analysis

Author’s critical positions in the article

I agree with the author’s key position because this paper focuses on the vulnerability of cross-cultural discrepancies and negotiators’ capacity to consider cultural circles. Cross-cultural communication studies are central both for linguistics theoretically and applied. Studying the triggers of malentenduities in cross-cultural interaction highlights the mechanisms underlying all interaction, but sometimes go unnoticed as it continues. So, aside from any particular interest in inter-cultural relations, the study and comprehension of cross-cultural interactions are beneficial.

Explain how the article was easy or difficult to understand and why?

In general, this article was very well written and easily comprehensible. All the papers interested me because various parties, management, and work, spend significant time planning the negotiations. The accurate and reliable details on this bargaining topic is so important to be aware of. If a party to the negotiating process exhibits incapacity to reach an agreement, the party should explain its motives and accept the data required. As you can see, it takes close focus on the issues to plan for successful negotiations.

What did the author do well, in your opinion? Explain

In comparison with individualists, the author changed his style of negotiation from competitive to cooperative. Despite being competitive, however, collectivists remain receptive to others’ concerns (Buchan et al., 2011). On the other hand, the individualists are not concerned about others’ effects until their effects are pleasant. The author also confirmed that individualists are more realistic because, unless they stand in the way, they don’t always alter their actions, with which they compromise.

Describe what you believe the author could have done better in your opinion?

The author may have addressed high-context communication, which refers to the direct or indirect interaction used in the internal negotiations by a specific community. A large proportion of the message in high context cultures is transmitted from a bargaining perspective or history, while very little detail is expected to be presented. The author also should trust the recipient to ensure the knowledge on this matter was pre-existent, since the essence of the correspondence is not directly understood but is secondary.

What other sources or methods could the author have used to improve the research in the article?

To determine the role and significance of cross-cultural cultural contact in successful negotiations, the author should have adopted the narrative literature review methodology. In theoretical and applied linguistics, the author would have been based upon researching intercultural communication. The investigation of the causes of intended male interactions in cross-cultural areas highlights processes that underly all communication.

What information / in-depth study / or further research should the author focus on following this article and why?

In the various styles of negotiations, the author should concentrate. It would help if you negotiated with labor unions, employers, clients, sellers, and so on. Regardless of the various forms of negotiating culture of workers participating in negotiating organization and social culture, they strongly influence negotiations (Peleckis, 2013). Knowledge of interest and power is crucial to all negotiation forms because the integrative compromise hypothesis must be known to appeal. The integrative center often consists of distributive negotiations.

Explain what audience would gain the most benefit from your selected article and how they could apply it in their professional lives

The article makes a valuable contribution to the public because it allows them to create better ties. Provide sustainable, high-quality solutions—not weak short-term ideas that do not fulfill the parties’ needs. Assist you in preventing future disputes and problems.

What did you personally gain from this article, and how has it shaped your thinking on the topic?

I have been able to make the other party’s stance or suggestion, which depends on the ability to communicate. Negotiators must also speak plainly and eloquently for the intent of the talks to talk with dedication.

 

References

Buchan, N. R., Adair, W. L., & Chen, X. P. (2011). Navigating international negotiations: A communications and social interaction style (CSIS) framework. Negotiation Excellence: Successful deal-making, 277.

Helmold, M., Dathe, T., Hummel, F., Terry, B., & Pieper, J. (2020). Successful International Negotiations. Springer International Publishing

Peleckis, K. (2013). International business negotiations: culture, dimensions, context. International journal of business, humanities, and technology, 3(7),

“What’s in a Name? “by Henry Louis Gates history assignment help in canada: history assignment help in canada

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COMPARE AND CONTRAST.

 

 

In the short story, “What’s in a Name?” Henry Louis Gates emphasizes the importance of names. It is a theme he stamps into the reader’s brain by imprinting it in his story’s title. He is troubled when he goes to a store to get some ice cream, accompanied by his father. In the store, a white man named Mr. Wilson addresses his father as George. When his father doesn’t seem to care about the name, Gates goes ahead to ask his father, “Doesn’t he know your name, Daddy? Why don’t you tell him your name? Your name isn’t George.” (Gates 6) It is at this point that Gates recognizes the weight that names carry.

Similarly, the significance of names is brought out by Maya Angelou in her short story “Finishing School.” Marguerita Johnson (Angelou), working for Mrs. Cullinan, one day realizes that names mean a lot. When serving Mrs. Culliman and her friends, one of the women asks what her name is, and Mrs. Cullinan answers for her, saying, ‘She doesn’t talk much. Her name’s Margaret.’ (Angelou 109) Angelou is displeased by the actions of Mrs. Cullinan, a white woman in the story. She even refers to her as Mary instead of Margaret stating that the latter is too long for her.

Whether intentionally or not, Mr. Wilson and Mrs. Cullinan disrespect Gates’ father and Margaret, respectively. By mispronouncing, misspelling, or, even worse, changing somebody’s name, one feels like their identity has been robbed. Mr. Wilson, for example, in the story “What’s in a Name?” shows the ultimate form of disrespect by the mere thought of all black people identifying as George. It might have been ignorance, but he should have asked for the right name instead of assuming he had doubts.

Racism is another common theme that runs through both stories. The characters in the short stories encounter deep racial discrimination. The characters, Gates and Angelou of “What’s in a Name?” and “Finishing School” both realize the racism immediately it happens to them. The go-ahead to try and deal with the issues. In “What’s in a Name?” young Gates asks his father if Mr. Wilson knew his name and why he insisted that his father tells Mr. Wilson what his real name was. (Gates 6). This way, he tries to deal with the problem right there and then. His father responds to him, saying that Mr. Wilson knew his name and that he just chose to call him George because he had always referred to all black people by that name. (Gates 6). Margaret tries to leave the work by getting fired. She tries to come to work late.

Another similarity is in the way the adults in both stories react to the racism they face. In “What’s in a Name?” when Mr. Wilson wrongly addresses gates’ father, he sees this as a regular thing since “He calls all colored people George.”  Similarly, in “Finishing School,” an older woman called Miss Glory, whose original name was Hallelujah, doesn’t take offense when Mrs. Cullinan changes her name. She only gets tempered when Mrs. Cullinan addresses Margaret as Mary. And going back to her “normal” self and told Margaret not to mind because she had worked for Mrs. Cullinan for twenty years and never had she been broken because of the words Mrs. Cullinan said to her (Angelou 110)

 

 

 

Works Cited

Angelou, Maya. Finishing School.

Gates, Henry. What’s In A Name?

Transmission Control Protocol versus User Datagram history assignment help company

Comparison of the Transmission Control Protocol versus User Datagram Protocol

 

 

 

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The transmission control protocol (TCP) vs. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

The transmission control protocol (TCP) refers to a standard that works together with internet protocol (IP) to establish and maintain the network conversations by using applications that can exchange data. User data protocol refers to a standard that transmits datagrams over a network without establishing a three-way connection. To use the user datagram protocol, an end-to-end connection is not needed. Both transmission control protocol and the User datagram protocol are used for enabling the exchange of data from one computer to another. Transmission control protocol and user datagram protocol are the internet suit for transmitting the data between the computers.

The TCP protocol suite enables communications between the networks of different platforms, which makes it interoperable. Any individual or organization can use TCP as a specific person or organization does not own it. The current services of the TCP cannot be disrupted when another network is added. Each device that uses the TCP is allocated the IP address, making them identifiable on a network. The alternative for the TCP is the UDP protocol. The UDP protocol is mainly used for remote procedure call (RPC) applications. The UDP has the following benefits. The user datagram Protocol eliminates the retransmission delays. This makes UDP suitable for time-sensitive applications, such as voice over IP, online games, and media streaming, which cannot afford retransmission delays. UDP transmits the data at the fastest speed. The high speed of data transfer makes the UDP useful for the query-response protocols. The UDP protocols are suitable for the broadcasts because it lacks the end-to-end communication, making its broadcasts to be received by many clients without overburdening the server.

TCP and UDP protocols differ in some ways. The TCP protocol requires a connection to a device, while the UDP does not require a connection between the device’s device to be transmitted. The TCP protocol messages move from one computer to another across the internet, while UDP, many packets can be sent by one program to another. The speed of transmission of data is high in the UDP as compared to TCP. The TCP protocols guarantee the delivery of the data to the destination router, while delivering the data to the destination is not guaranteed in the UDP.

The differences between the TCP and the UDP affect their applications. UDP protocol is used in the time-sensitive application to give real-time information. This makes it to be used in online gaming, and online shopping, which are requires the use of real-time information that has no delays. UDP allows the fast transmission of data without delays hence makes it suitable in such applications.  UDP protocol is so important in remote surgery. It is hard to find the connection to connection; hence having a connectionless protocol such as UDP becomes very necessary. In online shopping, the UDP protocol is the best choice. This is because the UDP allows sending the packets of data simultaneously and to multiple servers, unlike the TCP, which allows the transfer of data between the connected computers only.

The managerial style has to change so that employees who telecommute most of the time are accounted for. The managerial should design a methodology to monitor and control what their employees are telecommuting. Through this, the objectives will be able to be accomplished as it will help ensure that that employee who telecommutes remains focused on the organization’s core objectives

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The podcast is the greatest tool to be used in the advertising of the product. The podcast features great topics that attract many people to listen to or to read them. Through the podcast, a customized product can be advertised, and the information about a certain product can be passed through the entire emphasis throughout the podcast. The most common revenue models for podcasting are through subscriptions, advertisements, and donations by podcast users. Podcasting differs from traditional advertisement because podcast adverts are tailor made to suit the podcaster user. Hence, they reach the right person as intended. The most commonly mobile apps used for podcasting include the Radio Public, Player FM, Pocket Cast, Cast Box Pod bean, and many others.

 

References

Balakrishnan, H., Seshan, S., Amir, E., & Katz, R. H. (1995, December). Improving TCP/IP performance over wireless networks. In Proceedings of the 1st annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking (pp. 2-11).

Haygood, D. M. (2007). A status report on podcast advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 47(4), 518-523.

Dahlstrom, T. R. (2013). Telecommuting and leadership style. Public Personnel Management, 42(3), 438-451.

 

United Health Care Structure and Processes do my history assignment: do my history assignment

FNCE 833 – Comprehensive Exam – Part 2

United Health Care Structure and Processes

United Health Group is a parent company of United Health Care and Optum Health Care. United Health Care is a platform that deals with health insurance. It provides benefit services and health care coverage to its subscribers. On the other hand, Optum Health Care is a platform that deals with the provision of information and technology-enabled health services. The platform consists of health professionals and caregivers that provide services to the customers. United Health Group, has employed about 210,000 workers in 125 countries and in the USA, where its headquarters are based. The two platforms serve over 85 million customers across the world. In the United States, the leading insurance provider is United Health Care. Its vast size requires a very strong leadership structure. With Stephen J.  Hemsley as the CEO, United Health Care has acquired other small insurance companies. To manage and lead the company’s direction, United Health Care uses more of a functional Organization. The board of directors consists of ten members that make sensitive decisions. Gail K. Bourdeaux is the CEO of United Health Care, while Larry C. Renfro is the Optum platform’s CEO. They directly report to the president and CEO of the United Health Group, Stephen J. Hemsley. Under them are other presidents, senior vice presidents, and managers that lead different units.

Under the health insurance sector, a customer needs to enroll in a medical plan. The company offers three types of medical plans: On-demand, Physician-coordinated Plans, and HSA-eligible Plans. Those who subscribe to on-demand medical plan receive price customizability and transparency that fits their health care needs. With Bind’s on-demand health insurance, a person can subscribe to a comprehensive medical plan. People who have enrolled in this program only enroll in additional coverage for select planned procedures when needed. All medical costs are covered in this insurance, and enrollers only need to pay one copay for the care. In the case of physician-coordinated plans, enrollers need to pay lower deductibles and copays. Generally, they need to choose a primary care physician who provides referrals to specialists and coordinates the care. HSA-eligible plans consist of Low-Deductible, Low-Premium, and Balanced plans. In this plan, the customers have to take direct responsibility for paying for and accessing health care. Health Savings Account (HSA) enables employees to save and pay for eligible medical expenses.

Personal Health Responsibility

Personal Health Responsibility generally refers to an individual’s mandate to fulfill his/her duties to maintain his/her social, physical, and mental well-being. Daniel Wikler, a medical ethicist, argued that different people understand the concept of “individuals are responsible for their health” differently. Wikler, a holistic health advocate, holds a different interpretation from individuals who take the concept of Personal Health Responsibility as a mere moral question of wrong and right. Wikler turns to Dworkin’s seven topologies that describe various meanings of responsibility to shed light on this subject. The latter schema provides a difference between causal responsibility and role responsibility. Causal responsibility holds that personal behavioral choices greatly determine his/her health status. Role responsibility holds that the body of a person belongs to him/her. It also differentiates the responsibility based on liability for undesirable consequences and costs of one’s illness.

Unlike role responsibility that simply implies an individual’s roles as a biological organism, causal responsibility implicates people’s choices and actions about exercise, diet, and others. Causal responsibility, therefore, determines how individuals should behave to influence their health status. According to John Knowles, the late Rockefeller Foundation president, “the primary critical choice facing the individual is thus whether to change his/her personal bad habits or quit complaining. He can either remain the problem or become a solution to it.” The responsibility based on liability may refer to a smoker who develops liver cirrhosis or a cyclist who sustains head injury for not using a helmet. They have to bear the responsibility for the medical care costs plus other consequences stemming from their neglect.

Factors such as ethnic origin, culture, food habits, drinking alcohol and smoking, income level, educational level, marital status, gender, and age can promote behaviors that can influence their health status. By increases personal health responsibility, it is easy to increase the protection of health and the self-management of chronic diseases. Individuals, policymakers, and NGOs are responsible for making people aware of health literacy and health-seeking behavior.

Associations between social and cultural factors and health

Several factors determine health, including the general external environment, access to quality health care, personal behaviors, and genetic inheritance (such as housing conditions, water, and air quality). Many research works have established a connection between health and social and cultural factors (Marmot and Wilkinson, 2006; Berkman & Kawachi, 2000). There is robust evidence that links their effects on health in some types of social variables such as poverty or socioeconomic status (SES). Evidence of a link between social networks and social support and health have existed for over 30 years.

Recently, social epidemiologists and social scientists have focused on social and cultural variables and how they affect individual health. Some of these variables include psychosocial work environment, social networks and social support, poverty and deprivation, immigration status and acculturation, gender and sex roles, race and ethnicity, and social, economic status (SES). Some aggregate characteristics of social environments such as collective efficacy, social capital, social cohesion, and income distribution also affect individuals’ health status.  Let us explore two major social variables linked to health: SES and social networks and social support.

SES and Health

The link between SES and health has been recognized by scientists and epidemiologists for centuries now. The socioeconomic differences in health are widespread, large, and persistent across various societies. Three different indicators have been used in social sciences to measure SES, i.e., occupational status, educational attainment, and income.

Educational Attainment

The education credentials and the years of schooling completed always tells a lot about an individual’s educational attainment. Although it may be difficult to assess accurately, the quality of education also links to health. Robust research has associated education with a health outcome, including functional limitations, morbidity, mortality, and health behaviors. Throughout life, there is a relationship between health outcomes and lower educational attainment. For instance, the researchers discovered that mothers with 16 or more years of education give birth to two infants who are 2.4 times less likely to die than infants born to Caucasian mothers 9NCHS, 1998).

Income

There is an extensive body of literature that provides evidence of the link between health and income. The Panel Study of Income Dynamics compared the bottom (<$15,000) to the top (>$70,000) categories of income and realized that among working-age adults, post-tax family income led to 3.6-fold mortality risk (Duncan et al., 2002). According to Adler et al. (1994), the association between mortality and income is described as a gradient. It means that the lower the income, the higher the mortality risks, and the higher the income, the lower the mortality risk.

Social Networks, Social Support, and Health

The quality, strength, and extent of our social connection with other people is an independent social determinant of health. As far as Emile Durkheim’s work, we can trace the recognition of the importance of health and social connections. According to John Bowbly (1969), secure attachments are not just for material resources, food, and warmth but also for non-material resources, love, and security (Berkman and Glass, 2000). During the life course, certain periods are critical for developing attachments and bonds (Fonagy, 1996). To form close effective bonds, secure attachments during infancy are very important (Bowlby, 1969). Social networks are the interconnection of people-centered on social ties (Berkman & Glass, 2000). Aspects such as size, homogeneity, boundedness, and density describe social networks.

On the other hand, social support is defined as support people receive from their social networks. There are three types of social support: informational support, instrumental and emotional. Research has found that the stronger the social network and social support, the lesser people will die from illnesses.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Blazer, D. G., & Hernandez, L. M. (Eds.). (2006). Genes, behavior, and the social environment: Moving beyond nature/nurture debate.

Braveman, P., & Gottlieb, L. (2014). The social determinants of health: it’s time to consider the causes of the causes. Public health reports, 129(1_suppl2), 19-31.

Deductible, P. (2017). Highlights of the Coverage and Services offered by UnitedHealthcare StudentResources.

Friesen, P. (2018). Personal responsibility within health policy: unethical and ineffective. Journal of Medical Ethics, 44(1), 53-58.

Horton, S. E. B. (2014). What is personal health responsibility? ABNF Journal, 25(1), 5.

Minkler, M. (2009). Personal responsibility for health? Health Education & Behavior, 26(1), 121-141.

 

Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation history assignment help online

 

Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

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Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

Introduction

CC (chief complaint): Mr. Feldman, MF, is a male patient visiting the psychiatric health facility for an evaluation to determine the mental health condition he is suffering from.

HPI: Mr. Feldman, MF, is a patient whose parents called psychiatric healthcare a week ago to book an appointment for their son. They reported that their son has some difficulty in school. When asked about this, Mr. Feldman says that going into the school is sufficient. Mr. Feldman reports that he is a first-year student at State college and takes theoretical physics and advanced calculus. He says that he thinks of changing his course and double majoring in philosophy and physics.

Past Psychiatric History:

General Statement: The patient mental health issue is put into test when asked about his roommate. He responds by saying it is okay to call him a roommate. He refuses to talk about his roommate, claiming that he put a microwave in around the facility.
Caregivers (if applicable): The caregiver involves a therapist who helps Feldman says that this condition is not real but a manifestation of a health issue. His parents also play a crucial role in his life by booking an appointment for him when he faces difficulty in school due to his health issue.
Hospitalizations: Mr. Feldman does not provide any information on whether he has ever been a hospitalist before, especial due to his mental health condition.
Medication trials: He has not undergone any medication trials.
Psychotherapy or Previous Psychiatric Diagnosis: Adperson may lack awareness that their behaviors and difficultness arise from a disorder that requires attention, attention, and medical treatment. Therefore without an adequate diagnosis, it is hard to identify the presence of a previous diagnosis, especially without the help of a qualified psychiatrist.

Substance Current Use and History: Neither does Mr. Feldman or his patient report any use of the substance.

Family Psychiatric/Substance Use History: The patient or his parents mentioned no family substance use. Also, no family psychiatric history.

Psychosocial History: No psychosocial history provided

Medical History:

Current Medications: No current medication the patient is consuming reported in the case scenario.
Allergies: No allergies reported

Reproductive Hx: He does not have any health problems with his reproductive health.

ROS:

GENERAL:
HEENT: Mr. Feldman reports no head, eyes, ears, and nose or throat health problems.
SKIN: No rushes on the skin
CARDIOVASCULAR: He has reported any chest compressions or pain.
RESPIRATORY: no report of dyspnea
GASTROINTESTINAL: no vomiting or feeling nauseated
GENITOURINARY: no genital problems or pain when urinating
NEUROLOGICAL: no dizziness and has mental problems associated with paranoia and difficulty in school
MUSCULOSKELETAL: no bone pain
HEMATOLOGIC: Mr. Feldman denies any trauma which may cause the mental health issue.
LYMPHATIC’S: no swelling or inflammation in the lymph nodes
ENDOCRINOLOGY: He has no fever.

Physical exam: Psychotic disorders are diagnosed by identifying symptoms associated with the psychotic disorder, which is possible by asking the patient questions crucial to making the diagnosis.  In addition to this, a physical exam is required to identify abnormal behaviors that can confirm or rule out the psychosis disorder.  After the physical exam and medical history collection, the healthcare professional refers the patient to a psychiatrist who conducts a mental examination to identify the specific diagnosis of the patient’s mental health issue.

Diagnostic results: The diagnostic results provide that the patient has schizophrenia.

Assessment

Mental Status Examination: Psychiatrists have specific tools they use to diagnose a psychotic disorder properly. The use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) ensures the correct diagnosis is made, especially because different mental health disorders have overlapping symptoms and characteristics (American Psychiatric Association, 2020). They also conduct a Mental Status Exam (MSE), a psychological exam undertaken to describe a person’s cognitive behavior and state, including the patient’s personal information and objective observation by the psychiatrist. The MSE provides diagnosis information by identifying a patient’s different aspects such as mood, speech, behaviors, cognition, the judge met and, thinking. The MSE consists of 30 questions that a patient answers, the scores of each question, and the total documented. The result helps to identify serial cognitive impairment and changes in a patient.  The Mental Status Examination for Mr. Feldman is:

Appearance: Mr. Feldman is uncooperative and continues to sit stooped in the chair.

Behavior:  He is very smart with sharp memory.

Speech: Talks slow and with a lot of caution.

Mood: He feels down and is in fear that he is being watched.

Affect: He is a consistent and soothed dull mood.

Thought process: He is very sharp with a lot of content.

Thought content: He is paranoid that someone is watching and describe the use of a microwave placed in the facility. He believes he and the psychiatrist will be safe.

Cognition: Alert and focused, but he is sometimes disoriented when answering the questions.

Insight/Judgment: He has poor judgment because he cannot identify the truth due to his paranoia.

Differential Diagnosis

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a severe mental health condition that affects a person’s ability to behave, feel, and think clearly, making the affected people interpret reality differently. The symptoms associated with schizophrenia are delusions, confusion, hallucination, and disordered behaviors and thinking (American Psychiatric Association, 2020). Also, the condition involves experiences and thoughts which make a person seem out of touch, with disorganized behaviors and speech, which, when combined with symptoms, decreases the ability of a person to participate fully in daily activities.  Additionally, schizophrenia causes neurocognitive impairments and social problems because of the illusions that exist.

Delusions are false beliefs that have no basis on any reality, making a person believe some things that are not true are happening to a person.  Hallucinations are symptoms that involve hearing or seeing things that do not exist but cause an impact on the person as if they are right. The most common type of hallucinations hears voices. According to van Rooijen et al. (2018), disorganization in speech and thought includes ineffective communication ability and inability to portray thinking ability, especially problems with answering questions.  Also, it includes disorganized and silly behavior like those of a child, such as developing unpredictable agitation, resistance, having bizarre postures, and some excessive movements.

Due to these symptoms, a patient cannot function adequately, resulting in a disabling impact. A patient cannot function properly, especially when experiencing an episode that disorients a person’s thinking capacity (Factor et al., 2019).  The characteristics and symptoms associated with schizophrenia make it very difficult for a person to concentrate or maintain memories of present or past things. The risk factors which increase the risk of developing schizophrenia are family history,  taking some medication, especially complications associated with birth control and, taking mind-alter-altering medications such as drug abuse.

The medical experts have not identified the exact cause of schizophrenia, but different factors play a role in developing the disorder. Such factors include genetics and environmental results to alter the brain structure and chemistry, resulting in schizophrenia. Treatment of schizophrenia involves combining different medications and management activities, which provides psychotherapy and specialized care services (Janssens et al., 2018). The condition is life-long, and therefore, adequate treatment throughout life after diagnosis to control the symptoms and enable a person to live a healthy and productive life. Based on the severity of schizophrenia, symptoms, treatment varies, some worsening, and some are disappearing as long they stick to the treatment plan.

Psychotic disorders

Psychotic disorders are a severe mental disorder that affects a person’s thinking ability by causing abnormal perception and thinking, making a person lose touch with reality and imposing other views that seem to be real. The condition is positively associated with hallucinations and delusions. Patients suffering from psychotic disorders are not able to tell what is real and what is not. The disease affects the mind, which results in problems in making a proper judgment, communicating correctly, an adequate response to emotions, and hindering clear thinking.  A person with psychosis cannot understand reality or behave appropriately, making it hard to deal with life situations.

Medication-Induced Movement Disorders

Medication-Induced Movement Disorders are various conditions that develop when a person takes certain drugs that alter the central nervous systems’ neurochemistry.  These disorders cause multiple combinations of involuntary movements, such as slow-talking, tremor, and impaired speed (American Psychiatric Association, 2020). In this case scenario, Mr. Feldman can be suffering from a movement disorder. This medical health issue results in abnormalities in movement because he talks about many things without following a flow of what is being discussed (Janssens et al., 2018).  He is talking about the microwave and then immediately talking about bleeding degeneration of the blood cells, which he related to bleeding human being from reality. It is not making sense and can develop due to coerced speech.

 

Reflection

Mental health is an issue that requires comprehensive, efficient, and effective diagnostic strategies to get the right diagnosis for proper treatment and management. This research required thorough research to ensure the correct diagnosis was developed; therefore, it is crucial to identify evidence-based, current, relevant, and purposeful resources that will provide the required information (Yang et al., 2018). Conducting the psychiatric mental exam is crucial to provide thorough information, separate the line between overlapping symptoms, and identify why the primary diagnosis is selected and another diagnosis. Also, at the end of the standard psychiatric interview, the information provided for MSE was already offered, which means it is crucial to direct the information being asked.  The MSE information is vital, and its application is critical to the diagnosis and assessment of the correct disorder to get a responsive treatment and management of the condition. When conducting a psychiatric exam, the professional must include what is seen and observed. The process of assessing a mentally ill patient involves a clinical approach of collecting information, using observation, and conducting neurological and psychological tests to draw a conclusion and determine a person’s health problems (Factor et al., 2019). Therefore, comprehensive strategies are crucial for the psychiatrist, especially during the interview, to collect valuable information.

 

 

References

American Psychiatric Association. (, 2020). The American psychiatric association practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. American Psychiatric Pub.

Factor, S. A., Burkhard, P. R., Caroff, S., Friedman, J. H., Marras, C., Tinazzi, M., & Comella, C. L. (2019). Recent developments in drug-induced movement disorders: a mixed picture. The Lancet Neurology, 18(9), 880-890. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30152-8 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1474442219301528

Janssens, S., Moens, H., Coppens, V., Vandendriessche, F., Hulstijn, W., Sabbe, B., & Morrens, M. (2018). Psychomotor assessment as a tool to differentiate schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia Research, 200, 92-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2017.06.047

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0920996417303869

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van Rooijen, G., Isvoranu, A. M., Kruijt, O. H., van Borkulo, C. D., Meijer, C. J., Wigman, J. T., … & Bartels-Velthuis, A. A. (2018). A state-independent network of depressive, negative, and positive symptoms in male patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Schizophrenia Research, 193, 232-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2017.07.035 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0920996417304462

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