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Christian and Pagan Influence in Paradise Lost and Beowulf

Christian and Pagan Influence in Paradise Lost and Beowulf

In Paradise Lost, Milton is adept at drawing from both Christian and pagan sources and integrating them in such a way that they reinforce one another (Abrams 1075). Of course it is a commonplace for critics to believe that Milton valued his Christian sources more highly than the pagan ones (Martindale 20); this is most likely due to the fact that he regarded the Christian sources as vessels of the truth. His classical allusions, on the other hand, served as references for things fallen or damned. Thus, as seen in the invocation to Book 7 (“Descend from heav’n Urania, by that name / If rightly thou art called” [7.1-2]) wherein Milton places his muse Urania, the Greek muse of astronomy, in Heaven and distinguishes her as Christian, Milton works to integrate the Christian and pagan throughout Paradise Lost. Although a detailed account of the reasoning behind his form is beyond the scope of this essay, because “a strict Classicist might resent the intrusion of the Biblical models, [and] a strict ‘Puritan’ might equally resent the degradation of the Word of God to the status of a source of precedents for literary composition” (Lewis 5), perhaps Milton’s choice of form was a political as well as a stylistic one. On the other hand, the reason could be as simple as Milton himself states in the invocation to Book 1: “Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme” (1.16). In this one line, Milton borrows directly from Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso, thus acknowledging the epic tradition, yet also challenging that very tradition by promising his readers greatness and originality (Abrams 1476).

Paradise Lost, however, is not the first epic to integrate both Christian and tradi…

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Technical Challenges of Remote Access Surgery

Technical Challenges of Remote Access Surgery

Abstract: Telesurgery, or remote access surgery, is “the provision of surgical care over a distance with direct, real-time visualization of the operative field with the help of telepresence technology and force feedback” [Nair, 1]. This paper outlines the potential impact of telesurgery on medicine and analyzes the technical obstacles that hinder the pervasive use of this technology.

The term ‘telesurgery’ is used to describe surgical procedures that are performed by a surgeon at a distance from the patient through a virtual interface. Still in its experimental stages and limited to minimally-invasive surgical procedures, telesurgery promises to one day bridge physical barriers between surgeons and patients. When time is critical and patients are immobile or remotely situated, telesurgery has the potential to save lives. However, the technical difficulties, financial costs, and legal issues involved with this new technology make telesurgery far from commonplace today. Unlike other forms of telemedicine such as remote medical consulting, telesurgery involves direct, real-time, physical contact with a patient’s body and thus demands an unprecedented degree of precision, fidelity, and expediency. This paper identifies and explores the limiting constraints of developing this new and revolutionary technology. It asserts that the main challenges to telesurgery result from its high implementation costs and the technical difficulties associated with recreating a real-time, virtual, and tactile operating environment.

Telesurgery owes its origins to the atomic energy industry’s need in the 1950s to handle dangerous and hazardous materials in a safe manner….

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…asha. Various Aspects of Telemedicine. 1997.

Dempsey, Lorraine. Virtual Reality in Surgery. 20 Feb 2001.

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Hickey, Christopher. Distance Medicine: Haptic-Visual Input. 20 Feb. 2001.

Kershaw, Charly. Remote Control Surgery. 21 March 1997. .

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Stevens, Rick L et al. Petaflops in Medicine: Telesurgery PetaFlops Workshop. 26 June 1998. .

Vanderheyden, L. Telesurgery: Fiction or Reality? Dossier Telemedicine, 1997

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