2 To Compare the Social Media Marketing Practices and Their Impact on
To Compare the Social Media Marketing Practices and Their Impact on Consumer Behavior Between Small and Medium Size (SMEs), and Large Enterprises
The purpose of the study was to explore the social media practices and their impact on small and medium-sized enterprises and determine whether their effect differs when compared to similar practices by large corporations. The study used a qualitative content analysis approach in which different academic sources including peer-reviewed journals, expert reports, and industry survey reports were included in the analysis to answer the research questions. The results found that Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram are the most commonly used social media marketing platform in order of priority. The study further found that marketers used photo placement more than video ads. The results also showed that social media marketing positively impacts marketing practices through increased brand awareness, communication and engagement with consumers, and consumer-generated content marketing. Further, the results indicated that large business organisations might have a compratative advantage over SMEs regarding social media marketing.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 5
Background Information 5
History of the Social Media 5
Fundamental Features of the Social Media 5
Social Media and Marketing 6
Problem Statement 7
Research Objectives 7
Research Questions 7
Significance of the Study 8
Structure of the Dissertation 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 9
Theoretical Framework 9
Chaffey’s Theory of the Social Media 10
Review of Related Studies 11
Forms of Social Media Marketing 11
Impact of Social Media Marketing 14
Differences on the Impact of Social Media Marketing for SMEs and Large Corporations 16
Summary and Gap 18
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 19
Research Philosophy 19
Specific Research Design 20
Data Collection 22
Data Analysis 22
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 24
Objective One: Various Forms and Types of Social Media Commonly Used for Marketing 24
Objective Two: The Impact of Social Media Communication on SMEs 27
Objective Three: Impact of the Social Media Marketing on SMEs Versus Large Organisations 30
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 32
Recommendations for Management 33
Recommendation for Future Research 34
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
History of the Social Media
According to Boyd (2015), the first social media that fits the aforementioned description is Six Degrees, which first launched in 1997 and allowed users to create their profiles and a list of their contacts to send out messages. Before the site went down in 2000, it had already attracted a million users. At the turn of the millennium, the second notable social media site was the AimIHotorNot.com, which allowed users to submit their photos so that others could approve of their attractiveness. As Leonardi et al. (2013) argue, it is believed that this site was fundamental in influencing the creators of Facebook.
Myspace arguably, set the stage for the arrival of other major social media sites. As Leonardi et al. (2013) observe, although Facebook’s fame occurred in 2005, its first creation was in 2003 when its current CEO – Mark Zuckerberg, launched it as “Facemash,” which was described as Harvard University’s version of the Hot or Not. Other common social media platforms include YouTube, LinkedIn, Flickr, Photobucket, WordPress, and Twitter. Other social media sites developed after the mid-2000s include Instagram Tumblr for microblogging, among many other modern and popular social media sites (Boyd, 2015).
Fundamental Features of the Social Media
One of the fundamental features of social media that make them preferred by many users for communication is the ability to share experiences, particularly the ability to share photos, videos, and other audio-visual elements (Zhu & Chen, 2015). According to Ghaisani et al. (2017), the ability of people to share photos of their own and those of others, for instance, enhances the social experience.
The social media sites also have storage of media and other news content that can be used for feature references. While referring to the term “the internet never forgets,” Madakam et al. (2015) observe the fundamental feature of social media in storing textual, audio, and audio-visual information that is often used for future references when such information becomes necessary. This social media element is currently used in most countries during political campaigns.
Social Media and Marketing
Since communication is fundamental in marketing, the goal of marketers has always been to determine the best platform or method of delivering product information to the customers (Armstrong et al., 2014). The business objective is to gain as much sales and revenue as possible. Effective marketing, therefore, involves selecting the best platform in which the marketing message can effectively reach the targeted consumers, and social media provides such a platform.
As Dwivedi et al. (2021) observe, one of the major reasons social media have today become a preferred platform for marketing is the large number of users they have. Facebook, for instance, has about 2.9 billion monthly active users. Therefore, a marketing message or campaign posted on a company’s page on Facebook is likely to reach a much wider audience. Another important feature of social media sites in marketing is that they allow active interaction and communication between the marketers and the targeted customers (Kaur, 2016). A consumer, for instance, can make inquiries about specific products and services, including the price and availability; this information can be provided almost immediately in synchronous communication. Furthermore, the direct engagement between marketers and consumers helps the business better understand the individual and group customer tastes and preferences and tailor their products to mee the same (Evans et al., 2021).
Most studies have solely focused on the impact of social media marketing on SMEs or business organisations. Very few studies have compared the impact of social media marketing on the two groups of organisations. Therefore, the current study seeks to fill the gap by comparing the effectiveness of social media platforms on marketing activities for both SMEs and large business organisations.
To explore the various forms and types of social media that are commonly used in marketing
To determine the impact of the social media platform on business marketing activities and decisions
To explore whether the impact of social media on marketing differs between SMEs and large business organisations
What are the various forms of social media that are commonly used in marketing?
Do social media platforms have a significant impact on business marketing activities?
Does the impact of social media on marketing differ between SMEs and large business organisations?
Significance of the Study
The study’s findings will be important for large and small and medium-sized business organisations. The literature indicates that SMEs have less capacity to engage in extensive and professional social media marketing than large corporations (Rugova & Prenaj, 2016). However, there is less evidence to indicate whether the resource difference has an effect on the impact of the various social media marketing strategies used by these groups of business organisations. Therefore, the study’s findings will help the SMEs, for instance, determine whether their respective marketing strategies are effective enough to yield the desired outcome.
Structure of the Dissertation
The dissertation is organised into five main chapters. The first chapter is the introduction. The second chapter is the literature review, and the third chapter is the methodology. The fourth chapter is a combination of both the results and discussions. The fifth and last chapter is the conclusion and recommendations. Other important section of the dissertation includes the references and the appendices if needed.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
This section of the dissertation reviews the studies that have since been done with respect to the current topic. Conducting a literature review aims to establish what other studies have found regarding the current topic, which is important in avoiding unnecessary duplication of research. The literature review also forms the basis for discussion such that the findings of the study shall be discussed based on whether they concur or are different from what exists in the literature. The literature review is organised into three main sections: the theoretical framework, the review of related studies, and the summary and knowledge gap. The review of related studies is further sub-divided into sections that correspond with the research questions.
As Braidotti (2019) describes, a theoretical framework is a set of theories that explains or forms the foundation on which the relationship among study variables is anchored. Several theories seek to explain the occurrence of a different phenomenon in the world. However, specific theories are relevant and appropriate for specific research scenarios. It is important to note that theoretical frameworks do not necessarily imply or explain the causal relationship between study variables or research phenomena. However, they provide a specific set of arguments that aids in explaining the variables and phenomena of interest. For instance, in this study, several theories could be used to explore how Social media, communication, and consumer behaviour theories are all relevant herein. However, the most appropriate theory is the one that focuses on the major elements of the study. This dissertation’s primary focus is on social media; hence a relevant theory would be derived therein. Specifically, Chaffey’s theory of social media marketing is used herein. This theory is relevant because it combines social media and marketing activities.
Chaffey’s Theory of the Social Media
The theory of social media was developed and proposed by David Chaffey in 2002 (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). According to the history of social media that was explored in chapter 1, 2002 represents a period when the first social media site was being popularised, which makes the theory relevant since it coincides with the introduction of social media at a time when marketing was not essentially considered as a purpose for social media. According to Chaffey’s theory, social media marketing facilitates and monitors customers’ participation, interaction, and sharing of information through social media to promote and encourage meaningful engagement with a brand, or the organisation itself, which ultimately leads to the creation of commercial value.
As Chaffey and Smith (2017) observe, Chaffey’s theory explores social media not as a place for displaying products and services for the customers to be aware and develop purchase intention. Chaffey’s theory considers social media marketing to build relationships between the brand, the company, and the millions of available customers on various social media platforms. Khamis (2018) also argues that Chaffey’s social media marketing theory considers marketing from a fundamentally different perspective from traditional marketing, such as TV, radio, and newspaper advertisements. According to Chaffey’s theory, social media platforms provide the customers with a say on the products and services of a company, unlike traditional marketing strategies that are mainly one-way.
Another study by Achen (2017) argues that, as Chaffey explains, social media marketing brings a new perspective to marketing. Social media marketing aims to develop a meaningful and lasting relationship between a business and its clients. As the study argues, such relationships are not only important for closing a one-time sale. Instead, they are important for subsequent sales, hence, the association of social media marketing with customer loyalty and brand equity. The following section reviews the studies based on the various objectives or research questions, with Chaffey’s theory as the underlying framework for discussion.
Review of Related Studies
Forms of Social Media Marketing
A study by Karimi and Naghibi (2015) explored SMEs’ social media strategies. The study used a quantitative survey approach in which 120 owners of SMEs were sampled. The data was obtained through self-administered questionnaires. A descriptive survey was used to analyse the data. The study found that the majority of the SMEs owners (91%) prefer social networking sites, particularly Facebook. Another majority indicated that they preferred Instagram, while only a few indicated the users of Twitter. The study further found that the preference of Facebook as the destination for social media marketing was influenced by the following factors – the owner’s knowledge, attitude, and experience with a social media site, and the perceived potential customers on the specific social media. Therefore, the results imply that most SMEs owner perceives Facebook to have more targeted customers than other social media sites. The studies further imply that the number of audiences is a major influence on the marketers’ decision on the specific social media strategy to use.
Leung et al. (2015) concur with Karimi and Naghibi’s (2015) findings that social networking sites are the most commonly used social media platforms for marketing. The study further explored the preference and effectiveness of two of the most popular social networking sites – Facebook and Twitter. The study used a quantitative approach in which data was obtained from online surveys from 215 respondents. The study explored the consumers’ attitude towards the advertisement (Ad) and the attitude toward the social media page to determine the effectiveness of the two sites. The results found that consumers social media experience influenced their interaction with brand advertisement and marketing on the social media pages. Therefore, the results indicate that the consumers’ prior experience, use, and knowledge of a social media page influence their interactions and perception of social media marketing. Unlike the study by Karimi and Naghibi (2015), Leung et al. (2015) found that there is no significant difference in the effectiveness of social networking sites on marketing. As a result, most marketers use similar marketing strategies on Twitter and Facebook. However, the study found that most respondents were more likely to use Facebook than Twitter. Although not reported in the study, the results can be interpreted in favour of Facebook as a more important social networking site than Twitter because of the number of active users. Suppose a customer uses Facebook more than Twitter. In that case, chances are higher that they are likely to notice a product or brand advertisement placed therein than in the other account where there is less online activity.
Kwon et al. (2014) also concur that Facebook is likely to have a better marketing impact than Twitter. The study was based on the theory of technology acceptance, which holds that the use of specific technologies is influenced by perceived ease of use and usefulness. A qualitative research design was used in which an interview was used to obtain data from 20 respondents. The results found that there is higher perceived ease of use on Facebook than on Twitter. Further, the study indicated that Facebook is more useful in the context of social communication and interaction, which is the primary purpose of social media platforms. The findings herein are not necessarily related to marketing. However, as Kwon et al. (2014), most marketers are likely to select a specific networking site based on specific superior qualities related to the targeted customers. It implies, therefore, that for a marketer who is seeking to establish and sustain a positive relationship, as proposed in Chaffey’s theory, Facebook would be the most appropriate site. While Facebook has limitless characters for posts and comments, Twitter restricts the characters, limiting interactive engagement between customers and marketers or other users (Kwon et al., 2014).
Evidently, social networking sites seem to be the most popular in social media marketing. Facebook’s 3.9 billion users seem to be its major driver as a successful marketing tool. However, there are multiple strategies of the social media marketing that are also important worth mentioning, even though they are not reported as the most common.
A study by Kim and Johnson (2016) found that brand-related user-generated content is also a common type of online marketing. This marketing strategy involves the users of a specific brand providing content that either appraises or discredits a brand. According to Kim and Johnson (2016), user-generated content marketing can be voluntary or involuntary. Involuntary or paid user-generated marketing is when specific users are sponsored or hired by a brand to provide their opinion or perspective on social media regarding a specific brand. On the other hand, voluntary user-generated content is when the brand user deliberately and willingly provides positive or negative reviews based on personal experience with the brand.
As Mayrhofer et al. (2020) found, brand-related user-generated content is a powerful social media marketing tool. The study argues that modern e-commerce has shifted most buyers to online platforms. Most e-commerce organisations also offer delivery services to the customers’ locations. The downside of e-commerce, as Mayrhofer et al. (2020) argues, is that the users miss out on the opportunity to have physical interaction and inspection of the brand. As a result, there have been cases where customers believe that what they order does not match with what is delivered. As a result, most consumers today who intend to use e-commerce services are likely to rely on the reviews provided by other consumers. A positive review, for instance, increase the likelihood of a consumer making a purchase of a given online product.
Impact of Social Media Marketing
Dolega et al. (2021) conducted an empirical study to examine the impact of social media sites on marketing. According to the study, despite the perceived importance of social media sites in marketing, few studies have in the past explored or quantified the relationship between social media marketing and associated sales. To fill the gap, the study used a quantitative approach in which the web traffic at a specific period is compared to online sales or product inquiries. The study was founded on the basis that online sales are most likely to be associated with prior consumers’ online searches and reviews of the product. The study, therefore, proposed that heavy web traffic was associated with increased online sales and product inquiry. The study found a positive but not significant relationship between website traffic and online sales orders and product inquiry. The study concluded that social media marketing influences the sales of a product. However, the results also indicated that social media marketing is likely to be influenced or complemented by other marketing and promotional strategies other than the website. The study also found that most consumers trust websites for authentic information more than any social media site.
Another study by As’ ad and Alhadid (2014) explored the relationship between social media marketing and brand equity. The study used self-administered questionnaires to collect data from a sample of 450 customers of different mobile phone service providers in Jordan. The results found that social media marketing was associated with increased brand equity. The results, however, indicated that brand equity was particularly mediated by effective engagement and interaction between the brand marketers and consumers. Brands that consistently engaged with their customers by promptly answering questions about their products, offering suggestions to consumers based on their search histories, and providing adequate brand information were likely to create better brand equity than those who did not.
Another study by Laksamana (2018) examined the effect of social media marketing on consumers’ purchase intention and brand loyalty. The study was conducted among 300 respondents in Indonesia. The study targeted the consumers of the country’s banking sector. A multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data. The results found a positive and significant relationship between social media marketing and purchase intention. When consumer loyalty was controlled, the relationship between purchase intention and social media marketing was positive but not significant. However, when the variable was introduced, the results revealed a positive and significant relationship, implying that consumer loyalty is a significant mediator of the relationship between social media marketing and consumers’ purchase intention. Laksamana (2018) could not establish which aspect between brand loyalty and purchase intention comes first. However, from the literature, the study found that purchase intention precedes brand loyalty only for the first time when the consumer makes a purchase. In subsequent purchases, based on the consumers’ brand experience, brand loyalty has more effect on purchase intention. Social media through the online brand community helps create and sustain such loyalties.
Ahmad et al. (2016) also found that social media content marketing effectively enhanced the purchase intention of brands. The study particularly focused on content marketing for health products. According to Ahamad et al. (2016), content marketing is important for health products since the personal gains more influence consumers they derive from sing a given health product. Since social media platforms such as Facebook provide marketers with exclusive brand content marketing, consumers have a platform from which they can obtain adequate information to influence their purchase decisions. Similar findings on content marketing are also reported by (Heggde, & Shainesh, 2018; Khoa et al., 2021).
Differences in the Impact of Social Media Marketing on SMEs and Large Corporations
From the outset, it is important to note that barely a study has explored the impact of social media marketing on SMEs and large corporations. Most of the studies seem to focus a lot on SMEs. As a result, the review herein reports on specific studies regarding SMEs’ social media. A study by Chatterjee et al. (2020) found that social media marketing is effective for SMEs. However, the results also found that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and compatibility with the business model are positive and important mediators of the relationship.
Through an online study among 288 SME customers in China, Ha et al. (2016) established that social media marketing positively impacts sales improvement for SMEs. However, the study also found that customer endorsement of the social media site or strategy and promotional information were major mediators of the positive impact of social media marketing. If the customers do not endorse a given social media platform, there is likely to be a less positive impact on the same, hence the need for caution by SMEs when choosing a social media site. The positive impact of social media on SMEs is also reported by (Atanassova & Clark, 2015; Odoom et al., 2017; Wang et al., 2016).
However, Leung et al. (2015) findings indicate that social media marketing is effective even for large corporations. The study was based on the hotel industry in which both five-star and three-star hotels were involved in the analysis. The results across all the types of hotels indicated that social media marketing effectively enhances customer engagement, which is particularly important in the hotel industry. The results, however, did not distinguish whether the impact is different across the two hotel categories. However, the important finding was that the consumers’ experience in the hotels or the business organisation was important in influencing how the customers interact with the hotel’s social media content.
The findings of Laksamana (2018) also confirm that social media, in general, positively impact the marketing activities of organisations regardless of the size. However, as Monica and Bala (2014) indicate, large corporations particularly use social media to create brand awareness, which is important in increasing sales intention. In this respect, Monic and Bala (2014) argue that a business organisation’s size is important in influencing the impact of marketing activities. The results found that large corporations have a significant budget for marketing and promotion and that in the current digital platform, even social media marketing is allocated adequate budgeting. As such, while SMEs leverage on the otherwise affordable social media marketing, large corporations have the capacity to use more resources on paid social media advertisements which are likely to generate more positive likes and shares than ordinary and less professional social media campaigns by the SMEs.
Cole et al. (2014) also concur that small enterprises are more likely to have a neutral attitude towards using social media in marketing. Additionally, the study found that such small organisations are more vulnerable to financial challenges concerning advanced digital marketing. According to Cole et al. (2014), the major behavioral differences between SMEs and large corporations regarding digital marketing are that small business organisations’ owners are likely to engage in digital marketing without adequate digital and social media marketing. On the other hand, large corporations rely on professional marketers, both in-house and external consultants, to design, develop, and deploy social media campaigns.
Summary and Gap
The existing literature indicates that social networking sites are the most commonly used social media platforms from the review herein. Specifically, Facebook seems to be more popular than most other sites because of the higher number of targeted customers. The review also indicates that social media marketing positively impacts marketing activities by increasing consumer loyalty, brand equity, and purchase intention. However, there is a major gap regarding the impact of social media marketing between SMEs and large business organisations. There is barely any study that has compared the two sets of business organisations. The current study, therefore, shall seek to fill the gap.
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
This section of the dissertation explores the methods and procedures that were used to answer the research questions. The chapter specifically explored the type of data that was used, the sources of the data, and how the data was collected and analysed. The methodology is a crucial element in research studies because it provides the basis on which study validity is developed. According to Patten and Newhart (2017), the validity and reliability of given research can best be developed using the methodology. It provides the basis on which other researchers can explore and verify the study’s findings. In the sub-sections of the paper, the study examines the specific research philosophy, the design, sample, data collection procedure, data analysis, and an exploration of the specific ethical issues that may have been involved in the research process.
According to Vardgues (2018), the two most commonly used research philosophies are interpretivism and positivism. Interpretivism was the one used in the current study because of its appropriateness in the current research context. According to Brinkmann (2017), the interpretivism philosophy holds that knowledge is subjective. As such, it can be explored or perceived differently by various persons. The philosophy holds that people cannot always see or have a similar understanding of a specific social phenomenon. As such, the philosophy allows the researcher the liberty to pursue knowledge regarding the research subject based on their knowledge, perception, experience, and rationale. On the other hand, the positivism philosophy holds that there is always an objective truth towards a given research subject or phenomenon.
As Meyers and Van Woerkom (2014) describe, the positivism philosophy holds that the truth or knowledge regarding a specific phenomenon can best be developed through an approach that uses or rely on logic rather than individual perception. Therefore, it holds that only observable or logical features of a given phenomenon can be used to answer a given research question. In most cases, the positivism philosophy is the foundation of quantitative empirical studies, while interpretivism is the foundation of qualitative studies (Tamminen & Poucher, 2020). Most researchers often prefer the positivism philosophy because of its capacity to increase the validity and reliability of a given study. It is easy, for instance, to verify the findings of a study that explores the prevalence of a specific disease or health issue in a given region through a qualitative approach. For instance, it is easier for a researcher to verify a finding of a study that indicates that over 30% of the adult population in the United Kingdom are obese.
Despite the preference and ability of the positivism approach in enhancing study validity, there are usually specific research scenarios where the use of the quantitative approach or the interpretivism philosophy may not be adequate in answering the research question. For instance, in this study, the use of positivism philosophy may not be appropriate because of the need to use an open approach to answering the study questions. Therefore, the interpretivism philosophy was selected because of its perceived effectiveness in meeting the research objectives.
Specific Research Design
A content analysis design was used. As Prior (2014) describes, content analysis is a research technique that uses textual and image data to answer a research question. Content analysis is almost similar to systematic reviews or meta-analytical studies, except for the fact that there is less restriction regarding the type of data to be used in the content analysis. Furthermore, the content analysis approach does not engage or use a specific approach or method in searching and selecting data compared to the systematic reviews that often use a specific approach in gathering the right data. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses, for instance, rely primarily on peer-reviewed journals while. In a content analysis approach, the researcher has adequate liberty to select appropriate data in answering the research question.
Content analysis is particularly selected for this study because of the need to consult wide literature in answering the research question. Ideally, marketers use various social media practices to market their products and services. It is appropriate for the study to use a research method that will allow the researcher to effectively collect as much information as possible to answer the research question (Prior, 2015).
The sample used in the given research is usually dependent on the specific nature of the study. A rule of thumb, for instance, is to use a large sample size in empirical studies (Mujere, 2016). On the other hand, it is also recommended that smaller sample size is used in answering research questions in qualitative approaches such as interviews or case studies.
There is a limited restriction on the number of studies or sources included in the analysis and on answering the research questions in content analysis. The ideal, however, is to use as many studies as possible. Because of the lack of restriction regarding the sample size in content analysis, data saturation was used in this study to determine the appropriate point at which data collection stopped. According to Fusch and Ness (2015), data saturation in research is when the collection of more data or information to answer the research question does not yield new data or information that is relevant more than what has already been established. For instance, while collecting data on the social media marketing practices by small and medium-sized enterprises, data saturation is when collecting more or additional data does not significantly differ from what has already been collected.
The study used a desktop research approach to obtain the necessary data to answer the research question. The study used selected research databases, including google search engine, EBSCO, MBASE, and google scholar, to collect the necessary data to be used in answering the research question. Specific search terms were developed and searched for relevant sources or articles. As Wohli et al. (2014) argue, it is always important to use specific and appropriate search terms to obtain relevant information. In this study, the search term combination used included “social media,” “marketing practices,” “SMEs,” and “consumer behaviors. According to Aromataris and Riitano (2014), the search terms of a given study should always be aligned with the study topic. Also, the search terms should be designed such that they are capable of generating the appropriate data.
The data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The mentioned data analysis technique involves the examination of study articles or sources to determine specific patterns of similarities or different (Clarke et al., 2015). The goal of thematic analysis is always to show the specific similarities or concurrence between different data sources. If the technique were used to analyse the results from two or more interview transcripts, the thematic analysis would be used to determine the specific areas in which there is a similarity in reporting by the respondents. Since the study is based on the content analysis approach, the triangulation technique was also incorporated into the analysis to generate adequate results. Triangulation in qualitative analysis is the use of different data sources to answer the research question (Brown et al., 2018). Triangulation was used to incorporate peer-reviewed articles, books, and other expert opinion data in this study.
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter of the dissertation presents the results and discussions of the study. The results herein are presented according to the objectives of the study. The discussions are also presented alongside the results. In quantitative studies, the commonly used procedure is to present the results separately, often in the form of charts and tables. The discussions are then presented in a separate section but within the same chapters. Some institutions also require that the results and discussions are presented separately. In qualitative designs, however, it is recommended that the results are presented alongside the discussions because of the often-textual nature of the results. For instance, in content analysis, it is imperative to present the results alongside the discussion so that the audience has a better understanding of the context. If the results of the interview research, for instance, are presented separately, it would be difficult for the reader or the audience to make sense of the findings when the discussions are presented in a separate section, and the reader refers to another section that has already been presented in a previous section.
Objective One: Various Forms and Types of Social Media Commonly Used for Marketing
Campaign Monitor conducted an industry survey in (2021) that explored the most commonly used types and forms of social media. The study examined a total of 130 SMEs operating in different industries. The results found that Facebook was the most commonly used social media site for marketing campaigns, followed by Twitter and Instagram. The results further indicated that marketers use these social media platforms differently. For instance, the study established that Instagram is the most used by marketers who seek to tap into celebrity endorsement or social media influencers. According to the report, while Facebook has the highest number of active monthly users across the platforms, Instagram is the most preferred social media among celebrities and social media influencers. It is effective for marketers who use social media influencers and celebrities to create brand awareness. The results also found that Twitter is also most preferred for creating brand awareness, but often through sponsored hashtags, which makes it less effective for small and medium-sized businesses.
Another survey by Statista (2021) reported that Facebook is the most commonly used social media platform by marketers, followed by Instagram. Statista’s (2021) findings are concurrent with those reported by Campaign Monitor (2021). Instagram is yet, reported as an important social media platform, which underscores the importance of its media features. The image features of Instagram are significantly different from that of many other social media platforms. According to (citation), Instagram was specifically designed as a social media platform for sharing images, although today there are video features, but not similar to image sharing.
On the other hand, the smartphone company has evolved fundamentally and improved image features such as high camera resolutions. Phones such as iPhone and Samsung have advanced camera features that make them ideal for taking photos, which most younger generations enjoy sharing on Instagram. Therefore, celebrities and social media influencers appeal to the younger generation by sharing their experiences on Instagram, hence the growing importance of the platform in marketing activities. However, it is important to note that Instagram has a lower number of active social media users than other social media platforms, such as YouTube, which has the highest number of monthly active users (Statista, 2021).
Another survey by big commerce examined the specific practices or forms of social media marketing. Unlike the two surveys that have been reported herein, the survey by Bigcommerce (2022) explored the specific methods or strategies that social media marketers use. The study found that photo and video advertisements are the most commonly used social media forms of marketing and communicating with the targeted customers. Photo ads are particularly preferred because of their immediate attractive features, especially when they are specifically designed to attract consumers through the incorporation of visual aids. Video ads are also used to complement the photo ads on many social media platforms. The results of this survey confirm yet, the findings by Statista (2021) of why Instagram is a major platform for social media marketing because of the specific features of photo sharing. Video ads are mostly used on social media sites that are specifically designed for video or audio-visual content. YouTube is the traditional social media site that is used for video-based social media advertisement. It is logical to argue that Facebook remains the most preferred social media site for marketing because of the multiple features that enable photos, video, and textual communication and interaction with the customers.
Buratti et al. (2018) explored the adoption and use of social media marketing platforms for marketing. The study used a survey approach to obtain data from a total of 120 social media marketers. The findings found that most of the respondents used Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp for communication. An important finding in this study was the use of WhatsApp as a marketing platform. The results indicated that despite the limited capacity of customers that can be reached through WhatsApp, it is an important platform for reaching people or customers with whom the marketer has personal or individual relationships, such as friends and families. The study also found that WhatsApp is commonly used to share the link of business marketing on other social media platforms. For instance, a marketer can use the social media platform to share the links of their marketing communication on other platforms such as Instagram and Twitter.
The findings reported herein are concurrent with those reported in the literature review or chapter two of the study. For instance, Leung et al. (2015) found that Facebook and Twitter are the most commonly used social media marketing platforms compared to other sites. The study further indicated specific social media attributes, such as visual and audio features. Prior use or experience with the technology and the perceived ease of use are some of the major factors that influence the adoption and use of the various technologies.
Objective Two: The Impact of Social Media Communication on SMEs
Eid et al. (2019) explored the antecedents and impact of social media marketing on SMEs and business-to-business (B2B) communication. The study found that the major antecedents of the use of social media sites for marketing include perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. When businesses understand the usefulness of social media for marketing, they are likely to engage in communicating with both customers and the B2B. The antecedents herein are created and sustained through word-of-mouth and other communication, especially from peer business organisations. The study, for instance, indicated that businesses in the restaurant industry are likely to use specific social media sites for communication based on the information of success they get from similar companies using these platforms. This explains why most business organisations have almost similar social media communication strategies on various platforms. The results found that social media’s major impact on SMEs is the creation of product awareness. According to the study, SMEs, especially in perfectly competitive markets, are always going to bank on random chances by customers to buy their products and services, most of which are homogeneous. It is, therefore, prudent for SMEs to develop specific and unique strategies that would help them increase consumer engagement and brand awareness. Through enhanced brand awareness, these companies can enhance their sales without relying on the random behavior of the consumers.
Scuotto et al. (2017) found that social media marketing effectively enhances the brand equity of innovative SMEs, especially in the technology sector. The authors argue that people are less likely to notice the innovative nature of certain SMEs in most cases. Further, the study found that startups in the technology industry are most likely to be affected by poor marketing communication. The results indicate that social media marketing is important in helping marketers enhance the brand equity of their companies, especially in the markets or industries where competition is significantly high. Brand equity is similar to awareness creation because the former depends on the extent to which an individual is aware of a specific brand or service.
According to Bocconcelli et al. (2017), social media sites are an important element in aiding the product and service sales efforts. The study used a survey approach to gather information from a sample of 245 sales representatives from different organisations. The study focused on the salesperson who was directly involved in both online and physical interaction and communication with potential buyers in the process of making sales. The results found a positive impact of social media use on sales increase. The results found that most salespeople are likely to refer their customers to social media platforms where they can get to learn more about the products and services. Another majority of the respondents reported that they often visit their company’s social media marketing page to determine or learn about the customers’ product preferences or concerns. This is important as it helps the salespeople be adequately prepared in the sales processes. A salesperson, for instance, is likely to be prepared to answer a customer who may raise concerns with issues regarding a particular product or service.
Tajvidi and Karami (2021) also studied the influence of social media on consumer behaviors. The result found that social media influence increases the consumers’ or customers’ purchase intention. The study argues that most customers, especially in the modern e-commerce platform, have a different purchase path than customers in the brick-and-mortar system. The customers in the e-platform system are accustomed to making a purchase decision based on active consumption of adequate information regarding a specific product or service. As such, these groups of customers are avid users of social media to explore information regarding specific products and services before making a purchase decision.
A study by Kraus et al. (2019) argues that in the modern e-commerce platform, content is a fundamental element in marketing, not only for the consumers but also for the marketers. According to Kraus et al. (2019), consumers today require adequate information to make informed decisions, as Tajvidi and Karami (2021) mentioned regarding the role of information in the consumers’ purchase process. Kraus et al. (2019) also reported that marketers require information or product and service content that suits the consumer’s demand. Unlike traditional marketing strategies such as the TV and radio, which were mainly one-way, the social media platforms provide a two-way communication platform that aids in a shared marketing content creation where both the customer and the consumer have a major input on the campaign or marketing messages. Cheng and Shiu (2019) also concur that social media platforms are important in enabling the consumers involved in the marketing process. Consumer-generated content, in particular, is a crucial element of online marketing that is influenced by social media marketing strategies. The social media platforms have segments that enable the consumers to express their reactions, perceptions, and even thoughts towards a specific marketing product. It is, therefore, prudent for marketers to pay adequate attention to designing and implementing effective social media marketing strategies.
The findings herein are yet concurrent with what was reported in the literature. The study by Dolega et al. (2021) concluded that social media marketing influences the sales of a product. However, the results also indicated that social media marketing is likely to be influenced or complemented by other marketing and promotional strategies other than the website. The study also found that most consumers trust websites for authentic information more than any social media site.
Objective Three: Impact of the Social Media Marketing on SMEs Versus Large Organisations
Egggers et al. (2017) established that there is no fundamental difference in the impact of social media marketing between SMEs and large organisations. The study found that large and small business organisations commonly use the social media marketing strategy to complement or enhance the marketing efforts of other companies’ advertisement strategies. For instance, the study argues that social media sites are usually used to enhance a targeted marketing campaign, which could be running on other traditional sites such as TV, radio, and the print press.
According to Odoom and Mensah (2018), the social media marketing strategies for large corporations or businesses and SMEs may differ fundamentally, but not with their effect. For instance, the study reported that most large corporations are likely to use sponsored advertisements on most social media platforms, including Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, to increase product placement. On the other hand, SMEs are likely to use free marketing services on social media platforms. Therefore, the paid advertisements for large corporations are most likely to appear on multiple pages that users may be visiting. In contrast, free advertisements are only restricted on the marketer’s social media pages.
Ahmad et al. (2018) also concur with Odoom and Mensah (2018) that the social media marketing strategies for large and SMEs may vary because of the resource capacity. The study further indicates that large corporations are likely to run advertisements on most social media platforms, increasing the advertisement’s visibility among the targeted users. On the other hand, the SMEs often use one or few SMEs to make their marketing campaign. Ahmad et al. (2018) argue that large corporations are likely to reach a wider audience than SMEs, which implies that they have a more impact on their marketing campaign than smaller and medium-sized organisations.
Bakri (2017) also concurs with Ahmed et al. (2018) that large business organisations have a comparative advantage concerning social media marketing compared to SMEs. Large corporations have economies of scale, which is a leverage for them to have an adequate impact on the consumers compared to the SMEs. Further, the study argues that large corporations are likely to engage professional digital marketers, increasing their marketing efficiency.
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The study was designed to explore the use of social media platforms for marketing by small and medium-sized organisations versus large organisations or corporations. The study was influenced by the fact that several social media platforms have different features that make them suitable for various marketing and communication practices. The social media platform was primarily developed for the purposes of social communication and interaction. However, as the platforms grew in popularity and their usefulness changed to become contemporary tools for mass communication. Today, social media have become one of the most commonly used platforms for communication, including formal communication in various organisations. Today, business organisation has adopted social media sites for communication practices, marketing, and engagement with their clients. However, these platforms are used differently by various organisations.
Therefore, the current study was designed to explore how small and medium-sized businesses use social media and the impact of social media marketing on consumer behaviors. The study proposed that the two groups of businesses, SMEs and large corporations, use social media platforms differently because of resource endowment, among other factors. The study adopted a content analysis qualitative research approach to achieve the study objective. Several peer-reviewed articles and other academic sources were used to get the relevant information to answer the research questions.
The study results found that the most commonly used social media sites for marketing communication by business organisations include Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. The results further revealed that specific features of social media such as image, visual, and audio elements are the major determinants of which sites are commonly used for marketing. The results further established that photo posting is the most preferred strategy by marketers compared to video, which is nevertheless the second most preferred platform.
The results also found that social media marketing has several positive impacts on the business organisation’s marketing efforts. The study found that social media sites are mainly used to create product, service, or organisational awareness, which is particularly important for SMEs, especially those operating in competitive markets. The results further indicated that the social media platform is important for marketers and consumer engagement. Additionally, the results indicate that large business organisations could be engaging in different social media marketing practices, such as paid advertisements, which gives them some leverage over the SMEs. Furthermore, the economies of scale of large organisations allow them to engage in more professional digital or social media marketing, which is yet an important competitive edge. Based on these findings, recommendations are proposed.
Recommendations for Management
One of the findings that have an important bearing on the SMEs is that the economies of scale for large corporations could be giving them leverage or a competitive advantage over the SMEs. Specifically, the findings indicate that paid or sponsored advertisements are likely to have a better effect on the consumers than the free adverts, which are a common practice by SMEs. It is recommended that SMEs explore affordable options of paid advertisements on social media. One of these companies’ strategies includes using sponsored advertisements on some popular social media sites for a relatively shorter period. If big companies run their paid advertisements for a month or more, the SMEs can use the same strategy for a shorter period, even three or fewer weeks. Such a strategy at least would enhance its visibility, and targeted consumers can get to visit the company’s social marketing.
Another strategy that the SMEs can use is to have multiple social media pages running a similar campaign. One of the challenges of SMEs regarding social media marketing is running different campaigns on multiple platforms. These companies could design and run similar campaigns to enhance information consistency.
Another recommendation for the SMEs is to have at least a highly notable marketing ad on the traditional marketing platform, preferably TV, where customers are referred to the company’s social media sites for more information
Recommendation for Future Research
Future research should focus on comparing the specific marketing difference between SMEs and large business organisations through qualitative analysis. Specifically, future research should seek to determine whether there is a potential and significant difference between the content in social media marketing for SMEs and large corporations. Other focus areas for future research should include consistency regarding information or message communicated and the number of social media platforms that the two groups of the organisation focus on. The goal is to determine whether there is a fundamental difference and to which group is there an additional advantage.
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6 Counseling Agency Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Counseling Agency Counseling
Choose a discussion topic that uses physics topics covered in this module. Consider one of the following as good Essay Physics Assignment Help 6
Counseling is a profession that deals with helping people overcome challenges in their lives that can negatively affect them if they do not get help. People with a passion for assisting people end up in the counseling profession because they want to reach as many people as possible through their services. Counseling is a service, and it requires dedication and commitment for one to be successful in a career as a counselor. As an experienced counselor, I would like to embark on opening an agency that will help people and save them from complicated situations. The type of agency I would like to open is a family and marriage agency. Society today has several counseling agencies that deal with mental health and drug abuse, and I feel that family and marriage is a field that has not been explored enough. The population I will target is women in abusive relationships or marriages. Women are vulnerable to intimate partner abuse, and this is proven by a statistic that shows women occupy eighty-five per cent of abused victims while men occupy fifteen per cent (Vagianos, 2017). Aside from domestic violence, the counseling agency will also deal with the financial and emotional abuse that unfortunate women experience at the hands of their partners every single day. I have chosen to target women because I feel they need help because many women die every day due to such situations. The agency will ensure that women in society have somewhere to run to for help when facing such issues instead of suffering in silence.
The issue the counseling agency will focus on is marriage counselling. Women will be helped to navigate through their marriages or relationships and know whether or not they are in healthy relationships. Most women stay in abusive relationships because they have not found people to show them how a healthy relationship should be. The counseling agency will educate women on the value of healthy relationships and the importance of having self-worth and high self-esteem. Most women who are abused either physically, emotionally or financially lack self-worth and self-esteem, and it is the main reason they take the abuse from their partners. Talking to women and showing them the benefits of a healthy relationship will help them say no to abusive relationships, and many lives will be saved. According to Strickland (2021), many women stay in abusive relationships because they lack support from other family or community members. The counseling agency will be a source of support for such women to feel supported.
Counselors have a rigorous profession that requires a strict code of ethics. The counselling agency code of ethics will help all the counselors’ offering services to the women in a professional manner. A code of ethics in counseling is essential because it allows counsellors to know how to handle their clients as they constantly engage with them. The first American Counseling Association (ACA) code of ethics was created n 1961. Over past years, several revisions have been made to the code of ethics that counselors must follow in their profession. Code of ethics in counseling are important, and in my counseling agency, I will ensure all the ACA codes of ethics are followed without fail. Some of the codes of ethics that fit my agency are counselors’ ability to help their clients without imposing their values on them. The fourth issue of the ACA Code of ethics addresses how counselors can avoid severe harm by not imposing their values and principles on their clients. The fifth issue in the code of ethics also relates to my counselling agency. Since our clients will be vulnerable women, any romantic relationship between the client and counselor is strictly prohibited. Once a counselor or client develops feelings for each other, their judgement becomes clouded, and it becomes difficult for the aim of the counseling service to be achieved. Such behaviour is unacceptable in the agency because it will tarnish the agency’s reputation and cause other clients to avoid seeking help from us. Acceptable behaviour is a professional relationship between clients and their counselors where the counselors are committed to their work and keep the issues, they discuss with their clients confidential. One of the ethical issues that can arise when creating the agency’s code of ethics is the way to respond to the abuses of the women who seek our help. Some women are in dangerous situations, and a dilemma can occur if the client does not want to report the matter to the police.
The first best practice I will include as part of my counseling agency is the campaign to create awareness of abusive relationships in the community. The campaign will target all the women because some may hide their abuse better than others. The counseling agency will help spread the word on how abusive relationships affect women’s lives and the steps to take if one finds herself in an abusive relationship. First aid services are the second-best practice I will incorporate into my counseling agency. Some women may come to the agency with fresh bruises that need immediate attention before getting to the hospital. Incorporating first aid services will enable us to have an all-around relationship with the clients and not just counseling services. The other practice I will include is having field counselors who will identify women in abusive relationships that have not yet sought help. Field counselors will help widen the agency’s client base, and it will also help women who are afraid of visiting the agency to seek help.
The counseling style I would recommend for such women is interpersonal counseling. This type of agency advises the interpersonal counseling style because every woman who becomes a client has a different story of how she ended up in an abusive relationship. Some are physically abused, while some are emotionally and financially abused. In some rare but extreme cases, some women face all three forms of abuse in their relationships. Interpersonal counseling has been used in many other cases that do not include women in abusive relationships. The counseling style works in most cases because clients and their counselors interact, and they get to share a lot which helps in the clients’ recovery. Many women who have suffered from abusive relationships experience trauma, anxiety and depression. According to Good Therapy (n.d), the interpersonal style effectively treats people with anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress. Interpersonal therapy has a high success rate in counseling services because it creates a safe space for the client. In cases of women in abusive relationships, the state of feeling safe is essential because, in most cases, their environment has been full of abuse. I would incorporate the interpersonal counseling style in my counseling agency by ensuring all the counselors are well trained to use the interpersonal counselling style. I want all the clients to feel they are given enough time, so I will ensure one counselor is not overworked by having many clients at once. A personalized counseling style helps the clients feel supported, and it enhances their courage to say no to abusive relationships. Miller et al. (2021) state that counselors must use evidence-based practices, but they need to know how to effectively use them on oppressed clients.
My counselling agency will help nurture the talents of all the employees by constantly providing them with training on how to improve their skills. I will ensure all the agency employees are comfortable asking any question once faced with a challenging situation. Through seeking advice and consulting, they grow and learn. Counselors need constant training because the issues they handle with their clients every day change, and they need to keep up. Constant training will enable them to renew their skills and learn more about counselling as a career. The organizations I would partner with to help the women who want out of an abusive relationship are organizations that offer shelter to such women. Most women do not seek help when in an abusive relationship because they do not have any place to go once, they leave their partners. I will also partner with churches that can offer shelter and other basic needs to such women because they need to feel taken care of to avoid going back to their abuser.
In conclusion, the agency will ensure that women in society have somewhere to run to for help when facing such issues instead of suffering in silence. There are not enough counselling agencies for women in abusive relationships, which increases the number of women who die due to domestic violence. It is important for women to feel supported once they come out and speak of the abuse they have been enduring. The code of ethics in the counselling agency will help counselors know how to deal with the situations their clients bring to them. The code of ethics sets the dos and don’ts of the counselors, and it helps them maintain professionalism. Women should not tolerate any form of abuse, and the counselling agency will help them gain courage.
GoodTherapy. (n.d.). Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). Good Therapy. https://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/interpersonal-psychotherapy
Miller, G., Johnson, G., Ferrel, T., & Luckett, W. (2021, October 1). The use of evidence-based practices with oppressed populations. Counseling Today. https://ct.counseling.org/2018/12/the-use-of-evidence-based-practices-with-oppressed-populations/
Strickland, D. (2021, June 9). 4 reasons why women stay in abusive relationships. ERLC. https://erlc.com/resource-library/articles/4-reasons-why-women-stay-in-abusive-relationships/
Vagianos, A. (2017, December 7). 30 Shocking Domestic Violence Statistics That Remind Us It’s An Epidemic. HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/domestic-violence-statistics_n_5959776
COUNTRIES PROFILE It is fascinating to see how a country’s research environment
It is fascinating to see how a country’s research environment and open scientific practices and trends are reflected in its public circulation profiles. Conveyance profiles can be analyzed at the point-by-point level in one system. The total obligation of each nation in relation to each field can be attended to on a radar frame when dividing the scientific cosmos into enormous scientific fields. The Activity Index can be taken into account while creating plots. We will examine country profiles that include Iraq, Iran, and Turkey in this study. In the course of the debate, we will focus on their area, resources, major economic habits, as well as their social and religious background. Many other topics, such as the treatment of women in these countries and the relationship to Ottoman Empire and the larger European impact will be discussed in more appropriate venues.
An enormous Footrest Domain encompasses Turkey (1299-1923 CE) Located at the mouth of the Bosporus, which connects the Dull Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, Constantinople served as the capital of the Ottoman Area. In spite of being the country’s most populous city, Istanbul is not the capital of Turkey. Turkey retains a tiny fraction of its landholdings on the European side of the Bosporus in order to maintain its ties to Europe. As a result of Turkey’s central Asian location and the country’s long-standing nickname of Asia Minor, the country has long been known as Asia Minor. Mount Ararat, Turkey’s highest peak, stands at 16,946 feet above sea level in the highlands that separate the country from Armenia to the east. Turkey is rich in oil and gas; however the quantity cannot self-sustain the country as a whole. The central Anatolian Level of Turkey produces tremendous quantities of food; massive fields of grain are allowed to ripen here in the summer. Turkey also has oil fields in the east, as well as mineral riches in the Armenian and Georgian mountain ranges, in addition to its natural resources hence boosting their economy gross domestic product. (Journal of Values Education, vol. 11, no. 25, pp. 183-214.) A significant percentage of Muslim countries in the Middle East are Sunni Muslim, and Turkey is no exception a broadly based majority-controls framework in conjunction with a legally selected political party keeping an eye on Islamic fundamentalists has been expected by the government in order to keep an eye on the bigger part of the population. In 2010, there were 56 million Turks and 14 million Kurds (The minorities) living in Turkey, which borders northern Iraq. The Turkish government has not seen the Kurdish instance of a country in eastern Turkey. Kurdish social gatherings that want to be liberated from Turkey have expressed open defiance, but the Turkish government has obstructed any progress toward independence.
In terms of land area, Iran is greater than the entire U.S. state of Gold Country. This part of the world is covered in mountains and deserts. For the most part, Iran’s central and eastern parts are desolate, while the country’s northern and western sections are ruggedly mountainous. Eighteen thousand-foot-tall Elburz Mountains can be found north of Tehran in the Caspian Sea region. (Iranian Studies 22.1: 35-50). More over 900 miles of the Zagros Mountains run along Iraq’s border with the Persian Delta, rising to above 14,000 feet in elevation. Iran’s mountains are similar to those in Mountains in the Maghreb, allowing for greater rural activity in the lowlands because of their ability to retain in rainfall. Iranians live in cities and the mountains in large numbers. Quarries and wells dug by Qantas along the mountain ridges provide water for agriculture and other uses in the valleys. As a result of its substantial oil and vaporous petroleum reserves, Iran is shaping its economy through the use of these resources. With almost 15% of the world’s total combustible gas reserves, Iran ranks second only to Russia in terms of size (Info please). With nearly 10% of all known oil reserves, Iran was once the world’s fourth-largest exporter (Opec.org). A semi-manufacturable economy, according to the UN, describes Iran’s economy. The government has taken control of oil and gas production, as well as other vital enterprises, and has instituted a sort of central planning. Restrictive farming and town trading practices are rarely impacted by public authority. Fishing in the Caspian Sea is tough because of the sea’s oil riches. Oil and gas profits are the state’s primary source of revenue. As a result of a shift in product costs, Iran’s collecting base has been enlarged in order to support the country’s more isolated economy. The majority of Iranians are Shia Muslims, with Shias accounting for almost 90% of the population. (Journal of Values Education11 (25):183-214.)
Britain was unable to enter Turkey’s Ottoman Area, which resulted in the creation of modern-day Iraq and Kuwait. From Iraq to Jordan to Syria to Saudi Arabia, British political cutoff points were scattered across the Middle East. These cutoff points are characterized as numerical cutoff points due to the lack of a true portion. An autonomous country was referred to as “Persian Bay” by Britain’s emir in 1961, when the British left their oil-rich dominion. While this country remained Kuwait, the entire district of Baghdad was renamed Iraq. Saddam Hussein’s ascent to power in 1979 was aided by the Baath party’s takeover of Iraqi state-owned firms in 1968. Values Education 11 (25): 183-214 (Journal of Values Education). Since the Persian Inlet Struggle, Iraq’s economy has been dominated by neocolonialism. Because of the high energy demands of industrialization, the world’s industrialized nations consume enormous amounts of energy. Because of its enormous oil reserves, Iraq is helpless in the face of abuse from industrialized major countries, even though it is not a middle-income country. Interestingly, globalism can be seen as a direct result of the Persian Gulf War, which began when Iraq cut off Kuwait. Britain was responsible for extending Kuwait and Iraq’s borders by creating a series of straight lines. Conflict over Kuwait’s rule in 1991 was about control of resources, as opposed to the ongoing conflict between Sunni and Shia Muslims, for example, which is about control of political power or resources and not an ethnic challenge.(Journal of Values Education11(25):183-214.)
The Ottoman Empire paradox was finally terminated in 1920–1923, when the newly formed Ankara-based Turkish government adopted Turkey as the sole official name. At present, most scientific historians prefer the labels “Turkey”, “Turks”, and “Turkish” when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire’s diverse character. Apart from politics, the Ottoman and Iranian empires shared trade and cultural relations. Iranian culture was brought to Europeans by the Ottoman Empire. In Europe, a new political and military order was established after the end of the Qajar era. In addition, Basra, Baghdad, and Mosul were the provinces under the administration of the Ottoman Empire from the mid-16th century to 1916.
Turkey refused to let the US military use these areas as quick attack hubs. Turkey has a lot riding on the Middle East’s stability; hence the Iraq War worries them. Turkey possesses a little piece of land in Europe, which allows it to join the EU, but it has been denied due to issues with fundamental rights, conflicts with the Kurdistan Regional Government (PKK), and Cyprus disagreements with Greece. If the situation improves, Turkey may be able to join the EU in the future. Turkey may become the first Muslim-majority country to join the EU.
There is a general sense of tension in the region because of Iran’s desire to develop nuclear weapons and deploy them against Israel. Iran’s ruling elite is blind to the reality of Israel’s existence. In 2002, US President George W. Bush mentioned Iran, Iraq, and North Korea as part of his “evil powers that be” speech, which focused on Iran’s lack of democratically elected officials and the government’s tight restrictions. In many ways, Iran is similar to Saudi Arabia when it comes to social media prohibitions. In order to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons or rockets, a number of countries, including the United States, have imposed global sanctions. The 1979 ruckus led to a loosening of US sanctions, which eventually led to an outright ban on commerce with Iran. In the streets of Tehran, there have been instances when open clashes demanding change have erupted. Ultimately, protesters are looking for greater individual adaptability and greater openness in society. North Africa, the Middle East, and the Middle East were all affected by the Bedouin Spring of 2011. Iranians could have been affected by conflicts and shows in their neighboring countries, but Iran was unique. Iranians, in instance, are not Bedouin, but rather Persian in their cultural heritage. They have a distinct personality because of their unique mix of interactions and ancestry. Nonconformists and demonstrators in the countries experiencing the Bedouin Spring upheaval in Iran need the same outcomes as Iranian citizens. As a result, it matters that Iranians have appeared and battled organizational problems before 2011.
Key developments to World War II
The Turks remained neutral until February 1945, when they joined the Allies in the fight against Germany and Japan, and strove to keep an equal distance between the Axis and the Allies. As part of the Second World War, the Allied military effort against the Kingdom of Iraq under Rashid Ali, who had taken power in a 1941 Iraqi coup d’état, was directed by the British. At the beginning of World War II, Reza Shah declared Iran to be neutral.
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2 PEOPLE OF COURAGE: WILLIAM BRADFORD Name Course Date People of Courage:
PEOPLE OF COURAGE: WILLIAM BRADFORD
People of Courage: William Bradford
Courage is a vital part of living a human life. It refers to a person’s ability to confront fears and challenges to complete all issues that they in the course of life. There are many brave instances, such as confronting a bully and adventuring deep-sea, among others. Courageous individuals are believed to have the guts to accomplish anything, which is something that most people cannot. One of the most courageous men in the history of Thanksgiving is William Bradford, a governor of the colony of Plymouth. Bradford was a courageous leader who helped structure and stabilize the political institutions in the first permanent colony of New England. He was born in March 1590 in Yorkshire, England, and migrated to America alongside the Pilgrims and Puritans searching for religious freedom. He rose to become an essential and influential pilgrim leader serving for 30 years as a governor. Bradford was a courageous person who had the guts to conquer all challenges from a young age to adulthood, always affiliating and pursuing what he thought was best for him regardless of the challenges involved.
Bradford’s courageous attributes emerged from a young age. He was orphaned as a kid, but that did not defy his will to pursue life. He also had a long sickness that left him weak to participate on the farm, which was valuable activity in that era. Instead of giving up, the young Bradford focused on religion, reading the Bible and religious books. As previously defined, it takes going beyond fears and personal challenges to achieve courage, which Bradford demonstrated. At twelve, he had gained significant religious knowledge and affiliated himself with the Separatists, a group of the Puritans led by John Robinson and William Brewster. The group opposed the Church of England from being controlled by the king. By joining the Separatists, they rebelled against the Church of England to recreate what they deemed an easier, more moral life of early Christians by liberating themselves from the hierarchies and rituals enforced by the Church of England. It was a courageous move to affiliate with the Separatists because it involved attending illegal, underground church meetings, and members were usually arrested. Besides, his uncles promised to disinherit him from all his parents left for him and chase him from home. Despite all these odds, he chose to stand by his belief, “…To keep a good conscience, and walk in such a way as God has prescribed in his Word, is a thing which I must prefer before you all, and above life itself… I am not only willing to part with everything that is dear to me in this world for this cause, but I am also thankful that God has given me a heart to do, and will accept me so to suffer for him.” Such actions prove that he was significantly courageous despite being young, as he did what most people were afraid of doing.
In addition, Bradford showed courage by embarking on the long journey from England through the dangerous open ocean to the New World. Among other 102 pilgrims, Bradford started a journey across the Atlantic Ocean in search of freedom. Through courage, he chose to sail across the 3,000 miles open ocean to achieve religious freedom and the challenges he faced as a Separatist in England. The journey was perilous in an English ship, the Mayflower, designed as a cargo ship to transport French wine casks, fish and lumber instead of ferrying passengers. Accordingly, Bradford and fellow passengers braced their fears and accepted being kept crowded below the decks in damp and cold conditions just to reach their destination. Most people suffered from the crippling seasickness bouts and survived on meager rations of dried meat, beer, and hardtack business. The boat would roll like a pig, with stench and smell of sickness below. Bradford also knew that the journey occurred at the peak of a storm; accordingly, he anticipated the journey to be unpleasant. The sea was so rough that one stranger was swept overboard. Apart from being on such a rough journey, he was headed into a strange world. The ship missed direction and found itself in the wrong place, Cape Cod. Not many people can brace for the challenge of engaging in a life-threatening journey to achieve what they want, like Bradford. However, he did not let the fear of leaving his relatives, his country, dying in the ocean, or dying in a strange world hinder him from achieving religious freedom. Therefore, he was a staunch courageous man who readily faced challenges in the hope to emerge victoriously.
Moreover, Bradford established himself as a strong, courageous leader. After landing at the wrong destination, Bradford joined another expedition to explore the new region and choose the best place where they could live. Exploring a new strange world is a courageous act that places a person in vulnerable conditions, such as attacks from original settlers, wildlife, and sickness. Yet, this did not deter his will to engage in the search for a place to settle. After finding their new home, Bradford was chosen as a governor of the new colony in 1621. Under his courageous leadership, he managed to peacefully engage the Wampanoag people and the settlers to come into peace, which enabled the colony to survive in its early years. Essentially, leadership during tough times demands extreme courage. Bradford took over as the governor of Plymouth during a time when the pilgrims were struggling to establish their Plymouth settlement. Most of them were being ravaged by cold and sickness. The colony was located in an extremely cold area without fertile land. Thus, the Plymouth colonists could not feed and support themselves through conventional large farming methods. Most of them died from diseases and malnutrition. However, Bradford remained a face of hope for his colonists. He committed himself to establishing a sustainable land for the pilgrims, ruled by peace and harmony. When things get tough, people turn to the courageous for guidance and hope to prevail successfully out of the hardships. This was a defining moment of his courageous attitude as they reelected him to rule for 30 years. Under his leadership, the colony thrived and grew as one of the greatest colonist settlements in the New World.
While William Bradford stood as one of the most courageous pilgrims, he at times stood as a coward who feared to liberate Europe from the Church of England. The pilgrims, including Bradford, solidly opposed the measures imposed by the Church of England and believed in religious freedom. However, they were afraid to openly try to liberate people from the sovereign rule of the Church of England. Rather than holding public meetings, they mostly engaged in illegal underground meetings for fear of being arrested. According to the definition of courage, courageous people face their problems without fear and try to overcome them through achieving solutions. As a separatist, among fellow separatists, Bradford chose to flee England to find a new land where they could experience religious freedom. Leaving their country was not a practical solution because what they were afraid of still prevailed. If he were courageous, he would have focused on the Church by seeking ways in which he would have adopted to revolutionize the corrupt Church to ensure all people were subject to religious freedom. Rather, he found a solution that only benefited him and his fellow members of the group. His fear was mainly concerned with being prosecuted. However, this does not render him a coward, considering that he overcame various odds, including bracing for religion at a very young age, leaving his relatives, and traveling to a new world to achieve his religious freedom.
William Bradford is a monument of courage in the history of civilization. His actions, adventures, beliefs, and commitment are driven by courage to overcome the challenges he faced in life to live a better one. Courage is the willingness to confront unpleasant situations, although it does not mean a lack of fear. Bradford was courageous as he was always willing to confront the unpleasant situations, he faced in life regardless of what it would cost him, making him lose relatives and even beseech his own country to live where he felt free. Besides, it is noble to understand that courage does not mean a lack of fear, as many might think he was afraid of changing the rules imposed by the corrupt Church of England that he left his own country. Essentially, he was not afraid because he understood what he was afraid of and refused to let the fear paralyze him from achieving religious freedom.
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Question 1 Human behavior and human culture result from the interaction between
Human behavior and human culture result from the interaction between human genetic dispositions and environmental circumstances, ranging from physical aspects to cultural constructs. We understand that culture often affects our biological capabilities and limitations through anthropology. Cultural forces often mold human biology and determine how humans grow and develop (Bennett, 2017). Biology and culture have co-evolved to influence one another. Co-evolution has led to the development of some aspects, like the diets humans consume today. An example of the co-evolution between human biology and culture is lactase persistence, especially in adults.
Over time, there have been changes such as the genetic changes in human beings that constantly alter their overall way of life from where they eat, how they grow, and how and where they live. The changes in humans have provided them with new abilities to adapt to environmental changes.The development of new languages and distinct species proves cultural change among humans. Some communities still resist the change and stick to their original culture despite the cultural changes (Hoke & Schell, 2020). Values and beliefs are the most common barriers to embracing cultural change in most cases. The beliefs and values often differ from one community to another.
Archeologists collect and dig up material culture or artifacts to aid in studying certain people’s cultures. These artifacts include portable items such as clothes, tools, and decorations. Stone tools recovered by archaeologists are used to identify which period they are from. Polished stone tools identified by archaeologists are said to have been used in the Neolithic stage when farming was more pre-dominant. These tools were used for woodworking and forest clearing, which were some of the significant economic activities.
Ancient Egyptians used canopic jars during mummification, which was an essential aspect of their culture as they believed in preserving their dead to store internal organs such as the stomach.
The non-human primates provide us with the many similarities between humans and other animals and the different behaviors that differentiate humans from animals. Studies of the non-human primates in their natural settings have helped determine the social or ecological circumstances in which human behaviors evolved. Additionally, humans share many characteristics with non-human primates that help them understand their anatomy, physiology, and cognition. They are also a bit similar in communication. Nevertheless, non-human primates use body language more than human communication through oral sounds.
Anthropology is relevant in today’s society as it is a related discipline whose subfields can be combined to create an understanding of the complex human condition. Anthropology tries to explain what happened in the past, what is currently happening, and what will happen in the future (Ferraro & Andreatta, 2014). Thus, it’s critical in solving contemporary issues as it provides various information on all aspects of the situation.
Anthropologists can work in corporations as market researchers. They use their research skills to examine consumer patterns and develop products and services with the help of technology to meet consumer specifications. Forensic anthropologists can pursue jobs in government institutions such as police departments to help solve crimes. Banks and nonprofit organizations also implore the use of anthropologists to design and implement various projects.
Bennett, J. W. (2017). The ecological transition: cultural anthropology and human adaptation. Routledge.
Ferraro, G., & Andreatta, S. (2014). Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective (10de editie). Cengage Learning.
Hoke, M. K., & Schell, L. M. (2020). Doing biocultural anthropology: Continuity and change. American Journal of Human Biology, 32(4), e23471.