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Pour Faith Community Hospital history assignment ideas: history assignment ideas

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Faith Community Hospital has become sick and is currently in need of support and care. We currently face two significant problems that, if not addressed immediately, could undermine our work and could threaten our ability to offer quality care to the people in our community. The problems we face include the following main issues. First, our costs are increasing while our patient population is decreasing. In short, Faith is losing money. Although our mission revolves around healing, we cannot escape the fact that we must run an efficient organization. We must take care not to go into debt, even as patient care costs, insurance premiums and fixed costs rise. Our staff and employees as well as our patients depend on the smooth operations of a well-run health care organization.

Second, Faith serves the community by offering the best possible health care services to the greatest number of people at the most affordable prices we can provide. However, Faith Community Hospital has failed to clarify its ethical policies, the core guidelines that form the foundation of our medical care. We have also neglected to clearly outline hospital policy, rules, and regulations regarding potentially controversial medical and legal issues. Although we are united in a commitment to the core values of Faith Community Hospital, it seems that our diverse body of health care workers lacks a set of unifying principles by which we can work efficiently, ethically, and within the law. As executive assistant, I care about the fate of Faith Community Hospital and have outlined in this report a plan that should ensure our success in the future.

Analysis

The first problem we will address is outlined in the Faith Community Hospital financial reports. According to our accounting and finance departments, daily patient care costs have risen considerably: from $217 per patient, per day last year to $240 per patient, per day this year. In addition to the ten percent increase in daily patient care costs since last year, our patient population has dropped by seven percent. Faith Community Hospital is losing money and we need to do something as soon as possible. Our financial analyst claimed that we need to reduce our fixed costs by 15% if we want to break even by this time next year. Currently our fixed costs consume 28% of our total budget. However, reducing fixed costs is not the only way to ensure that Faith does not incur unnecessary debt. Some of our financial problems are also due to skyrocketing insurance premiums, a wave of bad press that might be causing a decrease in patient population, and the threat of lawsuits from patients and their families due to the second of our current problems: unclear ethical guidelines. Faith Community Hospital does not promote itself through the media, local schools, and other community organizations. Currently we maintain fixed costs in excess of our abilities, even though our mission statement allows for “collaboration with the partners who share the same vision and values.” Many of Faith Community Hospital’s costs could easily be shared among our partners.

Faith Community Hospital’s Mission Statement reads as follows: “With the foundation and commitment of our spiritual heritage and values, our mission is to promote the health and well-being of the people in the communities we serve through a comprehensive continuum of services provided in collaboration with the partners who share the same vision and values.” Our organization needs to more thoroughly explicate our mission statement to avoid some of the problems that have recently arisen on our hospital floors.

For example, many of our patients refuse treatment on religious grounds, which is fine until the patient happens to be a minor. Recently, we encountered a potentially problematic case in our Neo-Natal Ward. Members of our medical staff cooperated with the parents’ wishes and refused to administer treatment to a child. As a result, Child Protective Services stepped in and is currently taking of taking custody of the baby. They are also threatening to file charges against Faith Community Hospital, a lawsuit that we can ill afford.

Doctors and nursing staff need to work on the same page, within the same ethical and legal guidelines. Occasionally, the written wishes of the patient conflict with the express wishes of the patient’s family members. When the patient is compromised or unconscious, unable to make a decision regarding course of care, the families often step in and intervene. For example, two related controversies erupted in the ICU wing recently. In one case, three staff members initiated Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) directives in the absence of a written order in light of the family’s wishes. In a separate incident, staff members failed to follow the written DNR directives because of a family member’s request. Our health care staff is top-notch and offers the best possible care to our patients. Medical decision-making is rarely easy but a clear set of guidelines would make the decision-making process much simpler, more effective, and less contentious.

Evaluation: Possible Courses of Action

Regarding our financial woes, we have the following options before us. Faith Community Hospital could focus on increasing patient population. Since last year our patient population ahs decreased by seven percent. To increase patient population we could market our services more robustly through community groups and institutions including private doctors, schools, community centers, and even using the media to promote Faith Community Hospital.

However, one reason our patient population has declined since last year may be that we have been doing our job. Our mission is “to promote the health and well-being of the people in the communities we serve,” and if we see fewer patients it might mean that we have effectively promoted health and well-being. Increasing patient population may therefore not be one of our primary concerns when considering means of raising revenue or cutting costs. We might, for instance, consider decreasing our fixed costs. Decreasing fixed costs could include outsourcing some of our most costly services to local specialty centers. Our mission statement refers to “a comprehensive continuum of services provided in collaboration with the partners.” Faith Community Hospital cannot possibly become a leading expert in all areas of health care. A continuum of services means reaching out and working with local area specialty centers, trusting them to provide quality care because, as our mission statement avers, they “share the same vision and values.” We can assess our medical staff and choose which departments to maintain strongly, while at the same time decreasing costs by transferring equipment and services from our weakest departments to our partners.

Faith Community Hospital has little control over the cost of insurance premiums. However, one way we might be able to lower our fixed costs is through a comprehensive investigation of available insurance providers. Our analysts may be able to discover lower-cost insurance alternatives that enable us to cover patient needs while maintaining low operation costs. We understand that our dedicated team of professionals sometimes offers patients pro bono care, and that our honorable pharmacy sometimes lets patients pay for their medications in installments. We could put a stop to such charitable activities by mandating that all health care workers employed by us must assume the costs of pro bono work or missed medical payments. Alternatively we could put a stop to off-the-record transactions entirely. However, offering altruistic care maintains our reputation as a faith-based organization that cares more about people than profit.

Finally, cutting costs in the future will also require strict attention to the law. In the face of a pending lawsuit filed by Child Protective Services, we must pay closer attention to our legal obligations to prevent potentially devastating litigation costs. Our financial analyst might be able to offer us advice as to whether or not we should hire a team of retainer attorneys.

Regarding our code of ethics, Faith Community Hospital could revise its policies to provide clearer outlines for doctors and nursing staff. Controversial topics such as euthanasia and refusal to receive care should be included in the revised policy, which would ideally be drafted with the assistance of our medical staff as well as attorneys and experts in medical ethics. Regular staff meetings might also help medical professional navigate through tricky issues that arise in our hospital. We might want to require hospital administration to sign orders for any situation in which patient wishes, family wishes, parent wishes, and the law all seem to conflict. Discussing controversial issues openly is often the most effective means of avoiding misunderstandings and costly mistakes.

Recommendations and Conclusions

The future of Faith Community Hospital depends on our ability to respond to the problems we face today. Those problems are not overwhelming; yet they might be a year or two down the road if we don’t take action soon. The two main problems we face here at Faith Community Hospital include financial issues and general agreements on hospital medical ethics policies. In the previous section I outlined possible courses of action we might take to solve current problems and prevent new ones from arising. This section lists my express recommendations and my reasons for presenting them.

First, Faith Community Hospital should cut its fixed costs by 10% by next year, at which point we will reassess our financial situation. The main way to cut costs at Faith Community Hospital will be through working more closely with our partners. Not only will working with our partners in the community improve our reputation and public relations, our teamwork will allow us to share equipment costs and services. Several organizations in the community share “the same vision and values” in offering optimal patient care. Therefore, we can trust our partners to assume their responsibilities, whether they include testing or care services. Specialists such as a hospice, burn center, addiction and recovery center, and midwifery services can all cooperate with Faith Community Hospital to prove a true “continuum of services.” In fact, we might find that increasing our collaboration with community partners improves the health and well-being of all community members and thereby improves our ability to fulfill the primary goals of our mission statement. The stronger our relationship with our partners in the community, the more likely we are to communicate the needs of patients and the less likely we are to experience glitches or obstacles in providing care. Sharing costs, facilities, equipment, and services will enable Faith Community Hospital to survive and thrive. Rather than diminishing our locus of services, we will essentially be expanding our medical community to include partner organizations. Our reputation in the community will undoubtedly be bolstered through partnership endeavors.

Second, Faith Community Hospital should revise its current ethical policy and create an in-depth updated version. With the help of staff members, lawyers, and medical ethics experts, we can draft a sensible and thorough policy that covers procedural guidelines in as many care areas as possible including euthanasia and procedures involving children. We will post that policy online as well as offer one to each of our medical staff. Patients will be able to view our ethics policy whenever they please, to help them make informed decisions for themselves and their relatives. Staff should be periodically briefed in staff meetings to ensure that they understand our ethical policies and we should all feel free to ask questions in a safe and supportive environment. When a potentially controversial issue arises, staff members should consult administration for guidance.

Because staff members cannot be expected to memorize our rules and regulations, we need to have in place a set of ethics that guide our practice. We have that ethical code in place in our mission statement. The Faith Community Hospital mission statement accurately reflects the core vision of our noble medical team. Because we remain dedicated to providing the best possible care to members of our community, I do not believe we should cease our kindly practice of offering benevolent payment plans or the occasional pro bono treatment. Instead, Faith Community Hospital should investigate possible new insurance providers, new catering services, and other options that might help us to reduce costs and improve our overall efficiency. To succeed we will need the assistance of all our staff members and we welcome any and all input from staff members.

Professional Medical Transportation history assignment help australia

Business Plan

Professional Medical Transportation:

In order to prepare a Business Plan, it is worthwhile to note that professional medical transportation can be offered both as an emergency as well as non-emergency service. Services offered could be Priority Medical Dispatch, 911 Pre-arrival instructions, Emergency Ambulance Service, Wheelchair service and Scheduled Ambulance Service. Since Priority Medical dispatch will be taking the 911 calls, it has to be ensured that ambulance possessing the most sophisticated equipment and qualified medical experts reach during emergency situations. As regards 911 pre-arrival instructions, the dispatchers will be answering 911 callers, the information they require to tackle an emergency medical situation till arrival of the ambulance. (Services we offer)

Under Emergency Ambulance Service, paramedics and emergency medical specialist have to attend to emergency calls and deal with transfers among health care facilities, round the clock, all seven days in a week. Under Wheelchair service, non-emergency patients using wheelchairs get to and from clinic appointments, or return home following a hospital stay or an emergency room visit. For Scheduled Ambulance Service conventionally known as basic life support, through this service ambulance and stretcher transportation in case of non-emergency patients who are very sick and unable to ride in a wheelchair. Several of them are hospice or nursing home patients who endure chronic illness and require expert professionals to transport them to and from the clinic, hospital or therapy centre. (Services we offer)

The cost of transportation has to be low with innovative approach; suitable transportation based on individual requirements, medical situations, and the present community resources. (Medicaid/Reach up Program) Emergency services are those which are extended following the sudden start of a medical condition. The destination of the Ambulance should be a hospital. All scheduled transportations are of non-emergency type. This indicates that one is confined to bed prior to and following the transportation. It has to be understood that remaining confined to bed indicates a patient who needs help while changing positions while in bed and cannot be moved by any methods except a stretcher. (Medical Transportation)

References

Medicaid/Reach up Program. Vermont Public transport Association. Retrieved from http://www.vpta.net/publicservice_medical.html Accessed on 6 February, 2005

Medical Transportation. Prince William Health System. Retrieved from http://www.pwhs.org/patients/transportation / Accessed on 6 February, 2005

Services we offer. Allina Hospitals and clinics. 2004. Retrieved from http://www.allina.com/ahs/transport.nsf/page/AMT_services Accessed on 6 February, 2005

Politics and Global Trends in Health Sector history assignment help in canada: history assignment help in canada

Policy, Politics and Global Trends in Health Sector

The goal of this policy paper is to provide the strategy to align effort transforming the health healthcare in the United States. The policy brief is also to improve the quality of healthcare delivery in the United States directed to Sylvia Mathews Burwell, the secretary of the U.S. Department of HHS (Health & Human Service), the agency that protects and improves the health of all Americans. Essentially, the HHS is the only agency that can implement a comprehensive health policy in the United States, and comparable to the global standards. The agency also fulfills its mission by providing effective human and health services to foster advancement in public health, medicine, and social services. Specifically, the policy is directed to the Secretary of HHS because he is in charge of the administration of the HHS. Moreover, the policy brief is directed to the policy makers of NIS (National Institute of Health). The policy brief is also directed to the Medicare and Medicaid policymakers in the United States. Typically, Medicare is one of the largest healthcare insurance programs for the American citizens aged 65 years and above. Thus, the policy is very important to the Medicare policy markers because Medicare provides health insurance to more than 48 million Americans. Additionally, the brief is directed to Medicaid policy makers because the Medicaid is a social insurance program jointly funded by the state and federal government aimed to assist individuals and families with limited financial resources. The policy is very important to alleviate the challenges that decision maker may face when implementing palliative care in the United States. For example, decision makers can face challenges to access workforce, hospice, and palliative care, as well as research on hospice and palliative care.

B3-

An effective health policy in the United States comparable to the global trend requires an intervention of policy makers. An evidence-based health intervention is a strategy that the decision makers can employ to deliver effective health for the American population. The paper suggests using the public health surveillance for the intervention, which involves a systematic collection of health data and disseminates the data to identify the strategy to prevent and control diseases. The data collection and analysis will assist in identifying the diseases that need urgent attention. An intervention method requires developing a strategic plan that the policy makers must adopt in the program implementation. The paper suggests developing an action plan that will involve long-term and measurable objective. The decision makers should also set financial and human resources required for the program implementation.

The most important effective method that decision makers can employ for the program intervention is to present the policy before the House of Representative for effective deliberation. The strategy will assist the policy makers to achieve a federal government support for the program. It is very critical for the government to support the program because they have adequate human and financial resources that will be enough for the program intervention. However, the policymakers should lobby for the support of the program among the member of the two Houses to ensure a speedy acceptance of the program. After the policy makers are able to secure funding, the next stage is to carry out a comprehensive training of human resources to be used for the program intervention. The training program is essential to ensure that the policy is implemented to achieve the program objectives.

B4.

In the contemporary health environment, persuasion is very important to achieve the desired goal. Persuasion is the ability to convince other people to adopt an idea and implement an action. To make the policy acceptable to the decision makers, it is very critical to adopt the strategy to convince them accepting the policy. The paper will adopt the following strategies to convince the policy makers:

The health benefit of Americans is the major important reason for the proposal implementation. The implementation of the policy brief is very important for the health of the American citizens. Apart from improving the health of American citizens, the policy will reduce the annual health costs that the U.S. government incurred yearly. The proposal will also assist the American citizens to have access to quality healthcare, which will make American workers more productive. In the contemporary business environment, health is wealth that makes an average worker more productive. By implementing the policy, an average American will be more productive because they will be able to work more hours per week, which will increase the country GDP.

Moreover, implementation of the policy will assist in reducing the overall annual health budget since the policy will make larger percentages of Americans to be healthy, thus, there will be a reduction of annual budget voted for the health sectors making the government focus on other productive sectors. However, decision makers can still face challenges when implementing the policy brief. The strategy to avoid the challenges is to recruit more qualify workforce who are skilled in implementing the policy brief. The new workforce should be qualified enough to carry out a research on hospice and palliative care. Moreover, the decision makers can retrain the in-house staff to meet the policy objective. The decision makers should also provide the financial resources to purchase the necessary health materials to access effective hospice and palliative care.

C2f-

The bottom-up approach assumes that personnel at the lower cadre plays a critical role in the policies implementation since they play a role in reshaping a policy objective. Thus, the bottom-up approach provides a sequential strategy that delivers a balanced view of the program that will assist a large number of stakeholders to support the program. Despite the benefits to be derived from the bottom-up approach, the approach might not be appropriate for the proposal because the project might not secure effective support from the policy makers since they need to be convinced that top executives have more knowledge than lower cadre for the successful program implementation.

“In theory, funding agencies are interested in both scientific and viability issues. They want to see their funded projects to be successful in communities or to have the capability of solving real-world problems.” (Chen, 2010 p 212).

Thus, the top executives have the required skills to secure funding for the program. However, bottom-up approach can still serve as a way of evaluating the success of the program. The survey method is the major strategy to evaluate the organizational plan. For example, the paper suggests using the systematic sampling to recruit the participants from the community or lower staff cadre and collect their feedback through a survey. The findings of the survey will assist in evaluating the outcome of the organizational plan, which will assist in correcting the errors identify in the plan.

Reference

Brownson, R.C. Gurney, J.G. & Land, G.H. (1999). Evidence-Based Decision Making in Public Health. J Public Health Management Practice, 5(5), 86-97.

Chen, H.T. (2010). The bottom-up approach to integrative validity: A new perspective for program evaluation. Evaluation and Program Planning. 33: 205-214

Understanding Post Treatment Symptoms in Patients history assignment help in uk

RRL#1

The following questions pertain to:

McMillan, S.C., & Small, B.J. (2007). Using the COPE intervention for family caregivers to improve symptoms of hospice homecare patients. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(2), 313-21.

What is the purpose of this research?

The purpose of this research was to describe the unexpected and distressing symptom experiences that women may have after undergoing breast cancer treatment, with the goal of enhancing follow-up care through practitioner education and an increase of the knowledge base.

What is the research question (or questions)? This may be implicit or explicit.

What symptoms may be experienced after breast cancer treatment that contribute to symptom distress and psychological stress that are may be temporal, situational, or attributive — and that may be ameliorated during follow-up care?

What theories, frameworks, models or concepts may have influenced the researchers’ choice of a research design?

The qualitative approach stems from a phenomenological philosophical background that considers the personal accounts of the study participants to be valued narrative secondary data. In this study, the qualitative narrative data was analyzed by using constant comparative methods, in which emerging themes are teased out by an iterative process of discovery that is fostered by the categorization of data.

15) How do the authors describe the design of this study?

The study is qualitative and descriptive. That is to say, the research aims to describe a phenomenon by accessing the personal accounts of patients who have had treatment for breast cancer.

16) Determine the classification of this study; is it

Quantitative, qualitative or mixed method?

Experimental or nonexperimental?

Cross-sectional or longitudinal?

The research in this study is qualitative, with in-depth interviews used to collect the narrative, personal account data from 13 participants.

17) What is the evidence that this journal is peer-reviewed? Does the journal have an editorial board? (Look for the journal’s website to discover this information)

The Editor of Oncology Nursing Forum provides this in her introduction to the “Submissions” section of the journal website:

“The Oncology Nursing Forum (ONF) publishes manuscripts that focus on nursing achievements in the field of oncology including, but not limited to, clinical advances, research findings, educational developments, and role and theory developmentManuscripts are accepted for consideration with the understanding that they are contributed solely to this journal, that the material is original, and the articles have not been published previouslyAll submitted papers are subject to blind peer review. Papers will be judged on the quality of the work and suitability for the audience.”

18) Is there evidence of any conflict of interest that might introduce bias into the way the study is designed, or the way the results are viewed? Do the authors have any potential financial gain from the results of this study?

The authors of this article are assistant professors in the College of Nursing at New York University in New York City. They clearly state in the author section of the article that there are “No financial relationships to disclose.”

19) Describe the population for this study.

The population studied in this research consisted of 13 English-speaking women who had undergone active treatment for breast cancer from one to 18 years prior. The subjects had also volunteered with the Reach for Recovery program.

20) How was the sample selected? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this sampling strategy?

The sampling procedure used was purposive, with the study participants recruited from a list of volunteers provided by Reach for Recovery, which is a cancer survivors’ network sponsored by the American Cancer Society (ACS). Naturally, the participants all gave their informed consent to participate and their privacy and rights were protected by the human subjects process requirements of the college.

21) Were the subjects in this study vulnerable? Were there any risks for them as the result of participation in the research study?

It is prudent to assume that the subjects in the study were vulnerable. The memories of many of the women participants would be quite fresh and the interviews would likely bring unsettling memories to the forefront, creating considerable stress anew. The risks for these survivors would include raised levels of anxiety directly attributed to the interviews in which their feelings, perceptions, and frank discussion of symptoms were the topic. The unit of focus for the in-depth interviews was the first three years following treatment for breast cancer.

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The following questions pertain to:

Rosedale, M., & Fu, M.R. (2010). Confronting the unexpected: Temporal, situational, and attributive dimensions of distressing symptom experience for breast cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37(1), 28-33.

11) What is the purpose of this research?

The purpose of the research was to test an intervention to be used by family caregivers in hospice settings with regard to better management of the symptoms that their family member patients with cancer experienced.

12) What is the research question (or questions)? This may be implicit or explicit.

What impact will improved knowledge base and the use of a problem-solving intervention by family caregivers in hospice settings have on the quality of life experienced by hospice patients?

13) What theories, frameworks, models or concepts may have influenced the researchers’ choice of a research design?

The researchers wondered if providing hospice caregivers different and more extensive education, and instruction in how to use a problem-solving intervention while caring for hospice patients, would result in better management of symptoms and, thereby improve the general condition of the patients and result in higher quality of life.

14) How do the authors describe the design of this study?

The authors describe the study as a three-group comparative design with repeated measures.

15) Determine the classification of this secondary study; is it

Quantitative, qualitative or mixed method?

Experimental or nonexperimental?

Prospective or retrospective?

The study design is described as a repeated measures clinical trial, which is an quantitative experimental prospective design.

16) What is the evidence that this journal is peer-reviewed? Does the journal have an editorial board? (Look for the journal’s website to discover this information).

The Editor of Oncology Nursing Forum provides this in her introduction to the “Submissions” section of the journal website:

“The Oncology Nursing Forum (ONF) publishes manuscripts that focus on nursing achievements in the field of oncology including, but not limited to, clinical advances, research findings, educational developments, and role and theory developmentManuscripts are accepted for consideration with the understanding that they are contributed solely to this journal, that the material is original, and the articles have not been published previouslyAll submitted papers are subject to blind peer review. Papers will be judged on the quality of the work and suitability for the audience.”

17) Is there evidence of any conflict of interest that might introduce bias into the way the study is designed, or the way the results are viewed? Do the authors have any potential financial gain from the results of this study?

There is no evidence of conflict of interest or basis for the introduction of bias in the study design or the way the results were viewed. Moreover, the authors do not stand to achieve any financial gain as a result of conducting this study. The study was funded by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute for Nursing Research.

18) Describe the population for this study.

The population in this study is family caregivers in hospice environments, who were actively providing care to patients nearing end of life while receiving home care.

19) How was the sample selected? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this sampling strategy?

The sample was selected from a large nonprofit hospice in which a majority of the patients receive home care. By using power calculations, the researchers determined that a sample size of 160 dyad pairs in each group would be effective for total sample of N = 480. Inclusion criteria included at least a 6th grade education and able to understand English, a diagnosis of cancer for the patient, informed consent to participate, two or more symptoms present (of the following: pain, dyspnea, and constipation) and minimum scores as follows on pertinent measures: the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) = minimum score of 7; and, Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) = minimum score of 40.

20) Were the subjects in this study vulnerable? Were there any risks for them as the result of participation in the research study?

The subjects in this study were vulnerable, with the potential to benefit from the COPE intervention or, if the subjects were not in a group receiving the COPE intervention, they were vulnerable to having a different experience in the hospital, absent a change to a higher quality of life as anticipated by those who did receive the intervention. Naturally, the participants all gave their informed consent to participate and their privacy and rights were protected by the human subjects process requirements of the college.