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Brittney Griner and LeBron James Overview For this activity, you will consider how your popular culture example could expand

Brittney Griner and LeBron James
Overview
For this activity, you will consider how your popular culture example could expand our understanding of different cultures and people. You will also suggest ways that critical analysis can be used to meet personal and professional goals. This activity contributes to your draft of the critical analysis section of your project. It also provides an opportunity to obtain valuable feedback from your instructor that you can incorporate into your project submission.

Directions
In this activity, you will work on the second part of the critical analysis of your example within an area of popular culture. You should consider the feedback from your instructor on the previous activities to inform this assignment. Throughout the writing process, you will support your analysis with reliable evidence from varied sources. You should continue to gather the sources you will integrate into your project. These sources will include two resources from the module resources sections of this course and two resources that you find through your own research using the Shapiro Library. It may be beneficial to identify more than the number of sources required for the project so that you can eventually choose the most useful and credible ones. For this activity, you will assess how the popular culture example you chose could broaden an outsider’s understanding of the cultures or people that engage with it. You will also describe how an element of your chosen example reflects your field of study or profession. Finally, you will recommend strategies for using critical analysis skills for meeting personal and professional goals.

You are not required to address each item below the rubric criteria, but you may use them to better understand the criteria and guide your thinking.

Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:

Integrate reliable evidence from varied sources throughout your paper to support your analysis.
It is important to draw from a more diverse pool of perspectives from varied sources to support the analysis, which is different from the Citations and Attributions rubric criterion.
Reliable evidence from varied sources should be interwoven throughout the paper itself. Citing and attributing sources will be represented as APA in-text citations and a reference list at the end of your work.
You will be evaluated on both criteria.
Assess how the example you chose could broaden an outsider’s understanding of the cultures or societies depicted in it or the people who engage with its popular culture area.
An “outsider” is someone who is not part of a culture or society connected to a particular area of popular culture.
Consider how the example you chose could contribute to understanding others in productive ways that do not reinforce negative representations of other people.
Describe how the example you chose reflects an aspect of your field of study or profession.
Recommend strategies for using this kind of critical analysis for meeting your personal and professional goals.
Consider the skills you have developed in the process of doing critical analysis as strategies for understanding your goals. How might those skills be used to better understand popular culture? How could they be used to address the day-to-day responsibilities or questions faced by yourself as well as practitioners in your field or discipline?
What to Submit
Submit your short paper as a 1- to 2-page Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. Sources should be cited according to APA style. Consult the Shapiro Library APA Style Guide for more information on citations.

Assignment: Portfolio of Visions – Final Stages of Life Consider this quote

Assignment: Portfolio of Visions – Final Stages of Life

Consider this quote from Alice in Wonderland, as Alice speaks with the Cheshire Cat:

“Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?”
“That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the Cat.
“I don’t much care where,” said Alice.
“Then it doesn’t matter which way you go,” said the Cat.

—Lewis Carroll, (1865). Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.

Being able to see the end from the beginning can help you lead a more focused, enjoyable life. Unless you make a concerted effort to have a well-defined vision for your life with well-defined goals to reach that vision, it is unlikely it will happen by chance. One useful approach is to consider what you would have liked to have accomplished and who you would have liked to become by the end of your life. By beginning with the end in mind, it allows you to determine a path early so that you can do your best to stay on track as well as better enjoy all the experiences that come with your life decisions.

This week, you will focus on your end-of-life statements that will be included in your portfolio.

Assignment:

Submit your entire completed Portfolio of Visions as follows:

You should include all sections:

Title Page, Table of Contents

“Life Mission Statement”

“Life Vision Statement”

“My Walden Path”

“Final Stages of Life”

Key Life Areas: Incomplete

A. Goals Incomplete

B. Objectives Incomplete

C. Action Statements for each of the following: Incomplete

“Family and Home” Incomplete

“Financial and Career” Incomplete”

“Spiritual and Ethical”

“Physical and Health” “Incomplete”

“Social and Cultural” Incomplete”

“Mental and Educational” Incomplete”

See “Template Portfolio of Visions” for guidance

No Plagiarism

Refer to the Portfolio of Visions area of the Course Information page for appropriate handouts/templates, assignment details, and submission requirements.

MMSL 6905 – Capstone: A Case for Leaders as Change Agents APA

Brittney Griner and LeBron James Overview For this activity, you will consider how your popular culture example could expand Writing Assignment Help MMSL 6905 – Capstone: A Case for Leaders as Change Agents

APA Formatted Title Page

Portfolio of Visions

Life Mission Statement

To generate organizational management techniques that conform with consumer trends. I am aware that there have been significant changes in the organizations in terms of the performance of daily operations. Before any modification, organizations’ locations had not been digitized as all activities got conducted using manual methods. Implementation of reliable communication among different departments can improve by using manual techniques that use a lot of time and effort to generate required internal activities (Lerchenfeldt et al., 2019). I will ensure to collaborate with stakeholders at any business organization to create a complete transformation and conform to a digital environment in connection to my expertise. I shall use innovative communication and work engagement measures to collaborate with fellow students or colleagues with diverse expectations.

Life Vision Statement (minimum 1 page)

My vision is to participate in training that allows students to understand how to conform to the professional environment’s operations. I believe instructors teach interested persons at any centre how to use the equipment to research online for uplifting content and learn about the course content. It shall be possible to create change appropriately based on the availability of self-drive from myself and other persons. It shall be easy to generate a more reliable communication environment for students and future colleagues after realizing how to create significant improvements for the well-being of all persons in society. During all information improvement sessions, there shall be an effective method to generate high-quality enhancements based on the needs of the immediate environment.

My Walden Path (minimum 3-4 pages)

I believe gaining advanced education is the best method to conform to current industry standards. As a current student, working for an organization is my goal so that any physical centre can promote my career expertise. I want to volunteer at different organizations or school clubs where I shall find it easy to deal with persons from diverse backgrounds. This way, improving professional management with diverse backgrounds shall be possible and contribute to my career development. I have been able to conform to the expectation of the role of a student since I have an agreeable personality in everything I do.

The university allows students to become independent while assisting them in different learning areas, facilities, and instructors to promote possible standards in the academic community. The educational context already has individuals who get their learning experience skills or abilities through what they have been taught and use the knowledge acquired as their fundamental concept for knowledge sharing (Dawson & Hocker, 2020). The process is possible by learning and teaching and mainly by supporting the instructors with the proper academic credentials. The development of disruptive change is possible by using a learning structure for the student management departments as all students get trained to handle current professional standards.

I believe Walden shall promote my learning improvement using current methods that bolster my career expectations. Learning about human resource collaboration shall be a feasible method for me to deal with hostility strategically, which is common in all organizational environments. The university’s teaching standards shall support my need to communicate the need for the change and how it would offer an agreeable environment for all students and future employees. I shall collaborate with other students to attain transformed schedules to adhere to the new advanced work structure.

Regardless, there was hostility from some employees that did not realize how critical the new work environment was expected to be. The capability approach is a nominative aspect seen as an approach to human welfare. Its primary function is to provide a person with the ability to achieve their well-being in the context of being taught how to get the knowledge. The capability approach is seen as positive freedom because one can choose what life they want to live for justified reasons.

References

Dawson, S., & Hocker, A. (2020). An evidence-based framework for peer review of teaching. Advances In Physiology Education, 44(1), 26-31. DOI: 10.1152/advan.00088.2019.

Lerchenfeldt, S., Mi, M. & Eng, M. (2019). The utilization of peer feedback during collaborative learning in undergraduate medical education: a systematic review. BMC Med Educ 19, 321. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1755-z.

Final Stages of Life (minimum 3-4 pages

When it comes to the end of life, many individuals avoid talking about it or even thinking about it. This is largely due to people’s irrational dread of death (Jaques, 2018). That’s a sensation I get a lot, to be honest. When I think about the end of my life, I become nervous and teary-eyed because I have no idea what will happen. And it’s enough to make anybody afraid not to know what will happen to them or when (Svensson, P. (2018). However, when I think about the end of my life, I see it as a time of immense tranquillity. If I were to die in my old age, I would be content with the knowledge that I had made a significant contribution to the world and had a lasting effect on many people’s lives. My latter years of life would be much more enjoyable if I were at peace and content with everything I had accomplished.

Before my demise, I hope that as a leader, I have instilled in others the potential to contribute positively to societal progress. Before taking this course, I had taken numerous others, focusing on how to be a better leader. Being a good leader requires a lot of effort, one of the things I’ve learnt about leadership. I feel that if I were to leave this planet today, my leadership mark would be one that people would gladly follow and preserve alive. Currently, I am still improving my leadership talents.

I’ve already begun doing so by maximizing the use of my spare time. For this reason, I try to do as many fun activities as possible with my loved ones, including going on excursions and vacations. Engaging in free time is all about fulfilling oneself, and I want my free time to be as holy as possible and not a waste of my time. Every bit of leisure time should be filled with joy and relishing my time with the people I love, even if my days are numbered. Before I depart this earth, I will not waste any of my spare time.

As my life progresses, I hope I have gained a greater understanding of leadership and life in general by the time I’m done. As I’ve said before, I’m not an expert in everything, and I don’t pretend to be either. When presented with a situation when I’m unsure about anything, I don’t hesitate to seek guidance from others who have more experience and understanding than I have. To properly comprehend what a great leader is and how to use my leadership qualities effectively, I hope I’ve learned everything that life has to give and teach me before my dying moments. Again, I want to leave here knowing I’ve learnt as much as possible from this planet and not feel guilty about missing any of its secrets.

In my view, the most crucial aspect of establishing a meaningful life for myself and my family is that everyone is satisfied with the result. My top priority has been happiness since I was a little lad. It’s not only my happiness that motivates me to work hard every day; it’s also the happiness of my family and friends. I refuse to be one of the many people who spend their last moments regretting what they didn’t do throughout their existence. As long as I’m here, I intend to enjoy my life and have no regrets.

References

Jaques, E. (2018). Death and the mid-life crisis. In Is it Too Late? (pp. 1-26). Routledge. retrieved from: Death and the mid-life crisis* | 1 | Is it Too Late? | Elliott Jaques (taylorfrancis.com)

Svensson, P. (2018). In the final stages of life. retrieved from: In the final stages of life (diva-portal.org)

Key Life Areas:

Goals

A goal is something that you want to achieve. It is the “what you want to do.” Goals can be relatively short term (1 year) or much longer in duration. Because of its general nature, a goal is not always measurable in and of itself, but provides direction and focus for more specific statements known as objects and action steps. The farther away in time the goal is away from this moment, the less we can see in terms of how to accomplish it. For example, if you reflect back upon your decision path to attend graduate school, the farther away you were from making it happen, the less you knew about how it was going to happen. As you moved closer towards making your decision, it became less a statement about “I want to attend graduate school” and more a statement of “I want to attend graduate school at Walden University.”

There are many key areas in life that afford you opportunities to become successful. Write at least one goal for each key life area. Include goals for 1 year, 5 years, 15 years, and 20 years:

Sample Mental and Education One–Year Goal:

To develop a tribal leadership program for indigenous people around the world that is steeped in indigenous traditions and is aligned with their spiritual practices.

Action Statements

An action statement is just what it implies. It is a statement of intended actions in order to achieve a goal. It helps us to outline what we have to do in order to accomplish something of interest.

Sample Action Statement

In order to create a tribal leadership program, I will find a platform and the resources to create this program. Since I do not have the resources on my own, I will find like-minded people who share this vision to help me fulfill my dream of helping indigenous people improve their lives. I want to accomplish this within five years.

Objectives

Objectives are measurable statements that are aligned with individual goals. The statement has a definite time frame associated with it and often includes specific numbers.

Sample One–Year Objective:

I will write a proposal by July 31, 20__ for funding the pilot tribal leadership program at one American Indian reservation.

Use the format described above to write your Portfolio of Visions. Write at least one goal and action statement for each key life area. Write at least one objective for each goal during the first year only.

Listed below are the several key areas:

I. Family and Home

Establish at least one Goal and one Action Step for the following time periods:

1 year

Goal:

Action Statement:

5 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

15 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

20 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

In addition, also include an Objective for each of your 1-year goals.

Objective:

II. Financial and Career

Establish at least one Goal and one Action Step for the following time periods:

1 year

Goal:

Action Statement:

5 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

15 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

20 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

In addition, also include an Objective for each of your 1-year goals.

Objective:

III. Spiritual and Ethical

1 year

Goal:

I will ensure that after one year, I should be able to be faithfully grown in my belief as a person that understands mental aspects of management in my personal life. In this way, I could receive sufficient development in my learning without negatively impacting my college education (Bożek et al., 2020). I believe I shall grow more professionally now that I am ready to gain a college education. The current professional and learning environment requires every person to know careers or skills, which results in the need to engage well with different professional development processes. In this way, the focus of my spiritual growth shall be to enhance personal beliefs so that I understand areas of my life that need growth.

Action Statement:

The process shall boost educational success since I can personally assess my external environment to determine how I can engage with resources like learning materials, school equipment, and facilities.

5 years

Goal:

By this time, I should be able to understand the in-depth concepts of spirituality: having a connection with other persons, active participation with other persons, being more tolerant, and having a caring attitude. I shall constantly perform research to attain skills concurrent with the concepts of spirituality mentioned to determine how my growth can get managed. Integration of ethical management of concepts in my life can also be possible in this time by analyzing how the world works. Then I get involved in dealing with impartial connections with others in society.

Action Statement:

After discovering how the world constantly gets provided with growth, I can perform a personal assessment to ensure my values can be discovered by other persons I engage with. The fact that college education shapes thinking methods to assist decision-making for various concepts in life results in my focus on all my subjects and especially cohesion with current societal events.

15 years

Goal:

My focus shall be to integrate a caring attitude, honesty, confidentiality, responsibility, connection with other persons, and mental growth in awareness (Bostad, 2022). All these concepts of spirituality and ethics are beneficial to my growth to determine areas where my life shall gain more benefits.

Action Statement:

I will remain grounded in deep spiritual and mental management so that it would be possible to get engaged with proper mental, economic, and social developments.

20 years

Goal:

By this time, I will have realized that devotion to my high level of intellect shall be a critical outcome of my education as an adult. It would be the best decision to ensure I receive professional development and a guarantee of becoming self-sufficient in all areas that I am involved in my life. In this way, I shall be able to remember most of my learning concepts and ensure that my life is provided with more effective management in terms of development.

Action Statement:

Attainment of knowledge shall become my focus to ensure I get provided with a boost towards success by eliminating ignorance and discovering how to attain self-development.

Objective:

For year 1: To understand the true meaning of spirituality and ethical concepts.

For 5 years: To apply spirituality and ethical concepts practically.

For 15 years: To ensure my personal life becomes a display of all my internal convictions.

For 20 years: To develop a legacy that different people shall view and aim to emulate based on all beneficial outcomes.

References

Bostad, I. (2022). An ethics of rhythm—reflections on justice and education. Ethics And Education, 17(2), 149-162. doi: 10.1080/17449642.2022.2054559.

Bożek, A., Nowak, P., & Blukacz, M. (2020). The Relationship Between Spirituality, Health-Related Behavior, and Psychological Well-Being. Frontiers In Psychology, 11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01997.

IV. Physical and Health

Establish at least one Goal and one Action Step for the following time periods:

1 year

Goal:

Action Statement:

5 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

15 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

20 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

In addition, also include an Objective for each of your 1-year goals.

Objective:

V. Social and Cultural

Establish at least one Goal and one Action Step for the following time periods:

1 year

Goal:

Action Statement:

5 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

15 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

20 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

In addition, also include an Objective for each of your 1-year goals.

Objective:

VI. Mental and Educational

Establish at least one Goal and one Action Step for the following time periods:

1 year

Goal:

Action Statement:

5 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

15 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

20 years

Goal:

Action Statement:

In addition, also include an Objective for each of your 1-year goals.

Objective:

Final Paper Outline

Life Mission Statement

Life Vision Statement

My Walden Path

Key Life Areas:

Family and Home

Financial and Career

Spiritual and Ethical

Physical and Health

Social and Cultural

Mental and Educational

For each area establish at least one Goal and one Action Step for the following time periods:

1 year

5 years

15 years

20 years

In addition, also include an Objective for each of your 1-year goals.

Final Stages of Life

Page 1 of 4

Question 1 (5 points) Which action is a characteristic of a good

Question 1 (5 points) 

Which action is a characteristic of a good problem-solver?

Question 1 options:

a) 

Having no understanding of what the problem is

b) 

Trying to solve a problem without an action plan

c) 

Waiting for someone else to fix the problem

d) 

Looking at the problem from many angles or perspectives

Question 2 (5 points) 

What’s something to keep in mind when introducing a new technology in the workplace?

Question 2 options:

a) 

People may require training to use the new technology.

b) 

New technologies don’t require any new security procedures.

c) 

Some customers may not like that you use technology.

d) 

Technology can often make offices run less efficiently.

Question 3 (5 points)

Which of the following statements is true about getting help from coworkers?

Question 3 options:

a) 

Asking for help can be a sign of weakness.

b) 

You should only ask for help from junior team members.

c) 

Getting help frees you to work on your most important tasks.

d) 

Delegating work is the same as dumping work on someone else.
 

Question 4 (5 points)

Aliana is supposed to get back to a customer with an answer about a refund by the end of the day, but she won’t have all the approvals she needs to process the refund by that time. What should she do?

Question 4 options:

a) 

Tell the customer that she should have called about the problem earlier
 

b) 

Explain to the customer that her bosses are the ones that are taking forever

c) 

Call the customer only when she has processed the refund

d) 

Apologize to the customer and say that she will call her tomorrow with an update

Question 5 (5 points)

Claire just started a new job at a doctor’s office. She needs to contact someone in radiology, but
doesn’t know where to find a directory with employee phone numbers. Where is a good place to look?

Question 5 options:

a) 

Company Intranet

b) 

The Internet

c) 

Company web page

d) 

Company email
 

Question 6 (5 points)

A new version of a smartphone is just about to hit the market. How would an early adopter respond?

Question 6 options:

a) 

Evaluate the usefulness of the technology
 

b) 

Weigh the pros and cons of adopting the new technology

c) 

Tell friends and colleagues about the new technology

d) 

Seek out more information before adopting the technology

Question 7 (5 points)

Which of the following quotes is the best way to tell your boss that you can’t accept a new assignment right now?

Question 7 options:

a) 

“You know I already have this other deadline.”
 

b) 

“I don’t have time, sorry.”

c) 

“I would like to work on this, but if I take this on, I won’t be able to meet my current deadline.”

d) 

“I just don’t know if I can get this all done.”

Question 8 (5 points)

Catriona spotted a major problem having to do with patient billing. A number of people may have
received the wrong bills. When should she have told her boss?

Question 8 options:

a) 

When she was evaluating how to alert the patients

b) 

After she decided on a communication plan

c) 

When she first noticed the problem

d) 

After she sent patient notices out
 

Question 9 (5 points)

Alicia just created a fan page for the gift shop where she works. How can Alicia practice good customer service on the social media page?

Question 9 options:

a) 

Ask fans for feedback or ideas

b) 

Delete negative comments

c) 

Use the site to request personal information from customers
 

d) 

Make complaints received on the site lower priority

Question 10 (5 points)

Angela left her safety helmet at home. She is supposed to wear it at the plant during all shifts. What should she do?

Question 10 options:

a) 

Tell her boss that she needs to go home and get it

b) 

Borrow a hat that is way too big

c) 

Not work on any dangerous machinery
 

d) 

Go home and get it at lunchtime

Question 11 (5 points

Which of the following would be an internal customer for a medical assistant?

Question 11 options:

a) 

 Doctor

b) 

Paper supplier

c) 

Patient

d) 

Patient’s family

Question 12 (5 points)

Leo has created a “To Do” list, but needs help prioritizing the items on his list. He should probably start with the items that are

Question 12 options:

a) 

not important and not urgent.
 

b) 

urgent but not important.

c) 

important and urgent.

d) 

important but not urgent.

Question 13 (5 points)

You are trying to get an important customer order out the door, but your boss keeps coming over to ask you about the status of this order and several other orders. He’s just nervous and wants to be sure that you are on top of everything, but his constant interruptions are really starting to break your flow. Every time he comes over, you end up chit-chatting for several minutes. What can you do?

Question 13 options:

a) 

Keep stopping to chit-chat every time your boss comes over

b) 

Suggest that you and your boss schedule regular check-ins at lunchtime and at the end of the day

c) 

Complain to your coworkers that your boss is a nag
 

d) 

Tell your boss that he needs to stop bugging you

Question 14 (5 points)

Ben works as a medical assistant. He needs to take a patient’s vitals, but the patient is refusing to
cooperate. He hasn’t experienced this before, so he decides to ask a nurse for advice on how to handle it. This is making a decision by

Question 14 options:

a) 

command.

b) 

delegation.
 

c) 

consult.

d) 

vote.

Question 15 (5 points)

How many tasks should an effective to-do list have?

Question 15 options:

a) 

Fewer than five

b) 

Fewer than 20

c) 

More than 100

d) 

More than 50

Question 16 (5 points)

Which behavior would best describe someone who has good communication skills with customers?

Question 16 options:

a) 

Interrupting customers frequently

b) 

Repeating back what the customer says

c) 

Talking to customers more than listening to them
 

d) 

Following up with some customers

Question 17 (5 points)

Alejandro wants to determine how much money he made in the last month after taxes, social security, and Medicare were taken out of his paycheck. What number should he look at on his paystub?

Question 17 options:

a) 

Deductions
 

b) 

Federal tax amount

c) 

Net pay

d) 

Gross pay

Question 18 (5 points)

Carmen is preparing a large takeout order for a customer. The customer is scheduled to pick up the
order in 15 minutes, and he told Carmen that he is in a big hurry. Which behavior would demonstrate that Carmen is anticipating the customer’s needs?

Question 18 options:

a) 

Making sure the bag is stocked with forks, knives, and napkins

b) 

Leaving the order outside waiting for him
 

c) 

Waiting to see what else he requests when he arrives

d) 

Asking him what else he needs when he arrives

Question 19 (5 points)

 Ben needs to take a patient’s information, but the patient is refusing to cooperate. He hasn’t experienced this before, so he decides to ask the pharmacist for advice on how to handle it. This is making a decision by

Question 19 options:

a) 

command.

b) 

delegation.

c) 

consult.

d) 

vote.

Question 20 (5 points)

Fawn spends hours each week managing employee shifts and schedules, which is time she should be spending on other pharmacy operations. What can she do?

Question 20 options:

a) 

Write everything down in a weekly planner

b) 

 Start leaving more time in her week for scheduling-related tasks

c) 

Consider online inventory management software

d) 

Consider online scheduling software

Workshop 2: Direct and Indirect Discrimination This workshop covers the two main

Workshop 2: Direct and Indirect Discrimination

This workshop covers the two main statutory discrimination torts: direct and indirect discrimination. After the workshop you should:

Understand the elements needed for claims of direct and indirect discrimination.

Be able to apply the rules relating to direct and indirect discrimination and advise on whether unlawful discrimination has taken place.

Be able to assess (and express your own opinion on) the adequacy and effectiveness of these protections, and the extent to which they help achieve equality at work.

As before, please read at least the core readings prior to the workshop, as these will allow you to participate in the discussion.

Any further readings will be helpful when you are revising or completing the assessment.

Protection against ‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ discrimination

Core readings

B. Hepple (OUP, 2014) ‘Equality. The Legal Framework’ (Hart, 2nd edition) pp.67-91.

The sections on direct and indirect discrimination law in at least ONE of the following:

D. Cabrelli, Employment Law in Context (OUP, 2019). Pages 364-391 and 447-456.

H. Collins et al, Labour Law (CUP 2nd ed, 2020). Pages 349-367.

S. Fredman, Discrimination Law (OUP 2nd ed, 2011). Pages 166-214.

Cases on direct discrimination

James v Eastleigh Borough Council [1990] QB 61.

Smith v Safeway plc [1996] IRLR 456.

Shamoon v IRC [2003] UKHL 11.

Coleman v Attridge Law [2008] ICR 1128 (ECJ)

R (E) v Governing Body of JFS [2009] UKSC 15.

Seldon v. Clarkson, Wright and Jakes [2012] UKSC 16.

Chief Inspector of Education, Children’s Services and Skills v Interim Executive Board of Al-Hijrah School [2017] EWCA Civ 1426.

Taiwo v Olaigbe [2016] UKSC 31.

Core cases: indirect discrimination

R (Elias) v SoS for Defence [2006] 1 WLR 3213

Home Office v Essop; Naaem v Sec. of State for Justice [2017] UKSC 27

CHEZ Razpredelenie Bulgaria AD v Komisia za zashtita ot diskriminatsia [2015] C-83/14

Eweida and Others v UK, [2013] 57 EHRR 8

Homer v Chief Consable of West Yorkshire [2012] UKSC 15

Achbita v G4S Case C-157/15, and Bougnaoui v Micropole Case C-188/15

Further reading

A. Blackham, ‘Judicial retirement ages in the UK legitimate aims and proportionate means?’ (2017) Public Law 196.

R. McCrea, ‘Religion in the Workplace: Eweida and Others v United Kingdom’ (2014) 77 MLR 277.

H. Collins and T. Khaitan, ‘Indirect Discrimination Law: Controversies and Critical Questions’ in H. Collins and T. Khaitan (ed) Foundations of Indirect Discrimination Law, Hart (2018).

L. Vickers, ‘Achbita and Bougnaoui: One Step Forward and Two Steps Back for Religious Diversity in the Workplace’, (2017) 8 European Labour Law Journal 232.

A. McColgan, ‘Class wars? Religion and (In)equality in the workplace’ (2009) 38 ILJ 1.

Workshop Discussion Questions

How are the relevant comparators identified in claims for direct discrimination?

In indirect discrimination cases, how do the courts decide whether a rule or practice puts those with a protected characteristic at a particular disadvantage?

Is it unlawful discrimination for a company to have a mandatory retirement age? What about statutory mandatory retirement ages?

When will the courts view direct discrimination as justified? What about indirect discrimination?

Do you agree with the decision in Eweida v UK?

How would you have decided Achbita and Bougnaoui?

Do the protections against direct and indirect discrimination contained in the Equality Act 2010 advance the goals of discrimination law?

What are the strengths and weaknesses of these two protections in securing equality?