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At some point in the essay you need to give a one or two sentence answer to the question

At some point in the essay you need to give a one or two sentence answer to the question (thesis) and then show your reader why using specific evidence from the text. Please answer the following question based off of Marie de France’s “Lanval”
What is the most interesting relationship you find in the text? What makes this relationship especially interesting or unexpected and what does it tell us about relational values in the text as a whole? Do we have this kind of relationship today? And is there anything for modern people to learn from it? Note that lack or loss of a relationship can also be a relationship issue. Be sure to work closely with the text to figure out a complete picture of their relationship, what motivates it, etc.

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Ethical Leadership 1 ETHICAL LEADERSHIP by Course Professor University Date Modern-day society

Ethical Leadership 1







Modern-day society is gravitating towards practices that embrace ethical principles. One societal facet that attracts the use of ethical principles is leadership. Mihelič, Lipičnik, and Tekavčič (2010, 32) define ethics as a concept that pertains to the description and prescription of “moral requirements and behaviours” in the human society. From this definition, one realizes that acceptable and unacceptable norms define how people should behave. In any circumstance, human beings must endeavour to do what is good according to the available norms; from the definition of ethics, Mihelič, Lipičnik, and Tekavčič (2010, 32) state that ethical leadership is a construct that is ambiguous due to its diverse elements. The authors argue that ethical leadership encompasses leaders doing what is right than preventing them from doing the wrong things (Mihelič, Lipičnik, and Tekavčič (2010, 32). This means that there are certain attributes that a leader must have to have a basis for doing the right thing in any given situation. One must understand that an ethical leader is society centric, meaning that they have humanity’s interest at heart. An ethical leader must understand the role of sustainability and its principles and endeavour to integrate them into their leadership practices.

Attributes, Skills, and Knowledge Needed to Become an Ethical Leader

Certain attributes, skills, and knowledge on which ethical leaderships is premised. Ethical leadership is a conscious decision that one makes in their leadership journey. The term conscious means that one must be mindful and open to perceiving their surroundings to understand the prevailing circumstances, thus having a basis for deciding on the right things to do. Honesty is the first attribute that a leader must cultivate to be ethical. Engelbrecht, Heine, and Mahembe (2017, 11) argue that an ethical leader leverages honesty to establish trust in those they lead. Honesty is an inalienable trait that leaders must have in their everyday dealings. For example, a leader must refrain from distorting facts to suit their agenda and embrace fair play in any engagement, including when dealing with competitors.

The second trait of an ethical leader is justice. Justice is a pillar of fairness, meaning that a leader can leverage it to preempt bias while entrenching the equality principle in an organization (Xu, Loi, and Ngo, 2016, 494). For example, an ethical leader will not mistreat their subordinates because of their gender, race, or age, among other factors. Respect is the other attribute that an ethical leader must diligently cultivate in their calling. A leader must learn to respect others regardless of their position, status quo, or unique characteristics. This means that respectful leaders endeavours to listen to each person, foster inclusivity, and cherish diversity. Disrespect will create disunity, thus killing the vision of a team or institution.

Integrity is the fourth trait that a leader must have to be considered ethical. Engelbrecht, Heine, and Mahembe (2017, 1) define integrity as the obedience to moral principles, which, similar to honesty, lays a foundation for trust. A leader who demonstrates integrity creates a leeway for their subjects to trust them. Such a leader is not afraid of telling the truth or doing the right thing, and they are always ready to defend their principles. One must always demonstrate integrity in their convictions and actions. Connected to integrity is the responsibility, which refers to the ability of a leader to take charge. Ethical leader will always understand their mandate, thus offering direction, especially during challenging situations.

Sustainable Development Goals and Intercultural Understanding: Barcelona (Spain)

Ethical leadership is intertwined with the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and intercultural understanding. Khayesi (2021) argues that SDGs aim to enhance life quality, thus creating a better society for all. SDGs are premised on human rights and justice, an admirable ethical goal “towards a good life and humane society” (Khayesi, 2021). Earlier, it was indicated that ethical leadership pertains to doing the right thing by promising one’s decisions, behaviours, and actions on the mentioned traits of an ethical leader. This means that by leveraging the mentioned pillars for ethical leadership, one can make a difference in the future by adopting new initiatives that can improve the quality of life. However, one must understand the underlying cultural factors that influence societal dynamics in a given country. The following section will detail Hofstede’s dimension of culture in Spain, specifically Barcelona, and the field trip location.

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: Spain

Hofstede’s cultural dimensions on Spain provide insights into the important drivers of the country’s culture relative to other countries. The SDG subject of this section is enhancing gender equality in Barcelona. Gender equality is one area that has proved to be contentious over the years and can be used to measure an individual’s propensity to be an ethical leader. Gender equality in Barcelona will be approached from the perspective of justice (lack of bias), a key hallmark of an ethical leader. The first dimension is power distance which is premised on the principle that all individuals in a society are not equal. Spain scores highly in this domain (57), meaning that all members of Spanish society accept a hierarchical structure (Hofstede Insights, 2022). Inherent inequalities, entrenched centralization, and subordinates being under benevolent leaders in such a structure. To be perceived as an ethical individual, one must respect organizational hierarchy. This means that in Spain, respect for seniors is highly valued.

Second, Spain scores 51 under the individualism dimension. Individualism refers to the level of interdependence in a given society, which principally the use of “I” and “we” (Hofstede Insights, 2022). Spain’s individualism score shows a collectivist society, especially compared with other European countries. However, from the perspective of other parts of the world, Spain is an individualistic country. When executing the gender equality SGD, it will be necessary for individuals to realize that Spain prefers teamwork over individuality. Integrity is one quality that an ethical leader must have and is also a necessary pillar for team dynamics.

The third dimension is masculinity which Spain scores a low score of 42. A high score on masculinity means that a society is driven by competition, accomplishments, and success, while a low score signifies a society whose building blocks are caring for others and quality of life (Hofstede Insights, 2022). One realizes that the gender equality SDG will significantly thrive in Barcelona (Spain) because people value the quality of life over competition. To be considered an ethical leader in Spain, one must prove that they are not biased. Research has shown that gender inequality, a product of bias, harms the quality of life.

Fourth, uncertainty avoidance deals with how society perceives its future. Primarily, a society can be proactive about its future or just let it happen. Spain has a high score of 86, meaning that Spaniards like strategizing for the future and do not like life surprises (Hofstede Insights, 2022). The correlation between ethical leadership and this dimension’s high score is that people involved in implementing the gender equality initiative must plan ahead of time because Spaniards do not like surprises. Hence planning ahead of time shows that one respects other people’s time and resource usage.

The fifth dimension, in which Spain scores 48, is the long-term orientation. This orientation describes a society’s propensity to maintain some connection with its past while addressing its current and future issues. On the one hand, one will find normative societies (score low) which have strong links with their traditions, while on the other, one will find pragmatic societies which focus on prudence and effort in contemporary education as an approach to preparing for the unknown (Hofstede Insights, 2022). A score of 48 in this dimension shows that Spain is more of a pragmatic society than a normative one. Spaniards tend to have traditions that are relatively deeply entrenched. Differently, Spain is also a progressive country. An ethical leader must purpose to respect the traditions that Spaniards hold dear.

The last dimension is an indulgence which entails how children are socialized to control their desires and impulses. A low score shows that a society is a restrained one instead of an indulgent one (Hofstede Insights, 2022). Spain scores 44, meaning that it falls in the former category. This means that one must ensure they respectfully engage with Spaniards.

Hall’s Cultural Factors

Spain is a high-context culture, meaning that diverse aspects aid people in understanding the rules. Fundamentally, one will expect that communication in Barcelona (Spain) means that people are aware of the context and environment of their engagements (Kumar, 2018). This means that an ethical leader must purpose to interpret and extrapolate what they are saying without distorting facts. Having an initiative dealing with gender equality will require one to be honest with what they are saying. The other important aspect of Hall’s cultural factor is the locus of control which is also a high context element. In executing the gender equality initiative, it will be critical that one respects others’ positions in a group. A leader must have a high sense of status quo. Last, Spain is a monochromic society implying that people prefer to do one thing at a time (Adams and van Eerde, 2010). This agrees with Hofstede’s uncertainty avoidance aspect, which agrees with the value of careful strategizing. Also, an ethical leader must learn to respect others’ time. Time management is a valuable attribute that one must consider to thrive in Barcelona.


Cultivating ethical leadership traits is a critical undertaking that one must engage in. An ethical leader’s three most important traits are integrity, honesty, and justice. The other equally important aspect of an ethical leader is respect. Second, gender equality is an important SDG that one can develop an initiative to be implemented in Barcelona. Hofstede and Hall’s cultural awareness frameworks show that Spain and thus Barcelona value ethical-based leadership. This means that one must have the mentioned attributes to fit into that society.


Adams, S.J. and van Eerde, W., 2010. Time use in Spain: is polychronicity a cultural phenomenon? Journal of Managerial Psychology.

Engelbrecht, A.S., Heine, G. and Mahembe, B., 2017. Integrity, ethical leadership, trust and work engagement. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

Hofstede Insights. 2022. Country Comparison – Hofstede Insights. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 April 2022].

Khayesi, M., 2021. What Is the Ethical Reflection of the Sustainable Development Goals?. Sustainability and Climate Change, 14(3), pp.138-144.

Kumar, D., 2018. Spain: 7 Rules of the game — Expand in Spain. [online] Expanding in Spain. Available at: [Accessed 25 April 2022].

Mihelic, K.K., Lipicnik, B. and Tekavcic, M., 2010. Ethical leadership. International Journal of Management & Information Systems (IJMIS), 14(5).

Xu, A.J., Loi, R. and Ngo, H.Y., 2016. Ethical leadership behaviour and employee justice perceptions: The mediating role of trust in organization. Journal of Business Ethics, 134(3), pp.493-504..

1 Leadership Theories Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Course Name Professor’s Name Due

At some point in the essay you need to give a one or two sentence answer to the question Writing Assignment Help 1

Leadership Theories

Student’s Name

Institution Affiliation

Course Name

Professor’s Name

Due Date


Throughout the human history, most people have been interested in the psychology of leadership. Despite their efforts, they could not understand what it takes for one to be a great leader. The emergence of formal leadership theories have significantly helped many people understand some of the questions on leadership that jogged their minds. These theories have intensely explained how and why certain individuals in our society who assume leadership positions end up as great leaders. Also, they have helped highlight some of the leadership traits and behaviors that individuals interested in leadership positions can adopt to enhance their leadership abilities. Most of the studies in leadership have revealed that some of the traits attached to these theories have proved crucial in enhancing the performance of most leaders in the business world. This paper will discuss some of the key leadership theories and how they can contribute to effective leadership in various organizations round the world.

Key Leadership Theories

One notable theory that explains the psychology of leadership is situational theory. This theory embraces an adaptive leadership approach. According to this theory, leaders should adopt new styles of leading the team members based on the existing workplace conditions. The theory requires leaders to embrace flexibility on which leadership techniques they apply since leadership approaches vary depending on the type of decisions one has to undertake. For instance, in a scenario where the leader is the most qualified and knowledge team member, an authoritative leadership approach is guaranteed. In other instances where the group’s members are more qualified than the leader, a democratic approach is appropriate. The traits exemplified in these theory are flexibility, trustworthy and problem solver.

Participative theory encourages involvement of all concerned parties in the decisions making process. As most studies suggest, the theory requires leaders who aspire to be great by giving their subordinates a share in decision making. As a result, the leaders have the responsibility of information subordinates of the existing company situation under all circumstances so that they can make contributions regarding company decisions before the top leaders make a final decision. A practical scenario of a leader that embraces participative theory is the founder of Microsoft, Bill Gates. He often embraces suggestions from the staff before making final decisions. A participative leader is open-minded, collaborative and outreaching.

Another theory is transactional theory which is result oriented. As the theory suggests, successful leaders motivate their employees in order to achieve best results. The theory posits that a good leader should motivate the employees, set a structure that monitors and directs them in order to receive desirable outputs. Thus, a good leader should always focus on performance of the employees. A transactional leader is always directive and an extrinsic motivator. Such leaders always supervise and give directions to their staff and also reward good performance. One corporation that applies this theory is Coca-Cola Company. It is known for providing a conducive work environment and reward employees who perform well.

Transformational theory is another leadership theory that explains how a person can become a great leader. As the theory asserts, transformational leaders help their group members to determine their value and higher good of the tasks they execute within the organization. These lay focus on improving the performance of their group members and also helping them fulfill their potential. Transformative exemplify communicative and visionary traits. They constantly communicate to their group members and motivate them to achieve set goals. A practical scenario where this theory is in use is at Amazon. Amazon’s leader, Jeff Bezos always pushes his employees to think of new products and possibilities. His transformational style of leadership has made Amazon the giant of e-commerce.

Trait theory also falls in the category of the leadership theories. The tries to explain why some people become good leaders by asserting some people inherit exceptional qualities which make them to become excellent leaders. One of the world leaders who fits the description of this theory is the late Steve Jobs who served as the interim chief executive officer of Apple. Steve had exceptional traits that which he displayed at workplace. One notable trait was his meticulous attention to details at trait some of his stuff would not match.

Leadership Theory that would be effective for Kroger Company

Kroger Company is Retail Company in the US that operates several supermarkets and grocery stores in more than thirty-five states. Since the compare has more than half a million associates, for it to continue excelling, it has to adopt a participative theory leadership approach. For the company to make satisfactory decisions that all its associates would genuinely accept, the company has to involve them in decision making process. The employees across the supermarkets and grocery stores have to contribute towards the wellness on the company before a final decisions is reached. This theory is fit because for Kroger since its embraces collaborative efforts and open-mindedness of employs. Since this theory is based on dialogue, it will improve the company’s communication by embracing sharing of information and opinion among its stakeholders.


Aymn Suleiman. (2018). Transformational leadership style and its relationship with change management. ResearchGate.

Benedictine University. (2019). 5 Leadership Theories & How to Apply Them. Benedictine University CVDL.

Benmira, S., & Agboola, M. (2021). Evolution of leadership theory. BMJ Leader, 5(1), 3–5.

Hayat Bhatti, M., Ju, Y., Akram, U., Hasnat Bhatti, M., Akram, Z., & Bilal, M. (2019). Impact of Participative Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Mediating Role of Trust and Moderating Role of Continuance Commitment: Evidence from the Pakistan Hotel Industry. Sustainability, 11(4), 1170.

Mulholland, B. (2019). Leadership Theories: How to Be the Perfect Leader for Your Team | Process Street | Checklist, Workflow and SOP Software. Process Street.

Radhika Kapur. (2020). Understanding Leadership Theories. ResearchGate.

Surname 2 Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Legal and Ethical –

Surname 2

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



Legal and Ethical – Two Sides of the Same Coin

The use of ‘unnamed sources in news reporting is not of a strange descent; rather, it has become very common in recent years as the rules and regulations that govern the media industry continue to face gradual changes as years go by; considering the emergence of social media and its effects to news reporting (Lanosga & Martin, 1676-1693). However, it is important to note that the use of this ideology rather limits its sanctity; it limits the industry’s independence and endangers its credibility. In some cases, this type of news gathering can and is used for ill intent by its influencers; however, impartiality influences how news is covered.

In this scenario, the anonymity or confidentiality of a journalist regarding the protection of a source is very much safeguarded by law (Stenvall, 97-106). The reasoning behind this is due to the fact in some cases, the use of ‘unnamed sources’ presents as the only way the information can be publicized through the media; however, guidelines to support this type of scenario have been placed, for instance, enforcing corroboration from a second source before publicizing the information (Sarathy & Kerner). As a journalist, it is my duty to ensure that the information presented to me is factual by asking more sources to verify; asking the involved parties in both companies.

Given the fact that the information presented was never in secrecy, nor was it directed to me but to the people present, unless the source wanted their identity hidden or the information not to be shared, that would have prompted a different decision when it comes to the steps that necessitated the publication of the information (Brandtzaeg, Petter Bae, et al., 323-342). However, in this scenario, no one was in danger, nor did the information endanger any life; hence, due to its importance, I am obligated to publish the information after asking the source whether their name should be mentioned and respecting their decision.

Works Cited

Brandtzaeg, Petter Bae, et al. “Emerging journalistic verification practices concerning social media.” Journalism Practice 10.3 (2016): 323-342.

Lanosga, Gerry, and Jason Martin. “Journalists, sources, and policy outcomes: insights from three-plus decades of investigative reporting contest entries.” Journalism 19.12 (2018): 1676-1693.

Sarathy, Jayshree, and Catherine Kerner. “Ring Signatures for Anonymous Sourcing in Journalism.” (2019).

Stenvall, Maija. “Unnamed sources as rhetorical constructs in news agency reports: a diachronic view.” Shaping realities in news reporting: from Early Modern English to the dawn of the twentieth century. Media XXI, 2018.

Miriam Perez Prof. Luis A. Fonseca PHI2604-2223-4168 24th April 2022 “The Wrongfulness

Miriam Perez

Prof. Luis A. Fonseca


24th April 2022

“The Wrongfulness of Euthanasia” by J. Gay-Williams

At the beginning of the excerpt, Gay-Williams highlights the critical arguments humans have developed in justifying euthanasia. The fact that euthanasia is gaining traction in human societies is alarming as Gay-Williams believes it to be morally wrong. Gay-Williams believes that euthanasia can be attributed to a human lack of empathy and the devaluation of human life. He also considers the recent increase in the acceptance of the idea, if not the practice, due to unthinking benevolence and sympathy. Gay-Williams outlines a critical human way of thinking like “She and her family would be better off if she were dead,” which justifies people’s intention to end another person’s suffering. According to the excerpt, Gay-Williams believes that euthanasia is not only a bad judgment but also influenced by self-interests when viewed through practical effects. He defines euthanasia as “An essential aspect of euthanasia involves taking a human life, either one’s own or another.” He maintains that taking a life of a suffering person who is not expected to recover from an illness or severe injury(s). He also believes that the action is intentional when taking an individual’s life presumed to be in a hopeless health situation. He also touches on some aspects of euthanasia, such as the failure to continue taking medication for people with terminal diseases, which people refer to as “Passive Euthanasia.” Still, Gay-Williams disagrees since the individual involved is not killed. The other mentioned aspect is the third critical aspect he terms as withholding of additional treatment.

Gay-Williams presents the nature argument regarding euthanasia by explaining how the human body processes natural inclination to support life. He elaborates on the critical elements of our human structure to fight diseases, instincts, and reflexes to flee from danger. Therefore, he believes that euthanasia violates the natural survival goal intended for life continuity. Gay-Williams presents a strong argument that euthanasia trounces the delicate mechanisms of life than what injuries or diseases may not. He adds that even religion does that support taking life without justifiable cause as the sanctity of life is protected under the ten commandments. On the self-interest argument, he argues that considering that death is irreversible and final, then practicing euthanasia or even consenting for it to be practiced on us is going against our own interests. The last point of argument is practical effects, where Gay-Williams argues that doctors, nurses, and other health practitioners may be corrupted by euthanasia. Since the major commitment in their careers is to save lives, they feel like the loss of life in their line of work is a personal failure. He fears that they may stop trying their best to save lives as they may assume that the “patient is better off dead” and may help speed up the demise. Gay-Williams concludes by reiterating the policy of the hopelessly sick people giving other individuals the mandate to oversee their euthanasia if they are no longer capable of doing it themselves. He believes that euthanasia is wrongful death, and it is, in fact, not dying but rather killing.