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Read throughly ALL powerpoint before answering the questions below.
Watch ALL video to help with the questions below.

Watch the video at:
Do you think that the video would help children to learn how to perceive emotional states in social situations? Why?

Watch the video at:
How would role schemata explain why people would obey the guy in the “uniform”?

(BTW, the narrator of the video is famed social psychologist Dr. Phil Zimbardo of Stanford University, who I once shared an elevator with at a conference when I was a graduate student but was too tongue-tied to say much of anything other than ‘Good morning, Dr. Zimbardo.’).

See the results of a new study at:
Why would speaking more lead to greater liking of oneself by others?

See the ad for Smart Water at:
How is Smart Water using classical conditioning, operant conditioning and balance theory to persuade us to buy their product?

Watch the 2020 Trump campaign ad at:

Given what you know about the factors that determine if persuasive messages involving fear will be effective, evaluate the effectiveness of this ad.

PART 1 Culture of the LGBTQ+ Community Previously, people used to describe


Culture of the LGBTQ+ Community

Previously, people used to describe their gender as LGBTQQIAAP, but now, LGBT is the umbrella term for all genders and sexualities. Women attracted to other women are considered lesbians (L). A man attracted to other men is called gay (G). B stands for bisexual, which refers to a person attracted to men and women. An individual whose gender identity differs from the biological sex at birth is described as transgender (T). When someone refuses to identify with “binaries” (such as “male vs. female” or “gay” vs. “straight”), they are said to be queer (Q). A person pondering their sexuality or gender identity is Questioning (Q). Intersex (I) refers to a person whose chromosomes are neither XX nor XY, so they are not indisputably male or female. As an ally, (A) you are a member of the LGBTQQIAAP community who identifies as straight. A person who is not sexually attracted to anybody, regardless of their gender, is said to be asexual (A), whereas the letter P denotes homosexual (Lo, 2018). It’s possible to be both pansexual and gender-fluid simultaneously, which means that one’s sexual desire is not dependent on one’s gender.

Common attitudes, beliefs, and values relative to the LGBT cultural group

Like heterosexuals, LGBT people have comparable attitudes, beliefs, and values. In their view, they should be acknowledged as productive members of society with a great deal of respect, honor, and appreciation for what they do and how to go about their daily lives. They are no different from those of any other person in mainstream society. LGBTQ persons have been fighting for equality since the 60s. In the same ways that religion and racial acceptance have improved, the US has further accommodated sexual diversity. Even though all states in the United States have legalized same-sex marriage as of June 15, 2015, the societal acceptability of homosexual marriage differs significantly across regions and individuals.

Prominent customs, practices, and behaviors

As far as LGBT people go, they are not all that different from the rest of us. The only thing people find strange is that they are attracted to each other and face prejudice because of their desire and sexual preferences. LGBT youth have been shown to have higher rates of alcohol consumption, drug use, depression, suicide attempts, and hazardous sexual activity than the general population. With time, all these behaviors have been linked to how people see heterosexism and phobias embedded in society’s norms, policies, and practices.  As the LBGT individual ages, their hazardous behaviors diminish, and their primary concern shifts to family life. Almost every state has a gay pride march, which is well-known. Although many people are indifferent to the rally, the heterosexual community still has difficulty accepting or understanding the celebration’s purpose. Gay pride was not created to celebrate their sexual orientation or project arrogance. It is a way to change the narrative and affirm that gay people are average persons in society and should be able to live without fear. Homosexuals are just happy and excited at every chance to be who they are.


Religion is a means of expressing one’s inner spirituality. Gay men and lesbians are expected to have nothing to do with spirituality since most major faiths oppose homosexuality. However, many experts feel that those who identify as homosexual or lesbian would benefit most from receiving spiritual nutrition because of their discrimination.  Homosexuals have a high degree of spiritual well-being: how they think about God and their feelings about life (existential well-being). Higher levels of religious well-being may be seen among those who identify with a formal religion and regularly attend religious services. People who had been diagnosed with depression, on the other hand, reported feeling less content with their lives in general. The majority of the LGBT community in the United States take spirituality as a coping mechanism to deal with stress.

Key historical events and figures impacting the cultural and societal perceptions of this group

Pride is an annual global event that is celebrated every June. From parades and concerts to workshops and exhibitions, the events of Pride month enable LGBTQ+ people and allies to celebrate their genders and sexualities, discuss LGBTQ+ history and advocate for further change. Pride celebrations have grown and diversified since the first parades in the early 1970s. In 2000, for example, WorldPride was founded. This is an event in a different global city every year – in 2019, the WorldPride in New York City was estimated to have been attended by over 4 million people. Public opinions about LGBT persons and the policies that affect them have dramatically changed in the United States and globally in the recent decade. (Hicks, 2020).  The Supreme Court’s momentous decision to legalize same-sex marriage is only one example of this beneficial transformation. As the LGBT population achieves more rights and exposure in society throughout the globe, there are indications of a reaction in some world regions. 

Historical and Current Oppression 

Discrimination against this community has increased stress, sadness, and anxiety among LGBT people and less access to healthcare. As a result of bullying, anxiety-inducing social encounters, lack of social acceptability, and antigay persecution, many people suffer from severe mental health disorders. Due to negative stereotypes, there are more suicide attempts, addictions, mental health illnesses, drug misuse, and suicide attempts within the LGBT population. This is not about whether some or all gays have mental issues but about whether or not they are. It would be surprising if many homosexuals didn’t suffer from an altered self-image and some degree of dissatisfaction with their stigmatized position in our society, where they are regarded with disdain or even downright hatred. 

Many LGBTIQ+ persons are experiencing discrimination, abuse, and harassment at the workplace, school, and in social conditions, despite increased tolerance of LGBTIQ+ members of society and better exposure to LGBTIQ+ media personalities and the public sphere. Persons could often face pressure to conform to current societal preconceived notions of what it means to be male or female. Discrimination, harassment, and sometimes even verbal violence can be heaped upon anyone who does not conform to society (Loyal, 2022).

In recent years, America has contributed immensely to the advancement of LGBTQ+ rights, with numerous corporations speaking publicly of support. The Supreme Court’s June 2020 decision shielding LGBTQ+ people from employment discrimination was supported by a record-breaking 206 big firms, according to an amicus brief filed in the spring of 2019. Dozens of large consumer businesses have committed to sponsoring yearly Pride parades regularly. According to the Human Rights Campaign, employers continually adapt corporation considerations about recruitment procedures, employee representative groups, and branding supporting LGBTQ+ rights.


Events attended

The first program I went to was a Non-binary orientation class hosted by Gender Identity Program in New York City. The event was attended by a small subset of people and an educator who identifies as non-binary. They provided many definitions of distinct non-binary persons and discussed which pronouns should be used for each participant in their discussion. We started with introductions to personal pronouns, like they/she/he/, during the meeting. The instructor explored what being non-binary meant to them during the class and provided instances of people and the difficulties they face every day. This facility offers a range of programs and activities. They are primarily a youth organization, and they provide a variety of activities and clubs for both adolescents and adults. The second meeting I participated in was a gathering of the PFLAG (Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays) support group in Greenville, SC, since 1988.

It is not only a support system for family members and friends of those who identify as LGBTQ+ or who support them but a haven for the LGBTQ community.  The atmosphere in this group was welcoming and friendly. People of different ages attended; from an eight-year-old boy with his family to middle-aged and elderly persons. In the same way that any support group operates, we introduced ourselves to everyone in attendance before allowing each member a chance to speak up and share details about themselves.

Emotional Impact

The emotional toll of this endeavor was too much for me. I had no idea to which each of these folks is subjected to discrimination on a daily until I met them. In the support network, an 8-year-old transgender female male was there with their family. He had only recently been discharged from the hospital after experiencing severe depression earlier. His tale and those of his family were tough to listen to simply because of daily difficulties the boy encountered. The parents also experienced stigma because they were merely attempting to help their child. They had relocated to the metropolis from a more remote county to be free of prejudices, only to find themselves in the midst of even more. It would be challenging for me to go through this as a parent, but I can relate to both of these parents who are only trying to provide their youngsters with what they need.

There was also a transgender adult present who had transitioned from male to female and was discussing how her spouse of 39 years had requested a dissolution of their marriage due to her gender transformations. It was pretty distressing to witness the difficulties that every one of those people faces frequently. It was pretty depressing to see the difficulties they have faced in their lives due to their inability to feel confident and comfortable. It was pretty painful to be the minority in the bunch of participants. While in the minority, I seemed to be doing something poorly. Being a member of a minority group, I believe, has helped me understand a little more how these groups feel regularly, as well as some of the problems that they face. However, even though my experiences were terrific and I was never made to feel like an outsider, it was nonetheless unpleasant.

Cultural knowledge

I have gained a great deal of knowledge via these activities. I discovered more about the LGTB community. My learning included important information like the many different sub-cultures that exist and the discrimination they face daily. To become more therapeutic, I believe it is vital to understand diverse cultural traditions. I also learned about a variety of services that are available to the LGTBQ culture, as well as things that could help them live their lives more comfortably. Going to all these events allowed me to get more familiar with a variety of crucial phrases as well as better approaches to assist someone. I believe that by immersing myself as a member of this society I have developed a greater respect for this community and gained a better understanding of what it is like to be a member of a minority. The only time I’ve found myself in that circumstance was a couple of years ago, and it was a very unpleasant and awkward experience. To be more accepting and compassionate to others, rather than making them feel unwelcome or an outcast, was something I realized. From a therapeutic perspective, I believe that it is critical to include everyone to build trust and so aid in the therapy relationship. Another important lesson I learned was the significance of peer support and the effectiveness with which it may be used (McDermott et al., 2021). The ability to be around individuals similar to you is exceptionally therapeutic. It can assist someone in not feeling like an outsider and feeling like they are a member of something meaningful. As a result, I learned to be more straightforward and seek clarification when looking at different cultures.  Each time we attended one of these groups or events, we were encouraged to ask questions to successfully get to appreciate the people in attendance.

Counseling Theories

There have been a variety of strategies employed in dealing with this LGBT culture. First is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the LGBTQ population and children who are under stress. Aspects of many of the therapies used in this study included the involvement of family and friends who have been welcoming and relatives that were not, execution of safety strategies, and the development of relevant abilities to deal with and manage the stereotypes associated with this community. A sense of community and acceptance with others is also fostered by groups, as members may express and share their emotional experiences with somebody who is going through something similar. I believe that support networks are highly crucial for this group of people, especially considering that they are going through a lot. This community needs all the support and love they can get, so it is a good thing that they have these group meetings to maintain their sanity. Embracing one’s gay orientation and feeling less alienated are all indicators of existential well-being. So, getting a support group can actually do give the LGBT community reaffirming care (Tordoff et al., 2022).


Hicks, G. R. (2020). Beliefs and Stereotypes About LGBT People. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.

Lo, R. S. (2018). Changing childhoods: Using queer theory and intersectional methods to reconsider the epistemic resources of children with gay and lesbian parents. Global Studies of Childhood, 8(1), 91–104.

Pener, D. (2018, October 10). The Story of How West Hollywood Came to Symbolize LGBTQ L.A. Los Angeles Magazine.

McDermott, E., Eastham, R., Hughes, E., Pattinson, E., Johnson, K., Davis, S., Pryjmachuk, S., Mateus, C., & Jenzen, O. (2021). Explaining effective mental health support for LGBTQ+ youth: A meta-narrative review. SSM – Mental Health, 1, 100004.

The history of Pride : Unifrog Blog. (n.d.). Copyright 2022 Unifrog – All Rights Reserved.

Tordoff, D. M., Wanta, J. W., Collin, A., Stepney, C., Inwards-Breland, D. J., & Ahrens, K. (2022). Mental Health Outcomes in Transgender and Nonbinary Youths Receiving Gender-Affirming Care. JAMA Network Open, 5(2), e220978.

Surname 9 LGBTQ Student’s Name Professor’s Name Institution Date Policy Brief RIGHTS

Assign writer who knows about social PSY. Must be in Word doc NOT PDF. Read throughly ALL powerpoint before Psychology Assignment Help Surname 9


Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



Policy Brief


My name is (your name), a (your course) student at (your institution). I am writing to the Florida Law Making Conference to enlighten on the need to alleviate the rights of the Lesbians, Gay, Bisexuals, Transgender Intersex, Asexual and Queer (LQBTIAQ) community concerning the current policy “Do NOT speak about homosexuality in schools,” which was enacted by the congress in the Florida Lawmaking Conference of 2022. It is shocking to discover that America lacks a federal bill to shield and fight for discrimination against the LGBTIAQ community. The currently enacted policy on not to speak about homosexuality poses numerous questions to the victims of homosexuality making them feel inferior, unfit and unwanted in their distinct environments. Instead, the Florida Lawmaking Conference can adopt an “Equality Act” which protects gender, sexual preference as well as sexuality against discrimination.


Quantifying the total number LGBTQ individuals in the United States has been a hard task. The fear of being mocked and discriminated because of expressing who they are has facilitated it all. According to the recent study of the United States, 6.4% of women and 4.9% of men have been recognized as members of the queer community (Varrella, 2021). Research has revealed that American culture has been more hospitable or tolerant with individuals of the LGBTQ the past few years; yet prejudices in sexual preference and contexts remains a severe problem in the United States.

LGBTQ individuals endure prejudice in educational institutions, work places or even in religion services because of their sexual preferences and sexuality. This makes them prone to homelessness, depression as well as committing suicide compared to heterosexual peers.

The passage of the Equality Act would safeguard the LGBTQ individuals against prejudice as well as ensuring that they are not denied services particularly those who need federal funding, religious services as well as psychological services (Thoreson, 2019). The Equality Act will expand civil liberties regulations. For instance, it will make it plain evident that prejudice associated with gender preconceptions, sexual preference as well as sexuality is federally illegal. This bill will grant the LGBTQ individuals confidence to speak out who they are and fight for their rights without embarrassment of being judged.


The Floridian policy on “do not speak about homosexuality” is one of the enacted strategies to ensure that queer individuals are protected in school environments (Sopelsa, 2022). The policy is set to ensure that queer individuals are “protected” `against being degraded , heightening them from shame as well as protecting them from stigmatization since discussing and speaking about LGBTQ, for example, in classroom environments would mentally affect the young and naive LQBTQ teenagers. Despite that this strategy works there is still a lot to be done. The notion that individuals cannot confidently discuss about homosexuality in classrooms poses numerous questions to the LGBTQ victims. According to Mastroianni (2022), the notion leaves individuals with the feeling of; “there must be something wrong about the LGBTQ identification.” The policy as well leaves LGBTQ individuals with inquests like “is there anything wrong about me or who I am?” Because if someone is warned against discussing a certain thing it definitely means that there is something wrong or unacceptable about the thing.

I believe there is a lot of diversity that comes with the freedom of speaking about oneself, what they feel and who they are. By just declaring that homosexuality should not be discussed in class means that the LGBTQ individuals are wicked, need to be humiliated and eliminated from the school or the society. Due to the denial of self expression, this exclusionary legislation has a negative impact on LGBTQ individuals’ psychological stability, lowering their esteem, depression as well as increased cases of suicide among the queer groups (Aranmorate, 2017). Instead, policy makers should embrace the equality law which seeks to ensure that LGBTQ individuals are protected against discrimination, either in schools, work places, in religious services as well as in federal services.

According Trevor (2021), statistics analyzed by The Trevor Project, roughly forty eight percent of bisexual individuals significantly pondered death in the previous decade, twenty seven percent tried to commit suicide. Thirty seven percent of gay and lesbians teenagers seriously pondered suicide and 27% attempted suicide. 37 percent of homosexual and lesbian teenagers seriously pondered suicide, and 19 percent tried it. In addition, 14 percent of straight teenagers seriously pondered suicide, with 6 percent attempting suicide as illustrated the table below:


Attempted suicide


Committed suicide


Sexual orientation



Gay and lesbian




The enacted law on not speaking about homosexuality denies students a chance to be enlightened on how to deal with anxiety and stress that comes along with the identification. Adopting the Equality Act will be of great significance since it ensures that it changes educational institutions diversity rules to enable students to be allocated to classes regardless of their sexuality and sexual orientation. Openly speaking about homosexuality will be of great significance in reduction of depression and suicidal cases among the LGBTQ individuals. Students will be able to express themselves and seek guidance and counseling from their senior schoolmates and teachers on issues concerning homosexuality without the fear of stigmatization that comes with the issue.


The implemented policy on “Do not talk about homosexuality” is ineffective in fighting against LGBTQ discrimination. The policy itself is biasing the LGBTQ community in terms of self expression and discussion of what they feel and who they are. Dictating that queer discussion is not allowed in the school norms and regulations depicts a clear illustration that queer identification is evil and members of the LGBTQ are inferior within their environments. This makes LGBTQ individuals and teenagers vulnerable to drug and substance abuse, isolation, stress depression as well as suicidal thoughts since they are made feel unworthy by being denied the right to express what they feel and they are going as queer individuals.

The education department in conjunction with policy makers and the federal states can work together enhance establishment of subjects on LGBTQ in the education syllabus as an alternative strategy on curbing LGBTQ discrimination. According to GLSEN (2019), inclusion of topics like sex and physiology, identity, history of LGBTQ, sexuality as well as anti-LGBTQ topics will help kids to recognize themselves in their teachings and gain a true grasp on the reality surrounding them.

The federal government should invest in professional career development. Investing in professional trainings and professional education growth will assist in guaranteeing that educational institutions are welcoming, secure and convenient for LGBTQ students. Effective professional training of teachers will assist in educating teachers and institutional staffs on how to handle LGBTQ students (Barile, 2018). The training will also help teachers in handling LGBTQ harassment and bullying issues in order to make sure that educational institutions are secure and courteous environments for queer groups.

Policy makers should embrace an equality act which entitles every individual with a right to fair treatment despite their sexuality, sexual orientation or gender. Embracing this Act would free LGBTQ individuals from the burden of stigmatization as well as granting them an opportunity to be who they are in terms of their sexual preference. LGBTQ individuals will be able to seek guidance and counseling from their seniors without the feeling of guilt that comes along with being a member of the queer community

On the other hand embracing or not embracing the Act has some pros and cons relatively;

Pros of embracing the bill are:

Queer individuals will be granted confidence of expressing themselves and being who they are.

LGBTQ suicidal rates will decrease since victims will confidently be able to seek guidance and counseling on psychological disturbances that are brought about by being a homosexual.

Cons of not embracing the bill are:

LGBTQ individuals will drop out of schools due to bullying and stigmatization.

Queer suicidal rates will continue going up due lack of guidance and counseling.

LGBTQ students’ performance will drop due to stress that comes along with stigmatization


Schools should embrace creation of LGBTQ students’ organizations to serve the queer students. As we all know, education extra- curriculum activities have a capacity to change school atmosphere, redress inequality and improve student achievements. Curbing prejudice against LGBTQ individuals, supporting their wellness as well as establishing secure and welcoming education settings are all key goals of LGBTQ students groups. Allowing students to form extra- curriculum queer groups will offer assistance to LGBTQ students and will aid in raising awareness and combat prejudice in schools. The club will also ensure that the institution rules and regulations are welcoming to all students which will help queer students to have a great experience in school environments.

It is crucial for schools to be a welcoming environment for all individuals. I therefore propose schools to place “LGBTQ anti-bullying” safe space posters in strategic location for example in classrooms and the administration blocks. The posters will communicate to kids that the school environments are LGBTQ friendly and encourage them to be ready to speak out about bullying and harassment. The safe zone posters will also give kids enough confidence that their instructors, advisors as well as the administration are ready to discuss LGBTQ topics in the classroom context or in normal conversations.

State and regional policymakers should work towards implementing policies like “say no to sexual discrimination”. The policy would guarantee measures against discrimination on LGBTQ individuals in workplaces, educational institutions, in living residences, in medical care services in as well as in adoption and after.


GLSEN. (2019). Inclusive Curriculum Guide. GLSEN.

Barile, N. (2018, September 8). 5 Things You Can Do to Support Your LGBTQ Students. Hey Teach!

Thoreson, R. (2019, March 16). Why the US needs the Equality Act. Human Rights Watch.

Varrella, S. (2021, May 31). Topic: Homosexuality in the United States. Statista.

The Trevor Project. (2021, December 15). Facts about LGBTQ youth suicide. The Trevor Project.

Sopelsa, B. (2022, March 8). “Don’t Say Gay” bill: Florida Senate passes controversial LGBTQ school measure. NBC News.

Mastroianni, B. (2022, March 16). Why Florida’s “Don’t Say Gay” Bill Is So Dangerous. Healthline.

12 Effectiveness of Early College High Schools and Early College Nursing Academy


Effectiveness of Early College High Schools and Early College Nursing Academy Academic and Social Support Framework

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Number and Name

Instructor’s Name

Due Date


Introduction of the Methodology Section

This research aims to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of ECHS and nursing academies in raising the minorities’ academic levels and preparing them for post-secondary career paths in education and professionally. In Chapter One, the study provided the background information and also discussed the importance of this study. Chapter Two involved a discussion on the literature of the subject matter and the context from other research conducted before, which would be relevant to this research. Chapter three begins with the introduction to the methodology section, the proposed research method and design, the research questions, research instruments, data analysis, trustworthiness and credibility of the research method, and the limitations of the research methods proposed.

Research Method and Design

The research is a case study that will involve students at Grand Prairie Early College High School and Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy. The case study will investigate the lived experiences of the graduates from these schools on their college preparations, academic successes, and career paths as professionals. The research project will focus on the minorities’ perceptions, and experiences of they believe they can be successful while in college and their plans as they join the professional career paths. To achieve the requirements of this research project, it will use the qualitative method, which will involve both semi-structured interviews and surveys. According to Creswell (2007), the semi-structured interviews help “emphasize and expose experiences, reflections, and how experiences influence worldviews.” Broussard (2006) indicated that while interpreting interviews, records, documents, and observations, it is possible to understand the scenario in-depth. It means that interviews and surveys are critical and appropriate for this study as students were interviewed. Data will be analyzed on their perceptions and early college high school (ECHS) opinions.

According to Merriam (1998), using a case study in research is to help gain knowledge of the phenomenon and the meaning of the events taking place. Therefore the interest is on the process followed and not the outcomes, in discovery, not in confirmation and context, and not the specific variables. Using a case study, the author also stated that the results could influence future research, practice, and policies. They are descriptions relating to a single unit, a group, a program, or an individual. According to Yin (2003), when one is doing a case study, they refer to the strategy of posing the questions of “how” and “why” the researcher, in this case, has very little control, and the focus is on the contemporary phenomenon. Therefore, in a case study, the two most prominent ways for gathering information and ensuring that they answer the intended questions are the use of surveys and interviews.

The appropriateness of the use of the qualitative method came about after considering several methodological options. One of those methods under consideration was the quantitative method, which differs from the qualitative approach (Jackson et al., 2007). The difference between the two starts with collecting data, but the quantitative method uses close-ended experiments. This data determines the variables’ relationships and supports the provided hypotheses. Another difference is based on the research problem that is usually under consideration, wherein in quantitative research, the research problem must include statistical analysis to help determine the relationships (Cochran & Dolan, 1984). Interpreting data is also different in quantitative and qualitative methods, whereby the qualitative methods are exploratory and the quantitative method confirmatory. Therefore, for this study, the quantitative approach was not suitable. It would not help explore the students’ experiences in their early college high school, whether they get what they need to take them to the next level, or the nature of their experiences and perceptions, thus reducing attrition (Jackson et al., 2007). Based on this, the method that provides the necessary methodological tools to question the early college high school students and helps analyze their answers on perceptions and experiences is the qualitative method. It will ensure that results are provided according to the research questions.

Another aspect of this qualitative research case study is survey research and cross-section, defined by Fraenkel and Wallen (1993) as gathering data related to a population at a specific time rather than a long time where one would monitor changes. In this case, a cross-sectional case study utilizes the survey tools where a convenience sample is used to represent the whole population. In most cases, the population is too big, and it might be impossible to conduct interviews or survey all of them, and therefore, the qualitative method uses the cross-sectional strategy where a sample of the whole population is employed.

Therefore, regarding respondents in the research, the qualitative approach utilizes a small sample size of the respondents, unlike the quantitative analysis, which depends on large sample sizes. Using small sizes in qualitative research is very cumbersome considering the instruments used in collecting data, recording, and analyzing it. According to a recommendation made by Creswell (2005) regarding the research sample size, he stated that it should range from 1 to 25 participants. Similarly, another study by Polkinghome (2005) indicated that the sample size of qualitative research should have between 5 and 25 participants. However, Patton (2002) had earlier suggested that the sample size in qualitative research did not have any specific rules, and it should depend on what the researcher wants, whether it will be helpful, what is at stake, inquiry purposes, credibility, reliability and time and resource availability.

Therefore, in any qualitative research like this one, the sampling procedure must meet the inclusion-exclusion criteria whereby the researcher determines the target group to administer the study. In this case, the inclusion criteria involve Grand Prairie Early College High School students and Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy in the ECHS program. This is a purposeful sampling procedure whereby the participants meet specific criteria. It is a non-probabilistic sampling technique because one can select the locations of the study and the respondents with the hope that there is a chance that they will give the necessary answers to the research questions.

Research Questions

The study purposed to explore the opinions and perceptions of minority groups lived experiences of students from Grand Prairie Early College High School and Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy on their college preparedness, academic success, and professional career path. It was designed to determine students’ perceptions regarding their experiences, including their coursework rigor, their perceptions towards teaching staff, and the extent of social support from other students. The research questions included;

What were the expectations that students from minority groups enrolled in Grand Prairie Early College High School program have in excelling in the program and enrolling in colleges?

How does the program help in developing these expectations?

How do students perceive academic success expectations?

How do Early College Nursing Academy students perceive social integration expectations?

What supports do the students regard as being available to ensure their success?

What are the barriers that the students feel they face in school?

To what level do the students credit the success skills curriculum, college and career readiness activities, and assigned mentor relationship towards completing their Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy program?

How do they perceive their motivation to pursue a college degree?

In what way does participate in an Early College High School and joining Early College Nursing Academy support their motivation? And how do they value that decision after attending college?

What are the negative influences on student motivation?

What educational or occupational paths have Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy students pursued since they left the college and whether the support offered in Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy contributed to the students’ choices after leaving the program? 


The student names and email addresses were obtained from the schools’ department records. However, qualitative data for this research was obtained from students’ responses in online surveys and interviews, either face to face or through phone calls. The researchers’ choice of the study group was in line with Travers 2015) study highlighting that research methods are often related to the researchers’ assumptions. In this study, the researcher determined the students to be the best evidence in evaluating the support in school that enabled them to complete both Grand Prairie Early College High School and Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy successfully. Students are more reliable sources as they know what motivates and what does not motivate them.

This research’s goals were to understand students’ perceptions of why they chose to leave their previous schools and join an early college program. The study evaluated whether given the opportunity to go back and decide whether to join Grand Prairie Early College High School and Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy after reflecting on their experiences would choose the schools again. Additionally, would they recommend Grand Prairie Early College High School and Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy to a family or friends? The survey question utilized in the study was structured to determine how likely the students would recommend Grand Prairie Early College High School and Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy to friends and family. The question has been regarded to evaluate organization practices and is commonly known as the Net Promoter Score. The study hypothesized that if they would readily select the early college program again, based on their experiences in the program, it would indicate to what extent the students valued the program.

The survey centrally focused on determining student perceptions of the support offered during their early college experiences to evaluate whether the support was instrumental in aiding the students to persevere through the drawbacks related to completing the program. The survey involved 28 questions divided into three sections; 14 questions addressing the biographical or background information and other 12 questions regarding the support that Grand Prairie Early College High School and Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy offer, including success skills, relationships with mentors, readiness events for career path and college, class evaluations before college, the significance of the college being incorporated in a public forum campus and general evaluations of the program. In addition, in the online survey, approximated to take around 20 minutes, students were enquired to volunteer for interviews towards the end of the study.

The project attempted to incorporate responses from interviews and surveys from students who failed to complete the early college program. Only one of the two students who had not completed the program and participated in the survey conducted it entirely. Their responses were vital in the research to determine their experiences with the support programs meant to support students completing the early college program. Students belonging to cohort groups were emailed to all the three graduated groups to request them to participate in the study through inline surveys and interviews. Postcards were also sent to last known addresses in cases where the students had not left an email before exiting the school or failed to respond to the email requesting them to participate in online surveys.

An online survey tool called Survey Monkey was utilized to distribute the survey. The tool required personal data such as gender, race or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and first-generation to attend the colleges as highlighted by criteria for eligibility such as free lunch. Students were requested to do a face-to face-interview that would last around 20 minutes towards the end of the survey. The face-to-face interviews were conducted on campus at the community college. Most students had already transitioned to universities; hence some interviews had to be completed online using skype. It allowed the researcher to visually interact with the respondents even though they were not in a face-to-face physical range. In some cases, the interviews were interrupted; hence the researcher had to conclude the interview over phone calls.

Online Survey

The surveys were sent to the last known students of Grand Prairie Early College High School and Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy, who were part of the three cohort groups. A few students had previously left their email addresses at their subsequent departments. At the time of the survey majority of them had already transitioned to other colleges and universities. In contrast, some of them had different changes in their address which prompted sending out the surveys through survey monkey to the available email addresses and postcards for those who had not identified emails. The researcher also reached out to the community college to obtain some addresses of some students who used it while they were enrolled in the college. Emails were sent to 230 participants, but only 48 of them responded in 1 month. Other attempts to reach out to the students were made by sending postcards and looking for alternative email addresses to expand the study group.

The survey link was also added to cohort three groups’ Facebook page. We reached an additional five respondents, making up 24% of the total participants. It was impossible to contact all students via emails and postcards as out of 230 invitations; only 118 were opened while the other 112 were not. Sixteen invitations failed due to wrong email addresses, and five participants opted out of the online surveys. Only 48 open surveys were answered and participated in the study, with cohort one having 16 responders, cohort 2 with 14 responders, and cohort 3 with 18 responders’. In cohort three, two students did not complete the survey entirely. The study encompassed 18 male responders and 30 female responders. Five of the students did their online survey on the Facebook platform rather than directly responding to the survey monkey invitations; their emails and gender were not recorded.


In the survey, students were called upon if they were willing to participate in the interviews sessions in person. The interview was carried out either in person or through skype for students who were at far distances and would not manage to attend the interviews personally. Some of the interviews we conducted were through phone calls. The respondents were asked the same questions, although face-to-face interviews enabled the researcher to ask questions in-depth and some additional information through follow-up questions. The data collected was recorded for qualitative analysis and evaluated for the early college support.

Out of the 35 students that had consent to do the interviews, 20 of them were the only ones who showed up for the interviews. The interviewed students belonged to different groups; cohorts one and two had six respondents each, while cohort three had eight respondents. However, the researcher had to modify some interview questions to fit emergent ideas. The researcher examined additional questions by exploring semi-structured questions regarding their experience being at young ages undertaking college classes along with older adults and another college. The researcher also interviewed them on the significance of the cohort model in aiding them to participate in the college program to completion.

Face-to-face interviews involved eleven students, while three were led through an online platform via skype. One of the interviews was partly conducted through skype and partly through a phone call due to issues with connecting. The other remaining respondents mainly were based in rural areas; hence connection through skype was problematic, rendering the interview to be conducted through telephone.18 of the students who participated in the online survey were included in the 20 participants in the face-to-face interviews.

Data Analysis

There were varied amounts of data collected from the surveys and interviews including; socioeconomic status, family education level, motivations to leave previous schools to join early college program, social experiences in past academic and high school, influence of the faculty, sports in the campus, career and college related activities, early college location significance and factors influencing completion and persistence both positive and negative. The data was interpreted following a five step described by Groenewald (2004).the first step involves bracketing and phenomenological reductions. it is regarded as breaking the researchers personal preconceptions and views hence it is paramount to repetitively listen to the audio interviews to familiarise with words context used by the interviewees

The second step encompasses delineating units of meaning, evaluation of statements and extraction to illuminate the research problems. The researcher at this stage needs to make substantial judgements while bracketing their own pre suppositions to avoid inappropriate subjective judgements. The third step involves clustering units of meaning to themes. According to Creswell (2007), it is achieved by grouping the units and then summarizes each of the interviews, validating it and modifying it. The summary has elicited themes from the data and requires validly checking them by comparing to the participant’s remarks to check if the essence of the response was determined. Lastly the research identifies all generalised and unique themes from the surveys and interviews by looking for similarities and differences in all the interviews and clusters the common themes and distinguishes the other themes that feature counterpoints to bring out the researched phenomenon.

The study interviews applied probes or additional details and follow-up questions where appropriate by following a particular protocol. The semi-structured interviews offered a chance for in-depth topic explorations and enabled the respondents to provide their insights via open-ended dialogues. After each interview, the data recorded were analyzed to reflect on ideas, impressions, observations, and immediate thoughts. The audiotapes were examined and processed into motivation, orientation, and intentionality themes. The interviews are later transcribed, after which the transcriptions are reviewed to check whether they are accurate against tapes of the respondent’s audio and make the necessary adjustments to the transcriptions. The data on the reason for leaving previous schools were coded and analyzed to determine which reasons for joining Grand Prairie Early College High School and Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy were most prevalent. The data were analyzed to determine whether their reasons for leaving were predominantly due to aspirations to professional goals or other distinct factors were more predominant. Also, the research purposed to determine whether lack of a viable academic environment or bullying played a vital role as a reason for departure.

After leaving local high schools, the reasons for attending Grand Prairie Early College High School were studied extensively to clearly understand the students’ motivations to aid in serving the existing student better and effectively recruit other new students. The study aimed to understand students’ reasons for joining the early college program beyond the assumptions often made by the Grand Prairie Early College High School from some experimental background knowledge on why students enrol. The college administrations assume that the current practices are effective as the students’ transition to universities after graduating from the college after completing their college courses. However, the success extent of the program is not fully elaborated; hence the study enabled the students to evaluate their success in reaction to the support accorded in the program. Understanding the students’ personal experiences on the support levels of the program would enable the faculty to make adjustments to the program based on the data.

The data from the research was classified into cohort groups to evaluate if all the groups were represented in the student responses. The questions were varied with some addressing biographical data reported as a percentage of particular categories such as confidence levels but most of the questions were open ended from semi-structured interviews and opinion questions. The responses obtained from the surveys was tabulated with descriptive questions identifying the students race or ethnicity ,gender ,socioeconomic status as conditions for meeting the eligibility criteria determined by reduced/ free lunch. Other factors that were required were parents’ educational levels, the semester undertaken by the student and if the completed the program. The goal of the research questions was to determine why they joined Grand Prairie Early College High School and Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy and their experiences in relation to the supports that may have led to successful completion. The responses obtained were coded to realize common themes, insightful responses and majority opinions.

The students were questioned regarding their current statuses in continuing with their academics and careers. also they were asked if give the opportunity to go back and make the decisions again whether they would still chose to attend to Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy. Their responses were coded by organizing the data into various groups in reference to diverse kinds of support. According to Maraim… researchers comes up with concepts, terms and classes that reflect their observation on the data. Before conducting data analysis, data selection has to occur and should go beyond descriptions and categorizing to an abstract level by applying concepts to describe a particular phenomenon. Mariam…asserts that the researcher should allow the data to define what categories to include. This research student interview data was coded and the responses grouped into classes using the first letter abbreviations that constituted various themes such as CCR for college and career readiness events.

The responses to some questions were coded depending on the different responses given by students. A question such as To what level do the students credit the success skills curriculum, college and career readiness activities, and assigned mentor relationship towards completing their Grand Prairie Early College Nursing Academy program was coded into groups such as very confident, confident, moderately confident and not confident.


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Drawing on recent experience in the UK, critically discuss the rationale and

Drawing on recent experience in the UK, critically discuss the rationale and difficulties in designing localist planning systems.

Localist planning systems have grown to be a predominant target for governments globally. The concept of has gained such importance in an attempt to conform to global trends of sustainable development (Eagle, Jones, and Greig, 2017). Consequently, Davoudi and Madanipour (2013) rationalize localism as an approach that focuses on the governance of relations with the local communities, essentially promoting devolution of power. A reasonable description of the planning approach is a system that seeks to decentralize power and service delivery to local institutions, organizations, and the community. Further, Gallent (2015) indicates that localisms allow a transition to localization with neighbourhood planning as the primary focus of such planning. The focus of government structure roles and objectives changes to enhance local control and responsibility as the essential guiding frameworks.

The concept advocates planning changes to a bottom-up service delivery system, ensuring local goals and needs are satisfied. Subsequently, the ideology forms the basis of the UK’s planning structure as a strategic concept for sustainable growth in the past decade. The nation adopted the phenomenon to solve the previous regionalism system’s challenges of disproportionate distribution of development and economic status (Sturzaker, Sykes, and Dockerill, 2020). According to Eagle Greig and Jones (2017), the Localism Act was necessitated in this case to stimulate even distribution of economic growth and development. As a result, UK’s planning system officially transitioned from regionalist planning and adopted localism, a sustainable framework for development in 2011 subject to abolishing regionalism. The concept used in the UK is rationalized as a tool that effectively empowers local communities to actively influence the development of their local areas (London Assembly, 2012).

Neighborhood planning is an integral part of understanding the designing of localist planning systems. As presented in Sturzaker, Sykes and Dockerill (2020), neighborhood plans are a statutory provision in UK. The approach creates a citizen-led disruption of power consolidation allowing local control over development in all scopes; social, economic and environmental enhancement. This enables a participative democracy in the systems of development that allows even distribution of opportunities to manage local infrastructure and economic growth.


However, despite the anticipated and theorized benefits of the concept of localist planning, there are criticisms of its implementation. Theoretically, the concept is rational and presents the significant potential for enhancing local development. Regardless, there is cause for caution in the system’s implementation process. This is associated with the adequacy of local structures to accommodate and conform to the concept (Hollman and Rydin, 2012). Therefore, there are limitations in the availability of skilled personnel that can strategically facilitate the implementation of the planning system. The establishment of neighborhood plans is an intricate process that is effective with an effective plan and professionals facilitating the plan-making process. Primarily, knowledgeable planners are necessary for successfully implementing the revolutionary design of localized planning. Hence, deprived local areas may challenge influencing effective planning practice without appropriate technical aid.

An overarching difficulty presented in localized planning is the challenge of multiscalar identities. Gherhes, Brooks, and Vorley (2019) argue that localism is reduced to a rhetoric process that establishes heterogenous realities in developing local plans. These refer to assumed realities of the local identity, and proposals of development by local development agencies end up being irrelevant from a scalar perspective (Gherhes, Brooks, and Vorley, 2019). The plans presented become insufficient to meet the needs of locals that are individualized and diverse. This calls for more concentration on employing participatory planning concepts and establishing accurate data on community identity, needs, and potential goals.

In addition, capacity gaps in the implementation of localized planning are a predominant challenge experienced. According to Tomaney (2016), the operationality of the planning framework requires local communities to be well established in terms of organizations and relevant institutional frameworks to facilitate the implementation of the planning approach. The gap presented in this case is the inadequacy of ineffective institutions. Some localities lack proper institutions to accommodate the changes in localized development.

Access to resources and funding is a significant challenge in the implementation of locality planning. The availability of funding presents a limitation in the capacity to redesign local areas (Locality Group, 2016). The power to influence change at local levels is dependent on the adequacy of resources and funding that the locals lack control over. The leadership capacity is tested in such an instance, necessitating radical leaders and planners that can mobilize and bargain the distribution of the resources from relevant government authorities.

The effectiveness of localist planning has faced challenges associated with the engagement systems. Ideally, engagement requires extensive time to engage the local group (Sturzaker, Sykes, and Dockerill, 2020). The low-income groups in society are limited in their capacity to be involved in participatory planning as they prioritize their time for more value-added activities. This creates a bias in the capacity of localist planning as the view presented are predominantly from the wealthier groups of communities (Sturzaker, Sykes, and Dockerill, 2020). Despite the assumption that the local challenges are collective and burden the locals equally, a significant bias in the local representation process is exhibited. According to Locality (2016), some areas present multiple depravities; their needs are diverse. As a result, the deprived groups of communities that are the target population lack attachment to the plans and policies implemented without proper systems.

Conclusively, the theoretical organization of communities to accommodate localist planning is important. Institutional preparedness should come first before implementing such a model supported by the capacity building of locals. Objectively, the leaders and professionals managing the implementation require an adequate capacity to mobilize required resources and proper practice to implement such a system effectively. Moreover, innovation can play an important role in enhancing the process of creating digital platforms that may not necessarily require the physical presence of the locals. Planners should be an integral part of the system required to support the communities by implementing theories such as advocacy planning and facilitating participation. Overall, effective institutions will stimulate satisfactory the anticipated outcomes of localist planning systems: even economic growth and development.

6 Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans Natural


Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans

Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans

Natural disasters negatively affect communities in more than one way. Almost all sectors involved in the community’s development are affected when natural disasters occur. Examples of natural disasters experienced in communities worldwide are earthquakes, tornadoes, wildfires, droughts, and hurricanes. All these natural disasters come with negative consequences that change the course of lives that people in the community are accustomed to every day. One major natural disaster was Hurricane Katrina which occurred in 2005 in New Orleans. The hurricane affected other places like Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi, but the effects were most concentrated in New Orleans. According to Yawn (2020), Hurricane Katrina released thirty-one gallons of water in New Orleans, destroyed approximately 134,00 homes, and left over 250,000 people displaced. The numbers do not include hundreds of those who died due to the effects of the hurricane. Hurricane Katrina affected New Orleans’s culture and economic conditions, and measures should be taken to prevent such losses from occurring again in the future.

Before hurricane Katrina, education, culture, and economic activities ran well, and everything was stable. The hurricane hit when schools in New Orleans were already opened, which endangered many students’ lives. Before the hurricane, students in New Orleans had stable schools where they could go and get the knowledge and skills, they needed to better their lives. After the hurricane, many public schools in New Orleans were converted to charter schools which were independently run. The culture of New Orleans before the hurricane was diverse because many African American people lived amongst others in the community. The people were welcoming, and everybody felt included in all the activities present. The hurricane reduced the number of African Americans in New Orleans by almost fifty-nine percent of their population (Yawn, 2020). New Orleans’s economic conditions were stable before the hurricane hit in 2005. Many people had steady jobs or businesses, and they could earn a living for themselves without any significant challenges. After the hurricane, business buildings were destroyed, and many people lost their source of livelihood. Unemployment also rose because the hurricane had destroyed many jobs, and many people had to be let go because their workplaces were not making any profits. Tourism in New Orleans generated a lot of income, and the development of different communities in New Orleans was heading in a positive direction. Whitten (2019) states that in 2006, immediately after hurricane Katrina the tourism sector reduced to $3.7billion, approximately sixty-three percent less than in 2004 before the hurricane. Many tourists avoided New Orleans a few years after the hurricane happened, which made the economic conditions drop drastically compared to when the hurricane had not occurred.

Hurricanes are natural disasters formed when water and warm air mix. The primary source of hurricanes is mostly oceans because they provide the vast mass of water that helps the hurricanes form and spread. Warm moist air begins to rise above the water, and it is replaced by cooler air which, when they mix, a hurricane occurs. Hurricanes are accompanied by thunderstorms, rainfalls, and extreme winds. In some severe cases, hurricanes are accompanied by a circular motion of winds that destroys buildings and causes several deaths and injuries to people. The wind speed that accompanies the hurricane is the primary cause of the destruction of property and loss of life during a hurricane natural disaster. Hurricane Katrina reached New Orleans with a speed of approximately 160km/h. The winds continued to increase in speed, causing havoc in New Orleans and other surrounding areas.

After the natural disaster in New Orleans, the culture and the economic condition of all communities in New Orleans were affected negatively. Immediately after Hurricane Katrina, students were not in school because most of the schools in the communities were damaged and unsafe for the habitation of students. The floods that New Orleans experienced made it impossible for people in the community to engage in their normal day-to-day activities, which affected the economy of New Orleans and the country in general. The United States’ oil production was heavily affected by Hurricane Katrina because most of the areas where oil is produced were affected (Herman,2006). Many people who worked in oil companies lost their job as the company was trying to get back on its feet after the devastating effects of the hurricane. Ten years after the devasting Hurricane Katrina, most of the population that left New Orleans had begun to come back. Original dwellers of different communities in New Orleans felt safe returning to their homeland and continued boosting the economy through their hard work. Many people had to relocate once their houses were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina. Tourism in the various communities of New Orleans also increased, and even though immediately after the hurricane, most tourists feared visiting, ten years later, the tourism sector in New Orleans is beginning to regain its previous glory. Ten years later, after Hurricane Katrina caused havoc in New Orleans and other nearby parts, the economic conditions and culture in New Orleans have improved drastically. The United States government channeled billions of dollars into restoring the economy and culture in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. Michael Hetch, the CEO of Greater New Orleans Inc, stated that New Orleans and Louisiana received almost $140 billion of investment funds to help rebuild schools, hospitals, and roads destroyed by the hurricane (FRBA, 2015). The funds have helped people in New Orleans rebuild their culture and continue to grow their economy even after suffering major losses. The culture of New Orleans has continued to grow since the effects of Hurricane Katrina that crippled it for a while. The culture of New Orleans is one of the major tourist attractions that generate income for the local people. The changes experienced immediately, five years, and ten years after have shown how hurricane Katrina has made the people of New Orleans and other affected parts resilient during extreme suffering.

The rates at which hurricanes destroy homes and business buildings and cause the loss of many lives are alarming. City planners in different communities, primarily those vulnerable to hurricanes, should follow several steps that will help keep the community safe and reduce the number of lives lost during a hurricane. One step city planners should take to prevent damage, destruction, and loss of life during a hurricane is by making strict policies for home builders. The guidelines should make plywood, fabric panels, and hurricane straps mandatory when building houses or business buildings. The use of plywood, fabric panels, and hurricane straps will make buildings more resilient and avoid damage when a hurricane hits (Kim, 2022). Ensuring buildings are built firmly will help people minimize the losses that occur once properties are damaged during a hurricane. Some of these buildings’ installations are expensive to install and require substantial space, but they are necessary for areas at risk of hurricanes attacks. People are also at risk of death during the event of a hurricane. To avoid casualties, city planners need to have accurate weather reports to enable the timely evacuation of people. Once many people are evacuated, there is a high chance that many of them will survive, and the loss of life will be reduced. Accurate weather reports by city planners will help communities know when a hurricane is a threat, and they will take the necessary measures to mitigate its damages. One of the leading suggestions that city planners need to incorporate in their plan to minimize damage and death in case of a natural disaster is creating awareness of its dangers. Some people ignore the threat that hurricanes and other natural disasters cause because they have no education regarding the issue. City planners should invest in creating awareness campaigns to avoid ignorance among people, which can cause losses of property and lives. The other suggestion is for city planners to help those who cannot afford to install the appropriate building requirements by ensuring they are advised on the cheapest but secure building plans. City planners should ensure all people are protected from hurricane effects, whether poor or rich.

In conclusion, hurricane Katrina affected New Orleans’s culture and economic conditions, and measures should be taken to prevent such losses from occurring again in the future. The number of lives lost, people left homeless, and buildings destroyed in New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina is alarming. The culture and economic conditions in New Orleans were heavily affected in 2005, and when the hurricane hit and several years after the natural disaster, New Orleans was still dealing with the negative aftermath. The difference between five and ten years after the hurricane is evident because New Orleans is trying to rise and gain back its glory in terms of culture and economy ten years after the disaster. City planners need to have accurate weather reports to ensure timely evacuation of people once they are at risk of a hurricane disaster. Building houses and commercial centers with the right equipment to hold during a hurricane will help save lives and keep properties safe from damage. Hurricanes are dangerous, and people should ensure they take the necessary measures to ensure they only experience the minimum adverse effects.



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Herman, C. (2006, August 25). Katrina’s Economic Impact: One Year Later. ABC News.

Kim, G. (2022, January 24). 11 Ways to Avoid Hurricane Damage. Bankrate.

Whitten, S. (2019, September 4). New Orleans’ tourism booms 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. CNBC.

Yawn, A. T. J. T. (2020, August 28). 15 years after Hurricane Katrina, does New Orleans sound different now? The American South.