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ASD Diagnosis With Cardio Information Do My History Assignment


Children and adolescence Essay Paper apus history essay help: apus history essay help

Children and adolescence can often become plagued with a myriad of health problems. Some revolve around psychosocial issues. ADHD is such a disorder that affects as many as 1 in 20 children or adolescence in the United States with a growing prevalence worldwide. Although this disorder can cause problems for the child or adolescent experiencing symptoms, it can be successfully managed. Treatment protocols involve proper assessment of symptoms and diagnosis, a treatment plan, and effective follow up care. With this kind of approach, children and adolescence who may suffer from ADHD can learn to deal with this disorder.

ADHD is a psychosocial issue present in children and adolescence. Although it is not heavily prevalent, quite a number of children and adolescence have this condition and display its core symptoms. ADHD is characterized by the following main symptoms: hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. There are also three subtypes of ADHD. These are predominantly hyperactive/impulsive type, predominantly inattentive type, and the combined type which shows symptoms of the first two types.

In order to properly diagnose someone with ADHD, it is important to examine the onset of the disorder. Onset generally happens before the age of seven in most kids. Since symptoms aren’t always easily identified, especially when diagnosing older children, it is important to review patient history. One thing to note is the duration of the behavioral symptoms associated with ADHD. The behavioral symptoms can lost for at least six months. Behavioral symptoms are also displayed in more than one setting, whether it be home, school, play, etc.

Assessing the degree of impairment can be helpful in better understanding the disorder. Recent studies suggest ADHD may be caused by external factors such as environment or preterm behavior of mother like smoking. It can also be caused by genetics (McGuinness, 2008, p. 23). These considerations when performing assessment can help better form a better understanding of ADHD from epidemiological standpoint such as patterns of diagnosis and so forth.

Since Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a comparatively common disorder of childhood onset and is of substantial public health worry, development of an age-appropriate protocol which includes diagnosis, management, and follow-up care can help those afflicted by the disorder. Over the previous twenty years, “there have been 19 community-based studies offering estimates of prevalence ranging from 2% to 17%. The dramatic differences in these estimates are due to the choice of informant, methods of sampling and data collection, and the diagnostic definition” (Scahill & Schwab-Stone, 2000, p. 541). The studies and recent research examines the occurrence of ADHD in children and adolescents. One of the key aspects of proper diagnosis is knowing the real numbers of actual ADHD cases as some supposedly diagnoses cases of ADHD can be a mixture of other disorders like anxiety disorder and autism. As the article by Scahill & Schwab-Stone explains, “Based on the 19 studies reviewed, the best estimate of prevalence is 5% to 10% in school-aged children” (Scahill & Schwab-Stone, 2000, p. 541). Another noteworthy statement is ADHD is three times more likely to be seen in boys vs. girls. Other research states the parental education of a parent may also play a role in ADHD development as lack of parental effectiveness from uneducated parents may exacerbate ADHD symptoms. Looking at these several things in terms of assessment of ADHD may help form a proper diagnosis.

Three things to look for in the diagnosis is family history, check to see if ADHD runs in the family, socioeconomic status and education level of parents, and gender of child. These might help in better diagnosing a child exhibiting ADHD symptoms. Management of ADHD symptoms is a multi-level approach. It often involves behavior therapy and medication though medication is not mandatory. “Psychoeducation should be provided on an ongoing basis. The need to initiate formal behavior therapy should be assessed and the effectiveness of any current behavior therapy should be reviewed” (Dunne et al., 2007, p. 913). However if medication is not elected, behavior therapy can vastly improve symptoms.

Along with classic treatment options, certain habits such as setting an organized and structured environment for children can provide benefits and follow up care to manage

ADHD. Children with ADHD need more than children who do not have ADHD, role models and a plan for discipline. Not only is the parental involvement crucial but also parental communication with teachers can help identify continual behavioral patterns. So many things must be taken into consideration when managing ADHD, however using a reward system and proper communication with teachers and doctors can help make treatment protocol more effective. “The key to effective long-term management of the patient with ADHD is continuity of care with a clinician experienced in the treatment of ADHD” (Dunne et al., 2007, p. 916).

Research demonstrates that culture can have an impact on both assessment and management of ADHD. Several things that can affect receiving proper diagnosis, getting treatment, and following treatment protocol. Some things seen in other cultures is the fear of being “branded” with ADHD. The stigma attached to ADHD can prevent parents from seeking diagnosis and treatment.

Parents of other cultures may also lack sufficient knowledge about ADHD and accessible services. There also exists a fear of being misdiagnosed. One of the biggest barriers that possess a greater concern is language barriers. Parents from culturally diverse backgrounds may not speak English and need assistance in translating if they moved recently to the U.S. The last possible issue parents from other cultures may experience is cost of treatment. Many times the parents of these children do not have proper health insurance and cannot afford the appropriate treatment.


Dunne, J.E., Ayres, W., Arnold, V., Benson, R.S., Bernet, W., Bukstein, O., Sloan, L.E. (2007). Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(7), 894-920. Retrieved from

McGuinness, T.M. (2008). Helping Parents Decide on ADHD Treatment for Their Children. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 46(8), 23. Doi: 10.3928/02793695-20080801-08

Scahill, L., & Schwab-Stone, M. (2000). Epidemiology of ADHD in school-age children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9(3), 541. Retrieved from

Language Development term paper gcse history essay help

Language Development

Please make sure you have completed this unit’s readings before coming to Seminar, especially the article, “The Language Use Inventory for Young Children: A Parent-Report Measure of Pragmatic Language Development for 18-47-month-old children” by O’Neil. Be prepared to answer the following questions:

Notes from O’Neil Article (O’Neil, 2007):

Researchers studying young children’s pragmatic development have focused on a wide range of topics and ages. Longitudinal studies that have concentrated on children’s earliest gestural and verbal communicative intents have demonstrated that children begin as early as 9 to 10 months of age to use their gestures and vocalizations for such pragmatic functions as requesting, labeling, answering, greeting, and protesting

No standardized test (observational or stand-alone parent report) is currently available that is specifically designed to assess toddlers’ and preschool children’s (i.e., under age 4 years) pragmatic language competence.

How does screening link to follow up assessments?

The LUImay also provide a measure to equate children for overall pragmatic language development when investigating environmental or cognitive correlates of language use such as theory of mind reasoning or social competence (O’Neil, 2007). However, a child’s language ability can develop variably and quickly during this development period. Therefore, follow up assessments to monitor progress are an essential part of the equation. Even if a child shows some language difficulties during development, they can later progress rapidly as each child develops on different time frames.

Explain the steps that you would take to prepare and hold a meeting with a parent to discuss the results of a recent assessment.

With respect to assessing language competence in younger children, and especially pragmatic competence, structured tests have been criticized as providing only a limited picture of the richness and complexity of the child’s communicative behavior and revealing little about the child’s language as it occurs and is used in everyday communication (O’Neil, 2007). Therefore, it is important to put any results communicated with parents in context and not to give them a false idea that there is some problem when there may not be.

Why would you not want to use subjective statements in the documents you share with your parents? Please give examples of objective statements that can describe a child’s language use.

Sharing subject statements can mislead parents into thinking there is a problem with their child when there may not be any cause for major concern. Using objective statements as opposed to subjective ones can facilitate more accurate communication between parties. A few examples that can be objective from the LUI could be:

A: How your child uses gestures to ask for something the child’s imperative use of gestures. e.g., lifts arms to be carried; points to something wanted

B: How your child uses gestures to get you to notice something the child’s declarative use of gestures. e.g., points to something of interest; shows you something of interest

Using such objective measures can add more clarity to a situation that a subjective judgment of a child’s language development.


In this Seminar, you will discuss communicative disorders and the specific characteristics found in autism, cleft palate, hearing loss, stuttering, and tongue tie. Please be prepared to use the chart on page 376 of your text for links to the field trips that you will take together as a class. You will discuss your role as an early childhood professional in meeting the needs of children with communicative disorders.

Autism and Communicative disorders

Cleft lip and Cleft Palate and Communicative disorders

Hearing Loss and Communicative disorders

Stuttering and Communicative disorders

Tongue tie and Communicative disorders

Also, be prepared to discuss the following:

Describe the behavior of a child with a hearing impairment.

A child with a hearing impairment may watch other children and mimic what they are doing rather than follow instructions. They might not reply when spoken to or have difficulty understanding what people are saying. Other clues such as turning up a TV really loud can help identify hearing loss.

What did you learn from your field trip about the techniques that are most appropriate to work with a child that has a communicative disorder relating to autism? Cleft palate? Hearing loss? Stuttering? Tongue tie?

It is important to provide structure and safety for a child with autism which includes items like rewarding good behaviors and sticking to a schedule. It is also more challenging but important to look for nonverbal cues as these might indicate a child’s needs not being meant. Often a tantrum will have some cause that may be identified.

There is specific speech therapy techniques that can be used with children who have been born with a cleft palate that can help the child learn how to communicate better with a caregiver. Hearing loss can be treated with the use of mechanical devices, medical procedures, or ASL can be used to communicate with these children depending on their specific situation. Both stuttering and being tongue tied have many associated factors. Speech therapy can help reduce or even alleviate the symptoms that are associated with these conditions. It can be important for caregivers to use alternate communication techniques with these children such as eye contact and phrasing.

How will the information you have learned about communicative disorders prepare you for a career as an early childhood professional?

Being able to recognize various disorders in their early stages can be an invaluable tool for both the child and their parents. Thus being exposed to these various conditions has helped me to be able to identify them earlier and with greater accuracy which in turn will add a level of professionalism to a career in childhood development.



Career Opportunities and the Early Childhood Professional

In this Seminar, you will focus on your career opportunities and your role in developing language and literacy skills in young children from birth to age eight. Please come to Seminar prepared to discuss the following:

Complete a search of the career opportunities that are available to early childhood professionals at

What career opportunities did you discover from your search?

Most of the jobs seemed to be related to education in one form or another. However, there were also opportunities available in training, management, and professional services. An example from career builder is below:

How will the knowledge that you have gained in this class be carried over into one of the career choices that you have discovered?

It is important to understand as much about child development as possible to work in one of this positions. Language development is one of the most important processes in child development and therefore understanding this phenomenon is a crucial asset to working in this profession.

What is the early childhood professional’s role in developing language and literacy skills in young children from birth to age eight?

The professional’s role is to foster language and literacy development skills according to the best practices that develop in the field. They also should monitor for any potential problems in a student that can be identified and treated as early on as possible.

Works Cited

O’Neil, D. (2007). The Language Use Inventory for Young Children: A Parent-Report Measure of Pragmatic Language Development for 18- to 47-Month-old Children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 214-228.

Diagnosis and Treatment Plan for Michael’s Condition ap us history essay help: ap us history essay help

Diagnosis and Treatment Plan for Michael’s Condition:

Michael is a 7-year-old child, who was referred by the Pediatrician for an analysis following his 2-year-old exam. In the beginning of Michael’s development, his mother stated that she has seen similar delays to the doctor’s observations and has similar concerns. One of the major concerns is that Michael will not respond to his name when called even if he is only a foot or less away and does not even turn his head towards the voice. Secondly, he has difficulties in following simple instructions, especially one step directions like come here, sit down, or pick up. In addition to failing to use words to say or request what he wants, Michael only repeats a word that is modeled every once in a while. Third, when playing around other children in the two groups, he does not even notice the other children, plays by himself, and does not really play. The other concerns in Michael’s situation include difficulties in playing with toys, seem unable to make eye contact or imitate his mother, and tend to be more attached to some items that he is to his parents and other familiar people. As a result, Michael seems to be in his own world and does not want others to be in it with him. Therefore, he is probably suffering from a condition that needs proper diagnosis and effective treatment plan.

Diagnosis of Michael’s Condition:

Based on the concerns raised by his mother and the doctor, Michael seems to be suffering from autism. Generally, children with autism have problems or difficulties in three major areas i.e. language, behavior, and social interaction (“Autism — Symptoms,” n.d.). However, since the symptoms and severity of the condition differ significantly, children with similar diagnosis may act quite differently and have strikingly different skills. In most instances, children with severe autism not only have marked impairments but also demonstrate a complete inability to interact or communicate with other people.

The symptoms of this condition are usually identified by parents and other caregivers with the child’s first three years. However, signs associated with autism are difficult to notice and diagnose during infancy though the condition is present at birth (congenital). Some of the early signs of this condition in babies and toddlers include failure to make eye contact, smile when smiled at, respond to his/her name or sound of a familiar voice, use gestures to communicate, and play with other individuals or share interest and enjoyment (Smith, Segal & Hutman, 2013). Michael seems to be suffering from Autism because he has displayed all these difficulties language, social skills, and behavior. Under social skills, Michael fails to respond to his/her name, has poor eye contact, seems to prefer playing alone, and seems to be unaware of others’ feelings. Under language, Michael doesn’t seem to understand simple directions/instructions, does not repeat modeled words consistently, and doesn’t speak. Under behavior, Michael carries out repeated movements, develops particular routines and throws tantrums at the slightest change, and prefers playing alone.

Treatment or Intervention Plan:

Even though autism is a very serious condition that can significantly affect a child’s growth and development, early and intensive treatment of the condition can help improve his/her ability to communicate, relate to others, and help himself/herself as he/she grows older (“Autism-Symptoms,” 2010). The most appropriate treatment or intervention plan begins with early detection of the condition by parents. Parents are in the most appropriate position to detect the earliest warning signs of autism since they know their child or children better than anyone. A parent should detect these early signs through observing the child’s behaviors. During this process, the parent should monitor the development of the child and take action immediately by sharing concerns with a pediatrician.

The parent’s report of his/her concerns should be followed by a comprehensive intervention plan beginning with planning an autism screening. Currently, these are various specialized screening tools that have been developed to identify children with the condition. Notably, most the autism screening tools are fast and straightforward since they consists a checklist of symptoms or yes-or-no questions. The parent should also provide his/her feedback to the pediatrician regarding the child’s behavior. This will be followed by consulting a developmental specialist, especially after the pediatrician detects probable signs of the condition during screening. The child should be referred to a developmental specialist for comprehensive diagnostic evaluation because screening tools cannot be used to make a diagnosis. The developmental specialist will conduct several assessments to determine whether or not the child suffers from the condition.

The final step in the treatment plan is to seek early intervention services given that the diagnostic process for the condition is tricky and can take awhile sometimes. The most appropriate intervention measure is function-based treatment approach that involves getting rid of the problem behavior and substituting it with more suitable behaviors that serve the same purpose (Schrader, n.d.). In this case, Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors (DRA) will be used to extinct problem behavior and reinforce alternative behavior.

In conclusion, Michael’s symptoms are signs of a child suffering from autism in terms of his language, social skills, and behavior. Michael has demonstrated all the symptoms associated with autism as identified by her mother and the pediatrician. Therefore, his condition requires a suitable treatment or intervention plan to address it appropriately. Since Michael’s condition is associated with some major behavioral problems, it requires a functional-based treatment approach i.e. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors.


“Autism – Symptoms.” (2010, April 12). Autism Spectrum Disorders Health Center. Retrieved December 11, 2013, from

“Autism – Symptoms.” (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved December 11, 2013, from

Schrader, L. (n.d.). Real-World Strategies for Behavior Intervention Plans for Children with Autism. Retrieved December 11, 2013, from

Smith, M., Segal, J. & Hutman, T. (2013, November). Autism Symptoms & Early Signs.

Retrieved December 11, 2013, from

Coping With Stress Essay Paper history assignment help australia

Coping With Stress:

Stress has become a relatively common part of life since every individual is likely to experience it at certain times regardless of whether they are adults, teens, or children. Generally, stress can be described as a situation characterized by signs of emotional or physical reaction, particularly when responding to a situation when an individual feels threatened or is worried. While there are several common reactions to a stressful situation, stress can either be positive or negative. The positive or beneficial aspect of stress occurs when an individual develops the skills for coping and adapting to new situations in life. On the contrary, stress is negative if it’s severe to the extent that it overwhelms the ability of a person to care for themselves and family. Therefore, it’s important for an individual to develop healthy ways for coping and obtaining right care that lessens stressful feelings and symptoms (“Coping with Stress,” 2013).

Potential Stressful Situations:

Similar to many people, stress has become a normal part of my life, especially with regards to balancing work, school, and home. Currently, I am a working mother, full-time teaching assistant for special education Autistic K/1 class, and a student completing degree for teaching special education with a concentration in Autism. In addition, I also spare some time to care for elderly patients as well as maintaining home.

Stressful situations are likely to occur from three major areas in my life i.e. work, school, and at home. As a working mother, I face a huge need to maintain home while providing full and effective concentration in my work responsibilities as a teacher. With regards to work, one of the major areas that are likely to cause stressful feelings is exposure to physically and emotionally stressful experiences when providing special education for Autistic K/1 class i.e. children with disability.

The full time teaching assistant job means that I have to provide comprehensive special education programs to children with disability. This requires the provision of direct school support and facilitating communication throughout the elements of autism. One of the central focuses in special education for Autistic K/1 class, which can contribute to stressful situations, is outcomes-focused teaching. Consequently, the services provided to the students include helping in communication difficulties, impaired social skills, and behavioral responses. Together with providing care for elderly parents, teaching Autistic K/1 class has increased exposure to stressful situations because of the conditions of these children and parents as well as the demands. Actually, the provision of care to the parents and children is a very demanding work since it’s outcomes-focused.

The potential area that can result in stressful feelings and symptoms are school work i.e. being a full-time college student completing a degree for teaching special education with a major in Autism. School work is also very demanding because teaching special education, especially Autism requires the development of special skills and knowledge. Work and school contribute to major challenges in maintaining the home setting, which can lead to stress.

How to Cope with Stress:

The first step towards stress management or coping with stress is to identify the potential sources of stress, which in this case are school, work, and home. Stressful feelings and situations can arise in these areas when there is no balance between each of them. As evident in this scenario, there is a great need to maintain the home, work as a full-time teaching assistant, and concentrating on studies to complete the degree in special education. After identifying the potential sources of stressful situations and conditions, several steps should be carried out to cope with stress (Smith & Regal, 2013).

The first strategies I use to cope with stress are to avoid unnecessary stressful situations and adapting to the stressor. While addressing situations that need to be dealt with, one of the major ways of coping with stress is to avoid unnecessary stress. This basically involves learning how to say no by identifying personal limits and maintain these limits. In both personal and professional life, the limits include rejecting additional responsibilities, particularly duties or issues that cannot be handled. In addition, this process involves examining daily responsibilities, schedules and tasks when developing a things-to-do list.

After avoiding unnecessary stress through identifying limits and maintaining them, the second step in coping with stress is to adapt to the stressor through regaining the sense of control by changing personal attitude and expectations (Smith & Regal, 2013). This involves viewing stressing situations from a positive angle, adjusting personal standards, examining the whole picture of a stressful situation, and focusing on the positive aspects.

The third step in coping with stress is creating time for fun and relaxation as part of adopting a healthy lifestyle. Handling life’s stressors when they inevitably come requires nurturing oneself through finding time for fun and relaxation. As part of relaxation measures to cope with stress, I attend Zumba and exercise classes nearly 4 times a week and treadmill twice a week. These activities not only help in maintaining a healthy lifestyle but they play a crucial role in lessening stressful situations and symptoms. This is mainly because the activities helps to avoid being caught up in the hustle and bustle of work, school, and home.

In conclusion, stress has become a common part of life that people are likely to experience because of the demands of work, school, and home. Therefore, it’s important to develop healthy ways of coping with stressful situations in order to harness the positive aspects of stress while avoiding negative impacts.


“Coping with Stress.” (2013, April 9). Injury Prevention & Control. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website:

Smith, M. & Segal, R. (2013, May). Stress Management — How to Reduce, Prevent, and Cope

with Stress. Retrieved June 10, 2013, from