Diagnose forces of change in the men’s shirt industry and give your
Diagnose forces of change in the men’s shirt industry and give your reasoned opinion on how this influences the attractiveness of the Plastiwear opportunity
The fashion industry is always influenced by different forces that always work towards bringing about some serious changes in the industry. Some of the key forces of change that have been identified to have some serious change effect in the men’s shirt industry include age uncertainties amongst the targeted customers, presence of either high quality or poor quality shirts in the market and high competitions levels that is always accompanied by a significant increase in technological adoptions in different countries meant to improve either the quality or quantity of a product. Digital upgrade has also been considered an important force that affects the men’s shirt industry significantly. Changes in technology have also been considered an important force affecting the men’s shirt industry right from the production stage to the marketing phase. The adoption of contemporary technologies in the men’s shirt industry has led to the development of some improved shirt designs while at the same time improving an organization’s marketing opportunities and channels, a move that has improved both the productivity and efficiency of the sector.
These forces of change have influenced the attractiveness of the Platiwear opportunity by helping those involved to come up with some improved designs that will definitely appeal to the organization’s target market. Additionally, the presence of these forces in the market also affects Platiwear’s attractiveness by helping the stakeholders to share any of their designs or products through different social media platforms with the main aim of social media marketing being to attract more customers to the organization’s products. Communication between the company and the customers and all the other stakeholders is also likely to improve as a measure towards sharing the good information about the company’s products.
Distinguish between incremental, radical and disruptive innovation
Incremental innovation is that type of innovation that is characterized by the innovators carrying out well articulated step by step improvements of the existing products and services. On the other hand, radical innovation looks at the long term benefits and effects of an innovation by either introducing or improving the current products in the market before introducing new products and services. All the old products are phased off, the kind of relationship between the business management and the workers always deteriorates. Finally, disruptive innovation on the organization is characterized by having organizations expand to new markets, develop new volume networks, and disrupt the existing product market. The result of disruptive innovation is introduction of new products in the market.
Involves carrying out a series of improvement steps to an existing product or service
Focuses on improving efficiency and effectiveness
Leads to an improvement in competitive differentiation in the market
Improves product productivity in a significant way
Focuses on long-term impact
Entails displacing the current products and services in the market
Affects the kind of relationship between suppliers and consumers
Leads to the development of a totally new product category
Creates new market
Creates new value network
Disrupts the existing market
Leads to a displacement of the existing markets
Brings entirely new products to the market
Based on the nature of the three innovations, GreenPlastics is experiencing a disruptive type of technology that is characterized by the introduction of new and improved products in the market. Most of the products that are being applied by the organization are meant to help it get some of the best products in the fashion industry without having to worry on the existing product designs.
Role and characteristics of innovation champions
Innovation champions are made up of workers who have passion in playing an active role in making innovations succeed in their organization. The role of innovation champion is to pave way for other organizations for purposes of adopting new technologies in their operations. They act as important organizational leaders who test the innovation grounds for the entire organization because they always act as early innovation adopters who get to have first-hand information and experience on all the new innovations in the organization. To play these roles well and perfectly, innovation champions have different characteristics that define them. These defining characteristics include being well-networked within and outside the organization, and being positive influencers. Being an innovation champion is not about how senior an individual is, but his or her ability to influence others follow a certain path. Being a positive influencer in the organization does not need to be in a top position or be formerly employed in the organization. An individual is considered positive influencer if they have what it takes to convince others that following a certain path will be beneficial in their operations.
Additionally, innovation champions are also expected to be open-minded, be passionate on the innovation process, and have diverse knowledge in their areas of specialization. By being open-minded, innovation champions are expected to be highly explorative, inquisitive, and open to new ways of doing their normal chores. The champions should also be passionate on what they are engaging in, with most of them having the ability to work towards successfully getting the innovation within their organizations and their sectors. Innovation champions are also supposed to have some diversified knowledge on their specific sector. The diversity knowledge will make them develop an adequate cross-functional mix in their respective areas. These characteristics help the champions to work perfectly towards achieving their innovation goal within KSG.
Explain to her what instruments are available to measure the innovation climate and recommend a suitable instrument. Remember to explain what will be measured, the approach that needs to be taken and the benefits there-of.
An organizations innovation climate contributes significantly towards determining the success of its innovation strategies. Organizations that promote innovation within its operations have always had an upper hand when it comes to innovation because its employees are always motivated to implement their innovative ideas and vice versa. Despite having a successful innovation environment within an organization, there are different instruments that need to be adopted to determine the innovation climate within while at the same time recommending the right instrument for the organization. Some of the instruments that can be adopted to assess the innovation climate in the organization include the financial abilities of the organization, the resources available in the organization to help the innovation process, and the ability of the organization to address any issues within the operations.
The ability of an organization to support new technologies always contributes significantly towards determining its success in making any innovations within an organization. Organizations that offer their employees with the right innovation resources always promote innovation in their operations while those who do not offer their employees with the needed resources always make their employees to shy away from making any meaningful innovations, thus restricting the whole innovation process to very limited number of innovators who can find their own resources. The ability of an organization to offer its employees with the right innovation finances
5.1 Distinguish between perceptual, process and environmental blockages. (3)
5.2 Which of these organizational blockages are evident within KSG from the case study? Use examples to support your answer.
Chinese Leadership Introduction China has risen to be among the leading economies
anything I just need a brief analytical report on a real life or hypothetical work situation written to manager Writing Assignment Help Chinese Leadership
China has risen to be among the leading economies in the world since its adoption of a market economy in the year 1979. China as a less developed country, it has increasingly adopted the western management tools abandoning many of its socialist’s beliefs while recollecting its traditional principles of management. Simultaneous with its adaptation of western managerial ideas, western businesses have also borrowed from the traditional Chinese management ideas. Paternalistic leadership, a central leadership style in the Chinese organizations is compared with the transformational leadership style, which is dominant in the western business environment. The social differences between the Chinese and the west regarding the leader-follower relationship bring out the different leadership behaviors with one being more effective to one compared to the other. The western business organization requires the employees to be trustworthy, honest and cooperative with these behaviors attributed to the community. However, the view on trust between the two differs with trust having a critical role in the cultural leadership style. Another factor highly considered in the Chinese leadership style is harmony. The best Chinese leader is one who displays an effective and distinctive way of negotiating in a complex business environment. Chinese leaders lead in a way that creates a harmonious result in which all parties are satisfied. This paper strives to look deeper into the Chinese and western leadership styles as applied in the Chinese business organizations.
Background of Research
With the evolution in the business field and governance, there have been various emerging issues in organizational leadership. Leaders recognize that there is a gap caused by poor business practices and the various leadership styles influencing changes to the organizations. Globalization and changes in businesses have brought a broad array of changes in the organizational setups calling for more defined leadership styles. There is an overlooked hitch between the leadership theories and the actual practices in the organizations. Various leadership principles are dictated by the culture of the people in question bringing about the differences in management of business in different realm. The western and the Chinese organizations have different approaches to leadership governed by the culture of the people as well as the objectives of the business organizations. To bring light on the various leadership styles in the contemporary business world, there is a need to come up with a study that compares the Chinese leadership and the western leadership. China and the west are among the leading economies in the world. However, there is a difference in the form of leadership with the Chinese employing mainly the paternalistic leadership and little of transformational leadership styles unlike the west that majors on the transformational leadership style in the management of the business organizations. Upon a critical reflection on the issues, the missing element was attributed to the leadership principles in Chinese and the western organizations
The idea of leadership has been a common interest to humans since time immemorial. In early stages of human existence, people gathered around individuals with particular expertise in hunting and gathering, later on in many communities, leadership depended on the family trees in which was believed had a special connection with the gods. In studying history, one gets a broader scope of what entailed leadership in the early days and what the leaders did and the reason behind their leadership. Wu, (2013), in his study explains the many myths surrounding leaders who were treated like heroes. The authors also present the religious and philosophical characteristic of leaders.
There is no globally accepted definition of leadership, and it has been defined in several ways.ne of the definition of leadership is the act of an individual impacting others in a way that they can achieve a common set goal (Cao, & Li 2010). According to Chen, & Lee (2008), leadership is defined as the process involving both leaders and their followers and the leadership situations. The leadership culture and the way the leaders partake their duties is far much related to the culture in the country. The harmony within groups in the collective societies is critical with the independence held highly in the societies (Cheung & Halpern 2010). The assumptions held in the various cultures has been the main problem in leadership with each fighting for a spot as far as the control of how leaders should lead the society is concerned. It is one way, or another dictate the continuity of the society together with leadership as a whole. In the case of femininity and masculinity, they are usually linked with procreation and is strictly linked with either sex. However, in the societies, the cultural norms dictating the ideas of whether a job is for the male or the female. According to Hofstede Center (2017), the issue of masculinity and femininity has affected leadership in many countries among them China.
Transformational leadership was first used by James Downton and later developed by leadership theorists. According to a presidential biographer, James Burn, transformational leadership involves both the leader and the subordinates motivating each other towards the achievement of higher moral and skills. Through their distinct personality and vision, transformational leaders are able to sermon the interest of others and channel their efforts towards achieving the organizational goals; they inspire good perception, motivation, and expectations of every player (Carmeli and Waldman, 2009). It is different from transactional leadership in that there is no “give and take” relationship between the authority and the subordinates, instead, the management depends on the leaders’ personality, vision and the ability to inspire similar characteristics and opinions in other workers. Transformational leaders have the masterpiece that others prefer to follow to achieve the set objectives of a community, organization or a team (Carmeli and Waldman, 2009). Transformational leadership and transactional leadership developed through mutually exclusive lines. The quality of a transformational leader is measurable from the degree of influences they have on others, the ultimate nature of transformational leadership is to inspire trust, admiration, and respect from subordinates (Carmeli and Waldman, 2009).
In the below study, the researcher starts by ensuring there is a clear motive for the study. This is to ensure no engagement of redundant work. There was also the assumption of the various definitions of leadership, which have universal recognition. The participants in the previous works are grouped in the basis of the leadership style regarding decision-making, setting of goals and motivation. While the highest ranking managers in the business organization in both Chinese and western institutes are not the sole factors in the paternalistic and transformational leadership, they could be used to relate to the best practices in a firm from their leading experiences. The focus area in the form of leadership was in the process of decision-making, Leading by example and the overall steering of the organization towards achieving its goals.
The study also seeks to find the whether the management in the western organizations could be different from the Chinese institutions. China as a leading economy in the world was efficient in the study as it provides a basis of comparison with other leading economies. The success of both China and the western organizations is noticeable despite the different styles of leadership. As such, the study seeks to bring about the attributes of both paternalistic and transformational leadership in the success of business organizations and the Chinese and western economies.
Comparison of the Western and Chinese Leadership Styles
Leadership is a collective occurrence, but only certain attributes are effective globally. Some practices may be acceptable in one culture and unacceptable in the other. Although China has different cultures from the west, there exist a comparison of their leadership principles. However, the western principles vary to some degrees across the western nations such as the American and European cultures. The western transformational leadership focuses on the profit generation giving rise to the specialist leadership practices. Chinese business on the other hand focuses on improving their subjects, being humanistic and personal developments. In the paternalistic leadership of the Chinese people, a leader is demanded to place the ethical deliberations above the profit realization. Despite the Chinese leadership gaining developments in the millennia, the business did not gain economic development with the same extent as in the west. In the 20th century, China was at par with the west in economic development; however, it was still termed as a less developed country, which spurred the adoption of western leadership styles to catch up with the west in terms of management and the economic growth. China has since imported the western transformational styles resulting from the number of people studying abroad and being exposed to the transformational leadership of the west. The merging of both paternalistic leadership and transformational leadership in the chines business context has brought a total change in the business world. China leaders applies a mixture of the western management concepts, communism and Confucius values in the overall leadership of the organizations.
The study focuses on the types of leadership in Chinese business organization and the difference between Chinese paternalistic leadership and transformational leadership in the western organizations. The data collected was generated from online platforms, the study from journals, books, and other credible sources. The data was collected from online libraries. Each of the studies was assessed for credibility and relevance to the research topic. The study was done using secondary data, which is information collected by other researchers not necessarily to answer the thesis in question. Secondary data is advantageous regarding time requirement, as it requires shorter time to collect all the required information. The information collected is also more detailed and readily available. The study was done based on various readings from peer-reviewed publications. The publications were scrutinized to identify the paternalistic leadership style and transformational leadership in China and in the west. The selection of the materials for the study was done using the keywords such as Chinese culture, leadership, and Chinese leadership. The materials were then distinguished to major on the studies that included leadership attributes comparable in the western and Chinese organizations. The qualities of leadership include the role of leaders, the qualities as well as the treatment and their relationships with their subjects. The search word presented various studies with some focusing on the western leadership styles, Chinese leadership and some had the comparison of the two. There was an in-depth examination of the sources to identify the relevance of the publications to the study below. The publication used were those that had greater relevance to the study topic. The publications used were those not more than 50years old and included those that were published after China adopted a market economy in 1979.
The study below offers no experimental evidence. Although the experiential evidence has its critical uses in a study, they also have its own drawbacks. They bring along predictions of the possible outcomes, but the outcomes are not always in line with the theoretical predictions. As such, it is critical to follow the logic in determining the factors that affect the outcome of the study. The study recognizes the role of the survey but also considers the limitations entails in the study. The published sources of data may have a high error rate that is caused by psychological biases, misaligned incentives, and methodological errors. However, the errors can be reduced by comprehensive analysis and scrutiny of the authenticity of the information. The selection is then done to the most efficient source. Leadership issues are related to people and reflect on how people react to certain challenges. Many researchers who in unison agreed that the success is highly influenced by the leaders’ cultural background nada los by his followers examine how leaders react. However, a potentially erroneous assumption occurs in the notion of people being measured statistically.
The materials used were helpful in finding information on the topic. However, there were some disadvantages in the selection of reference materials as some of the information that was found relevant to the topic were from older texts. Despite the hurdles in the selection, there was still enough information that has enabled the compilation of the literature.
The literature reveals multiple competencies in leadership traits, behavioral attributes, and styles. However, there is still no a generally accepted taxonomy or leadership pattern. According to past studies, there is unison with the fact that for leadership to be an effect, then there should be a correlation with subordinate behavior. People define culture and leaders are the managers of the people. Therefore, they manage the culture. According to Fenby (2013), leadership and culture are interrelated and determines how the leader operates his leadership role. The organizational structures which are characterized by the cultural diversity of the people create the leader regarding what is expected of them (Yooyanyong &Muenjohn, 2010). As a leader, the trust from the subject is paramount. Leaders should ensure to establish public trust and build a consensus among other leaders and followers.
Leadership qualities are not mere genetics. However, leaders should possess the genetic attributes which a together with the acquired skills will enhance the development of leadership qualities. However, various studies differ on the opinion of whether leadership is genetic. Although leadership may not be solely accredited on the genetic settings, effective leadership is a factor of efficient training (Yooyanyong &Muenjohn, 2010). Leadership is a worldwide singularity. However, only certain attributes of leadership are effective globally such as charismatic leadership. Leadership practices are cultural specific with different cultures enjoying their own leadership styles. According to Hofstede (2011a), leadership practice that is effective in one community is likely to fail or be unacceptable in another. For instance, the Chinese leadership principles are different from the western leadership styles.
The Chinese leadership principles are broad depending on the field of leadership. In business leadership, the leadership principles follow the traditional Chinese approaches (Chen & Lee, 2008). Chang & Owen (2010), argues that the leadership styles are deeply rooted in the ancient Chinese philosophy. The Chinese principles are rooted in philosophy with the approaches linked with the social, political and commercial standards (Cao, & Li 2010). Leaders are required to lead their subjects in a way that can be emulated by others. The main focus of the leaders is to have a humanistic leadership with their target being improving the followers through individual and organizational developments. Leaders have different leadership styles and characteristics. They are differentiated by the designations by their ranks with ling Xiu being leaders who have already achieved their visions and ling dao for the leaders who act in stewardship role such as managers whose major focus is ensuring the job is done (Fenby 2013).
A leader plays a source of motivation and inspiration to his subjects. The leadership method used by the leaders such as persuasion instead of coercion, and the setting of personal examples by creating a simple living and promotion of equality enhances the relationship between the leader and the society. Xing & Sims (2011) argues that a good leader should exert minimal influence on his subordinates. The Chinese leadership ideologies although independent of each other share some commonalities and are interrelated (Wang & Chee 2011).
Leadership in the Chinese context can be grouped in various forms. The study on paternalistic leadership has been on the increase over the years. However most of the research on paternalistic leadership major on the conceptual model and the outcome of the leadership method. In research done by Wu, Huan, & Chan, (2012), paternalistic leadership can be defined as the type of leadership that commands moral integrity and strong discipline and authority as held in the personal atmosphere. Another form of leadership is the transformational leadership. In this form of leadership, there is more of the modern forms than the traditional Chinese leadership methods. The transformational leadership is however compatible with the paternalistic as well as the traditional styles. Ismail, Reza, & Mahdi (2012) argues that transformational leadership occurs when the leading parties start to have different goals but later become fused and form a uniform leadership style. The leader not only leads his followers but also is responsible for motivating and engaging them. The relationship between the leader and the subject becomes mutual, and besides the leader motivating the people, they also get to motivate him thus improving on his leadership skills. The process is paramount as it not only transforms both parties but also helps and makes it easier to achieve their common goal (Wu, Huan, & Chan 2012).
Research suggests that any theory of leadership derives meaning from the personality of the leader, especially in relation to the five pillars of personality, openness to experience, intra/extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness and agreeableness (Wu, Huan, & Chan 2012). All transformational leader must have top percentile score in all the five regions for the theory to be complete. The agreeable nature of the leader allows them to accept and use new ideas generated by their juniors. Their consciousness links them to what is actually happening in the organization, how particular individuals do their work and how to be directly motivated achievements while offering guidance for improvement (Wu, Huan, & Chan 2012). Their extraversion and agreeable nature permits the leader to be outgoing and socially accepted by followers and be considerate to them. Emotional stability supplements the all the other skills and makes them better roles models who other employees would seek guidance in case of problems while borrowing from their vision and examples (Wu, Huan, & Chan 2012).
The various cultural values in China has its roots in Confucianism. Confucianism is also the base of the patriarchal family models, a long time norm in China. Among the teaching is that of women heading sympathetic roles in the family and in many occasions treated as the invisible (Rosenlee 2006). In Confucianism, a person is viewed in relation to the relationship they have with others. The situation is mainly seen by the situation in which the women are defined by their relationship with other people in the family. For instance, their value is defined by the family relations. The collectivistic Chinese culture rarely sees a person as an individual, but rather it views the person in groups (Zhao 2007).
In the view of the cultural dimension of Chinese, the leadership pattern is more of a masculine job (The Hofstede Center 2017). This is according to the philosophy of Confucianism. However, women have risen above the glass ceiling in engaging in transformational leadership compared to their male counterparts (Heilman (2012). According to Miller, Le Breton-Miller, & Scholnick (2008), transformational leadership is linked to effectiveness and better outcomes. According to Klenke (2011), leadership styles in many organizations has been changing with many firms choosing a nonhierarchical structure. Mao Zedong’s leadership (1893 – 1976), emphasized the idea of women being capable of holding a leadership position just like men (Klenke 2011). Many countries including China are suffering the idea of communism and equality in leadership. In China, the idea of paternalism has been the norm for the longest time (Peus et al. 2015). The cultural attitude of women being subordinate to men has created a great barrier to the Chinese women in pursuing leadership spots (Zhu, Konrad & Jiao 2016).
Leadership is one of the most universally studied topics in management. A leader is a person responsible for the management of a business organization towards achieving the set goals and objectives. Leadership involves management and getting things done through people. The evolution of leadership has been an ongoing process with the traditional leadership styles changing daily in the contemporary business world. Leadership is essentially imminent. In the Chinese management, transformational leadership and paternalistic leadership styles are the most used in the recent years. Transformational leadership is usually associated with empirical studies while paternalistic leadership has less experiential examinations. Transformational leadership is a forthcoming management style that hails as a modern leadership approach to efficient and effective management both in collectivist and in individualistic cultures. Transformational leadership has a positive impact on the managerial effectiveness, interpersonal relationships, and organizational incomes. Paternalistic leadership on the other hand is a traditional Chinese style of management.
Transformational leadership refers to the process in which a leader connects and engages with others consequently motivating them as a well as the leader himself. It is more of a follower oriented leadership program. The leaders in this system motivate their subjects to apply a performance by helping the followers understand the goals of the organization. It also helps in getting the followers to get beyond their own interest for the interest of the individual teams and the company. The moving of the followers helps to address a higher level of needs helping them to explore their maximum potentials. Transformational leadership is normally intellectualized in four dimensions, first is the idealized influence, which is also known as charisma. It defines a leader with good behaviors and a role model, and is capable of communicating sense and have people follow them; they also have a sense of mission. Second is the inspirational motivation, which is usually characterized by leaders who use persuading such as emotional talks, coherent arguments in inspiring the followers to commit to the assigned tasks and to the moving of the organization to where it intends to be at a particular time. The inspiration leaders articulate the vision in such a way that it convinces the followers into working exceptionally hard.
The third is the intellectual stimulation is the leadership that stimulates followers to be innovative and creative. The followers are encouraged to take part in the decision-making process of the firm and in finding solutions to the various tasks in the firm. Finally, the individualized consideration depicts leaders concerned with the individual needs of the followers. They consider their feelings and engage them in supportive communication by giving them individual attention. In this form of leadership, they emphasize on empathy rather than sympathy in dealing with the problems of the subordinates. The employees who are the followers in an organization plays a critical role in the continuity of the firm. Their well-being translates to the success of the firm in that a healthy stress free individual is likely to be more productive than a stressed one. By ensuring the followers feel appreciated in an organization is critical as it not only depicts good leader-follower relationship but also leads to work being done at the right time in the best way possible. Essentially, transformational leadership is where the leaders view the employees as independent individuals with free choice and develop self-government from the follower a realm under the vision of the firm. The leadership is more of employee empowerment than it is on dependence.
Paternalistic leadership, on the other hand, is a traditional leadership style historically dominant in the early capitalist businesses. According to previous studies on paternalistic leadership, the Chinese culture of paternalistic leadership was different from the same in western organizations. The managers in the Chinese culture were directive. Ambiguous about their intentions, centralized authority and excised implicit control keeping distance from the subordinates. The Chinese managers in the firms tended to incorporate personal factors in the decision-making process of the firm and demanded personal loyalty from the followers. The authoritarianism in paternalistic leadership was accompanied with benevolence. Paternalistic leadership was fit for family businesses in the Chinese community and was characterized by personalism, harmony, monopolization and low formalization. Paternalistic leadership is highly applied in managerial contexts beyond the personal businesses and it was termed as the traditional appeal in the administrations in the Chinese culture. The three dimensional paternalistic leadership style refers to the style as a distinctive leadership style in the prevalent Chinese organizations. The trio dimensions are authoritarianism, morality, and benevolence. Authoritarianism is the practice in which a leader has absolute powers over the followers and makes and controls all the firms’ decisions and actions of the followers. Principles require the leaders to establish high values and morals, behaviors and show good examples of the self-discipline and personal virtues of the followers. Benevolence, on the other hand, shows the soft and quiet side of the leaders. The leader is concerned about the wellbeing of the followers and shows personal concern for the followers. A benevolent leader can be termed a charismatic leader as he considers the followers not only as a follower but as part of the organization.
The three dimensions of paternalistic leadership are rooted in the cultural values of the Chinese people. Authoritarianism is derived from legalism and Confucianism. In the traditional Confucianism, a father has total legal authority over his family members. According to the legalist school, political manipulation and control were highly valued and emphasized during the imperial period in China. The Chinese values were manifested in the historical changes and developments and the authoritarian leadership.
China enjoys different eras of leadership with each era eminent from the names of the powerful men. Each of the powerful leaders in the Chinese leadership ladder holds the various generations of leadership. Mao Zedong’s era is known as the first generation; the second generation was headed by Deng Xiaoping, third generation by Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao for the fourth generation and the current generation being headed by Xi Jinping (Wang & Chee 2011). Each of these leaders had a group of mandarins who filled the highest ranking offices in the states. All these leaders together make the leadership generations in China. The difference in the generation of leadership was mainly the age. As time passes the older generation passes or hands power to the younger generation. The generations are stated by a number from first to the fifth. However, they can also be termed based on the significance of the periods (Zhao 2007).
The first generation of leadership in China brought about a new era in the Chinese leadership and the overall economic status of the nation. Paternalistic leadership was eminent as Mao was popular among his subjects owing to his charismatic and strong leadership (Cheung, & Halpern, 2010). The second generation of leadership was not as philosophical as the first. It was however committed to the idea of controlling the people of China. In the year 1989 following the crackdown at Tiananmen Square, there was the end of the development freewill western style in the republic. As age progressed, Deng was ready to transition from power to a new generation marking the first smooth transition to Jiang Zemin who in 1989 had was able to stop violence in Shanghai with little violence (McGregor 2010). The third generation of leadership was characterized by the merging of the conservative elements from the 70s and 80s. There was the fear that China would fall back to the stagnation of the economy and the people would return to poverty a situation they had experienced before in the 1970s when the then leader Deng wanted to change the economy that Mao had destroyed (McGregor 2010). The third generation of leadership was committed to ensuring that the nation restarted the economic reforms which would help in ending the fight with the conservatives. It is in this era that the nation abandoned political reforms, dictatorship and there would be the expansion of the entrepreneur class. Jiang worked tirelessly after the death of Deng which cemented him as the paramount leader of the nation (Fu, Wu, Yang, & Ye 2007). He brought about reforms in the economy by marketing the enterprises owned by the state and systematization of laws to encourage foreign investors in the country. In 2003, after a successful era, it was time to pave the way for a new generation of leaders, the fourth generation (Fenby 2013).
It is in the fourth generation of leadership that China experienced some of the largest events in the world such as the Beijing Olympics in 2008 and the SARS outbreak. China also rose among the largest world economies with the GDP increasing with an average growth of 10%. In 2012, there was the transition of power from the fourth to the fifth generation being the first generational power transition in China that lacked the approval of Deng. The party selected Xi Jinping as Hu Jintao’s successor and Li Keqiang as the premier (Du, & Choi 2013). Over the years, there have been various changes in the leadership system with the main reforms experienced in 2012 when Xi a rival, was chosen as the successor of Hu Jintao. Xi Jinping was from the princelings a communist party member who came from the lineage of previous leaders. It was considered the rightest wing compared to Tuanpai. In the fifth generation, there was a reduction in the number of the cabinet from nine to seven members (Fenby 2013). Although many scholars predicted the fifth generation of leadership to be among the best from the rest, it has proved to be different. Some scholars predicted the form of governance to be more open only to be proved a wrong year later. There have been purges in the government under the allegation of corruption, economic nationalism, increased restriction son information and liberty (Hasel 2013).
China has long struggled with the creating of a good leadership image abroad. Since the Olympics in 2008, where a new era was created, it has since had the opportunity to show its new economic status in the modern world (Du, & Choi 2013). Since his presidency, Xi has continued building on the foundation of creating an image of China as a compassionate leader through various projects. He has since directed the Chinese people to embrace traditional value viewing the nation as one big family with the president being their father, borrowing from the traditional paternalistic leadership. Perhaps the presidents use the strategy to enhance national unity and helping China shake off past humiliations. China has been over the years tried to reclaim and reconcile its old greatness as the middle kingdom. With its new position and the increasing economic leadership, China enjoys a unique leadership style (Jung, Chan, Chen, & Chow 2010). However, despite the efforts that China is putting for soft power both at home and abroad, it is still failing with the country being viewed with suspicion. The announcement on term limits for the presidency has sparked debates globally.
The most critical points in the analysis are the overall leadership in China. From the history of Chinese leadership, Confucianistic leadership style has partly influenced the contemporary leadership styles. Women in the society have since been marginalized in terms of leadership roles. However, some women have decided to invade the male-dominated field of leadership (Mohr, & Wolfram 2008). From the generations of leadership, it is evident that there has been an evolution of leadership with each leader putting his foot forward towards providing the best leadership in the republic.
The literature materials used were derived from peer-reviewed journals and books with relevance to the topic. The selection of materials for reference was done with special interest on materials not older than 10 years. The materials used were helpful in finding information on the topic. However, there were some disadvantages in the selection of reference materials as some of the information that I found relevant to the topic were from older texts. Despite the hurdles in the selection, there was still enough information that has enabled the compilation of eth literature.
The field of leadership is broad, and from the previous researches, there is still more that needs to be done. Atopic on leadership regarding gender has not been properly tackled. China has been experiencing a gender imbalance in leadership roles with women in the society being marginalized. Further studies should be done in an attempt to bring more light on the issue while paving the way for more research on the same.
The structure of the organization is in such a way that an individual’s role is to oversee the entire operation and is responsible for the conduct and performance of the others; people in such positions are the leaders. Leadership can take different forms; it can be transformational, paternalistic, charismatic, situation or transitional among other forms of leadership. Transformational leadership theory is a situation that a leader uses their inspirational skill to create change with the involvement of the employees (Srivastava, 2003). The leader acts as a role model to all other workers, they offer guidance, morale, motivation and aids others performance through various mechanisms. Through their involvement with the employees as personal level, such leaders can create a sense of identity, inspiring those under them to take control of situations, understanding their limitation and strength and allows all workers to align with the collective task. Although every style of leadership is applicable in a particular situation, transformational leadership is versatile and if properly adopted and can be the best option for all situations, especially in employee motivation.
Transformational leadership is quite different from all other theories; the philosophy is centered in the leader personal abilities and skills to involve all parties in executing assigned jobs and realizing organization/team’s objectives. Other theorist names these elements differently, and the number of defining characteristics varies, however, they have a common definition concerning the leader’s role in management. Paternalistic leadership, on the other hand, is highly rooted in the culture of the people. The leaders focus on the improvement of the life of the followers through humanistic ways.
The western leadership principles are focuses mainly on elements of profit, strategic planning, long-term goals and human relations. In the past, employees in an organization were seen as impersonal components of production. The firms prioritized of the achieving of objectives and maintaining relevance and command in the market. However, as time goes by and the evolution in the business world, emphasis have been placed on the valuing of the employees in term of their contributions and ideas, respecting them and helping them promoter their careers. The change towards humanistic approach to the employees in a firm are linked to the Chinese principles of interaction and respect for the employees. Paternalistic leadership is considered as a father-son relationship with the father being the head of the family. Similar to a family, a father is responsible for the behavior of the family member and leading by example and being a role model translates to a well behave family. Consequently, the leadership of an organization is more of a family with eth members looking up to the leader. It is therefore critical for leaders to ensure they provide the best example to the employees, which brings about mutual respect and ultimately helps the firm to achieve its objectives in the period set.
Research suggests that any theory of leadership derives meaning from the personality of the leader, especially in relation to the five pillars of personality, openness to experience, intra/extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness and agreeableness (Carmeli, Atwater and Levi, 2010). All transformational leader must have top percentile score in all the five regions for the theory to be complete. The agreeable nature of the leader allows them to accept and use new ideas generated by their juniors; their consciousness links them to what is actually happening in the organization, how particular individuals do their work and how to be directly motivated achievements while offering guidance for improvement (Carmeli, Atwater and Levi, 2010). Their extraversion and agreeable nature permits the leader to be outgoing and socially accepted by followers and be considerate to them. Emotional stability supplements the all the other skills and makes them better roles models who other employees would seek guidance in case of problems while borrowing from their vision and examples (Carmeli, Atwater and Levi, 2010).
Similarities and differences between paternalistic and transformational leadership
There are various similarities and differences between paternalistic leadership and transformational leadership. While the western transformational leadership focus on the leaders, paternalistic leadership focuses on the collective activities of the subjects. Both leadership styles focus on the result despite using different approaches in achieving the results. In paternalistic leadership, the delivery of results is a managerial function. The difference between transformational leadership and stewardship was recognized in China during the designation of ling Xiu and ling dao. Both transformational and paternalistic leadership’s primary focus is on the economic benefits. However, western leadership style still views the people as a component of production. Chinese values, on the other hand, regard people as more valuable individuals who contribute to the success of the organization.
The western and Chinese concepts of leadership are converging with the implication being the placement of emphasis on the humanistic considerations. It also focuses on the labor relations and the commitments in the organizations. China is increasingly adopting the western leadership techniques, which is encouraging innovation while improving the efficiency of the Chinese business organizations. There is a need for a universal perspective of leadership, which brings together the attributes of both the paternalistic and transformational leaderships from the various cultures and philosophies. The combination of the two styles can then be modified to suit the different situations in the management of business organizations.
In understanding the different form of leadership, one requires to have a deeper understanding of the cultural roots of the various institutes. Chinese cultural is deeply rooted in the traditional morals and norms unlike the western cultural. The traditions in most cases cannot be done away with hence, leading to the difficulty in evolution to the modern cultures and leadership styles. For instance, in paternalistic leadership, the leaders follow a bit of the authoritarian style. The traditions and norms have played a great role in the shaping of the leadership principles. This plays as a limitation in the adoption of new leadership styles. However, by the convergence of the two leadership styles, the organization can balance in all sectors of management.
As leadership in organizations continues to change from a position based on the role-based task, transformational and paternalistic leadership are equally transforming with these changes and restructuring itself in a way that it responds to organization needs. The academic community is continually redefining the subtle elements that make these leadership styles of choice in most organizations and teams. The rapid political globalization is also affecting the development and understanding of paternalistic leadership, today, firms operate in globalized economies making leadership approaches to takes a universal form. Globalization also renders traditional and cultural aspect of transformational leadership obsolete, as the world tends to work as a single unit with a unified culture. The defining principles of leadership need further clarification to illustrate when a leader in transactional or transformation. In this paper, it is evident that leaders have myriad obligations towards their followers and in the response of the tasks at hand in the business organizations. In dealing with the obligations, leaders requires numerous qualities developed differently in the western and Chinese cultures. In the recent past, the two cultures have incorporated different principle from the two cultures to form a convergence in the management of the business organizations. The merging of the Chinese and western leadership principles offers a basis of economic benefits with leaders using the two styles of management to achieve the company’s desired goals. The western leadership can benefit from Chinese paternalistic leadership in issues of humanistic factors and on the rationality in priorities. Similarly, the Chinese management can benefit in the application of modern and scientific view of management such as innovation to better the management of the firms while increasing of the economic development.
The ancient Chinese philosophy is deeply rooted in the traditional norms of the Chinese people with a special focus on the growth and improvement of the employees through various developments in the organization. Leaders in a Chinese organization are required to review their considerations in the making of profits and consider other ethical issues while setting of the firms priorities. In the Chinese organizations, the people are the most important factor regardless of their position in the organization. While in the western the concern is getting work done and profits made, Chinese organizations major of the wellbeing of the people. In the contemporary word, with the era of technological advancements and industrializations, organizations are seeking to have the best brains at work. The demand for labor force is on the increase and this calls for a more refined form of leadership. Employees in an organization make the most crucial part of the firm and their wellbeing plays a critical role in the success of the business. How well the business is managed translates to its success and continuity. Some may argue an authoritarian leadership leads to a more defined organization with eth work done as required while other may consider it as a wrong approach to leadership. However in various instances, a leaders is required to be more authoritarian to get work done ad required. As such the Chinese organization besides employing modern leadership approaches till considers a little of authoritarian leadership in the governing of employees. Scholars have suggested the convergence of both paternalistic and transformational leadership which will see the leadership of organization exercising either leadership when necessary. This will not only lead to the evolution of leadership in organizations but will also ensure firms are managed in accordance with the situation at hand for the success of the organization.
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METHODS OF IMPROVING THE PERCEPTION OF THE PUBLIC ON HOSPITAL-BASED NURSING CARE
METHODS OF IMPROVING THE PERCEPTION OF THE PUBLIC ON HOSPITAL-BASED NURSING CARE
Extensive researches done show that perceived quality is single-handedly the most important aspect that influences consumers to purchase products or services. As a result, Quality Nursing Care (QNC) is an important aspect for healthcare organizations. QNC is the processes that aim to attain a high degree of excellence in the delivery of nursing care (Moloczij et al., 2018). This study defines public’s perception to quality nursing care as the view or feelings of nursing care that they received or experienced from a nursing staff during their stay or visit and taken as the indicator of QNC (Torres, 2014). Quality nursing care plays a vital role for patients because nurses are involved in almost all aspects of care delivery they received from a healthcare organization whether directly or indirectly (Moloczij et al., 2018). The fact that nurses are the ones who interact with patients more than any other practitioner makes them the key determinants to the quality perception the public attributed to a healthcare organization.
The perception of patients on nursing care is essential when it comes to indicating the quality of the services offered. The feedback is not only a key in the quality but also a determination in nursing care evaluation (Sassen, 2018). As a result, the patients ought to be freed to define priorities best suiting them and judge their care accordingly; this policy is healthy to that of professional determining the working criteria (Girmay et al., 2018). Nursing care quality is viewed differently by patients and health care professions. Health care professions take competent nursing care to be the quality of nursing care (Moloczij et al., 2018). On the other hand, the patients perceive the quality of nursing care as interpersonal care, efficiency; comfort, competence, personalized information, physical environment, comfort, and general instructions.
Occasionally, health standards and professions expectation on the measure of the quality of nursing care have been disapproved and on the contrary, grounded on the views of the patients (Knier et al., 2015). Employing patients’ perception in determining the quality of nursing care in widely recommended; however, surplus research and organizational activities ignored countries with low income (Chen et al., 2015). Understanding the perceptions that are behind patients determining the quality of nursing services, it is a requirement to be based on when trying to improve services at various levels in a hospital (Papp et al., 2014). Measuring the quality of nursing services with patients’ perspective is very crucial in discerning and meeting patients’ needs. It is also the best policy when it comes to quality of nursing evaluation.
Upholding hospital care quality and coming up with an efficient way of initiating the process has proved to be a worldwide challenge. As a result, various measurements have been developed worldwide to aid in the measuring of nursing quality. Unfortunately, no developed way has brought a successful outcome. Several disapprovals have made patients’ perceptions viewed as the best solution alongside healthcare professions and other groups (Renata et al., 2014). The experience from the patients is seen to be the best alternative in determining quality nursing care than the other peoples’ views (Girmay et al., 2018). The method of treatment, processes, and interaction are factors that patients’ have vast experience. Consequently, other groups’ perception has experienced persistence resistance with their adverse methods due to insufficient experience (Moloczij et al., 2018). Despite patients experience on measuring the quality of nursing experienced has been given the cold shoulder for a long time, researchers have taken the lead on investigating its importance to curbing the challenge.
The nursing profession has changed its mode of operation; they now use patients’ outcomes to determine the quality of the services they deliver. The procedure is very significant, as it has aided in evaluating nursing care quality, and facilitating improvements to the quality of nursing care (Syed et al., 2010; Renata et al., 2014)). Therefore, success depends on the nurses’ relationship with their patients when offering services (Renata et al., 2014). It is essential since nurses spend a lot of time caring for patients, thus patients’ majors in this area during the quality assessment — nurses’ mode of delivering services influences patients’ satisfaction (Moloczij et al., 2018). The care that is seen to be of high quality based on clinical, economic and other related methods is not ideal, as the services offered are not of the intended quality.
Study on how patients come up with their perceptions on the nursing services showed that an effective activity of a nurse is very crucial to her technical skills. The study showed that patients preferred nurses who can handle their feelings and priorities (Northman et al., 2010). A study in Jordan hospitals showcased that patients were not satisfied by the interpersonal aspect and coordination care offered by the health professions. Consequently, the rating of nursing care quality was low (Girmay et al., 2018; Giménez-Requena et al., 2015). As a result, Jordanian healthcare organizations performance was below the average rating in offering quality health care. In Nigeria, the study highlighted that hospitals did not embrace dignity to the standards the patients expected in place (Shu-Ping Wei et al., 2014). The attitude of nurses towards the patients in the process of offering services was the cause of the despising outcome. Quality of care does not fully depend on the methodology involved, but it also dwells on how care is delivered (Moloczij et al., 2018). Furthermore, the study indicated that healthcare administrations in developing countries ignored patients’ perceptions.
Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) in Ethiopia is struggling to offer high standards health care services in each health institution using different strategies. Social, environmental, demographic, technological, cultural and economic factors have constantly affected the dynamic needs of clients (Talbot et al., 2014). The patients’ satisfaction is, therefore, not sufficient. Consequently, health care institutions need to asses patients’ satisfaction survey reports keenly to carter for their clients’ needs. The survey reports are also very crucial in embracing the priorities of the clients and improving nursing care services quality (Karim et al., 2016). The implementation of these activities will ease the Federal Ministry of Health burden and struggles in improving quality nursing care services in the Ethiopian healthcare institutions.
Research conducted in Axum regarding the quality of nursing care presented an overall rating of 65 percent. Ulcer prevention pressure, patient observation, and the usefulness of information nurses give regarding their conditions, were the aspects that recorded the least performance. Hence, the use of patients’ perception is significant in improving the health care sector (Tilahun et al., 2016). Nurses are advised to engage patients actively when delivering services to understand their needs and facilitate efficient nursing care. Additionally, a study from Mikelle in Ethiopia showed an overall 47 percent on patients’ perception (Girmay et al., 2018). The study analysis included; 40.4 percent on related activities in nursing care, 45.5 percent on nurses’ character, and 38.5 percent on the information nurses present to the patients. The results showed to reach optimal standards in nursing care, responsibility and professional accountability should be addressed (Moloczij et al., 2018). Dessie referral hospital study on the satisfaction of adult patients presented an overall satisfaction of 52.5 percent. However, nursing care and patients’ satisfaction performance were below the expectation.
Generally, nursing care is a very important aspect that determines the rating of the patients’ satisfaction; this is due to nurses being the center of almost every client’s care aspects (Woldieet al., 2010). A nurse, whose service standard is rated optimum quality, has embraced a good attitude in offering services, kindness, honesty, and thrust together with clinical competence. Patients’ perception is very crucial when it comes to enhancing patients’ satisfaction (Girmay et al., 2018). Therefore, the study was centered on assessing the perception of patients’ in regard to the quality of nursing care and the factors contributing to its success.
Statement of the problem
To achieve tis factors, the study focuses on articles from credible journals so that the results of the study can be relied upon. Also, authoritativeness of the articles is vital in this study because the level of experience of an author determines the credibility of published information. Therefore, the study will consider authors who have a rich historical background as far as authorships are concerned.
Aims and objectives
This study aims at identifying public perception towards nursing care and their associated factors.
To determine how quality of nursing care affects the perception of the public on the hospital-based nursing
To determine how level of hospital determines public perception on the hospital-based nursing
To determine how the level of qualification of nurses affect public perception on the hospital-based nursing
To determine how patient nurse relationship determine the public perception on the hospital-based nursing
To determine how nurse-to patient ratio affect public perception on the hospital-based nursing
Nursing is a critical element of healthcare and the expectations of patients towards nursing care is a growing matter of concern. Therefore, it is important that perception of the public is managed to improve patient outcomes and minimize liability that may result from patient’s perception (El et al., 2017). For the healthcare services to improve the outcome based on public expectation, it is important that the perception of patients to the care they receive is considered.
The success of this project will be helpful to healthcare organizations as sit will give them the key determinants of patient perception. With an understanding of the determinants of patients’ perception, the healthcare organizations will be in a position to evaluate their service delivery to see whether they meet the public expectations (Basedowet al., 2015). Based on their evaluation, healthcare facilities will be able to rectify their weakness that make the public have negative perception about them while at the same time upholding their strengths so that the public perception towards them does not deteriorate (Kennedy et al., 2010). In the long run, the healthcare facilities will be in a position improve their quality nursing care to win the public
This study revolves around the determinants of public perception on Hospital-based nursing. Proper nurse staffing contributes to positive patients’ outcome. The outcome of patients is accepted across the globe as an indicator of quality healthcare. The quality of health care encompass various principles such as effectiveness, safety, equitability, patient-centered, timely, and efficiency health services and patient satisfaction
Nurses should be responsible for enhancing the outcomes of the hospitalized patients. Nurses should be resourceful, decisive, flexible and aware of the large picture. Efficient leadership make evaluation and re-examination of patients hence enhancing the healthcare quality provided (Balogh et al., 2014). Inadequate staffing leads to prolonged hospital stay, increased recovery time, increased risks of medication errors and falls, increased potential of readmit ion, morbidity and death. Proper staffing leads to positive patient outcomes.
Advantages and disadvantages
To advocate for safe work environments by developing high quality leadership.
Propose EBP good nurse staffing greatly improves quality of care and patient satisfaction
Staffing hospitals in relation to acuity of patients.
Safety, equitability, timeliness, patient-equitability, efficiency in health services, and patient satisfaction are the principles of quality healthcare
Under-staffing cause nursing care to be task oriented and leads to neglecting of the human side of caring and human care.
Workload and staffing levels lead to neglects and incomplete nursing tasks.
Prolonging hospital stay and increasing the recovery time. Increases the risks for falls and medication errors, Nosocomial infections. Increases potential for readmission, patient morbidity and death. Proper nurse staffing contributes to positive patients’ outcom. The outcome of patients is accepted across the globe as an indicator of quality healthcare (Balogh et al., 2014). The quality of health care encompass various principles such as effectiveness, safety, equitability, patient-centered, timely, and efficiency health services and patient satisfaction. A minimum nurse-patient ratio of between 0.5 and 0.6 is the basic requirement that enhances quality nurse care, patient safety, and higher patient satisfaction. Evidence practice in the area of health service and delivery of care.
Conclusion and budget summary
The research design used for this study is expected to be effective as a result of the few limitations expected to be encountered when carrying out the study. This make the results to be reliable bearing in mind that the articles will be from reputable journal. However, the findings generally can be accepted and have good results if put in practice. This is because generally the patient outcome depends on the number of nurses taking care of the patients. Nurse to patient ratio should be reduced so that patients can have more time with the nurses reduce the adverse results. It is expected that patient care, level of hospital, nurse staffing, and patient-nurse relationship will have positive correlation with public perception on the hospital based nursing. This research is educative, informative and delivers required information that can be used by professional to find the solution to the underlying problems. Students can use this study to acquire more knowledge in their field of study.
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