. this is not a paper but rather a discussion post.
4 Student’s Name Professor’s Name Unit Code Date Anthropology of Advertising. Advertising
Anthropology of Advertising.
Advertising is a form of communication aimed at the public that is paid for. All advertisements are created by a group of people known as “media producers”. There is usually an intended target audience who, although not explicitly stated, must be part of the message and be able to relate to it or otherwise there would be no reason for it to be present in the first place. A social anthropologist could use this information to help them understand how consumerism, which is a phenomenon that falls into the category of economic anthropology and affects the entire world greatly. They would also be able to use their findings of consumerism to influence policy makers upon reviewing their research. Marketers observe a great deal of anthropological data about the consumers of their product and services.( de Waal Malefyt, et al).
The social science is about how society works and this includes the human world. Examples of social sciences include anthropology, criminology, sociology, and psychology. Each discipline provides a unique look at society from different perspectives. This site has information on all the social sciences disciplines so that you can explore each one to see which one most aligns with your interests. According to Bunge and Mario, we study social sciences to gain skills that help us understand and improve the world around us.
There are many cultural effects of advertising that may be seen in today’s society. The cultural effects of the advertisements on television and in other forms create a sociological impact on the culture through forming relationships among the people, the products that are being advertised, and the strategies used in creating those relationships (Subramanian, K. R, 28). Such strategies range from using specific colors, terminology, and symbols to creating an environment based upon a certain emotion to engage consumers in a particular product to buy it.
Consumer behavior is the study of human and physical factors that influence buying, consuming, and using. Consumer behavior varies as a result of age, gender, race, income, culture and a variety of other factors such as religion, education and occupation. Psychologists may study such things as personal values, opinions, beliefs, emotion, and motivation when consumers buy. In addition consumer Behavior examines how and why consumers do what they do (New, Horizon). The course introduces the major theories and research of how, when, and why consumers shop.
Good advertising uses useful and relevant information to promote a product or a service. It is truthful, accurate, honest and well presented. Bad adverts do not include useful and relevant info. The message can be inaccurate or dishonest and poor presentation makes it unclear or difficult to understand. It uses words that are too flashy or emotional (Becker et al, 950). To sum up, good advertising has a powerful message that everyone can understand, in a very short amount of time. In fact, today’s advertising must get your message across in a single second or less. On the other side, bad advertising is when you make a claim or promise that you’re not ready to back up. If your product can’t do what you say it will, it’s a bad adverts.
In conclusion, a social anthropologist could use this information to help them understand how consumerism, which is a phenomenon that falls into the category of economic anthropology and affects the entire world greatly. We study social sciences to gain skills that help us understand and improve the world around us. Social science includes psychology, criminology, anthropology and sociology. Cultural effects create a sociological impact on the culture through forming relationships among the people. Consumer Behavior examines how and why consumers do what they do. Good advertising uses useful and relevant information to promote a product or a service while bad adverts do not include useful and relevant info.
Becker, Gary S., and Kevin M. Murphy. “A simple theory of advertising as a good or bad.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108.4 (1993): 941-964.
Bunge, Mario. “Social science under debate.” Social Science under Debate. University of Toronto Press, 2017.
de Waal Malefyt, Timothy, and Robert J. Morais. Advertising and anthropology: ethnographic practice and cultural perspectives. Routledge, 2020.
New, Horizon. “Consumer behavior.” (2020).
Subramanian, K. R. “Impact of social changes on the role of advertising.” Int. J. Trend Res. Dev 4.3 (2017): 26-31.
Comparing antivirus software 3 Researching a virus Students name Institution affiliation Due
Answer this question in 50-100 words: How is metacognition beneficial throughout one’s lifetime? Why is metacognition important? Discuss your Writing Assignment Help Comparing antivirus software 3
Researching a virus
A new virus found in the world is called a yellow fever virus which has affected at least two thirds of people across the universe. The virus has microorganisms which are of various types, they widely differ in their functions and how they affect human bodies (Woolhouse et al, 2021). The yellow fever virus has affected people from various countries in the world for instance United Kingdom and other African countries (WHO, 2022). Yellow fever is caused by RNA virus and it affects mostly mammals. It exists in three types namely urban, jungle and intermediate. Urban is formed through humans caused by a mosquito called aegypti. which multiplies, it bites during the day, intermediate attacks people in Africa those residing areas near the forests. Yellow fever causes head pains, joint pain and body rash which may become acute depending in the victims age and type of the yellow fever virus. Exposure to the virus develops very fast for within two to three days after being infected. It works in many ways and has other symptoms like loss of appetite and shivering. It affects mostly younger children of age ten and below and also the elderly people. yellow fever, although it is not a deadly disease if the virus has reached the fourth stage with very acute symptoms it may destroy lives of children and elderly people. the virus can be prevented by introducing vaccinations against the virus in order to create immunity of humans, putting on protective clothes and using the protective gears for instance having mosquito nets and not going outside where the infected mosquitoes are breeding from and make regular visits to the doctor for advice when you notice any of the symptoms in people in the breeding areas affected. Taking care of ourselves and the people in our neighborhood is also another way of making precautions and preventing the disease from spreading faster.
Woolhouse M, Scott F, Chase-Topping M, Human viruses: Discovery and emergence, 2021.
Kellerman R, yellow fever, 2021.
Vinetz J, Colleen M, what is yellow fever, 2021.
Running Head 4 Financial literacy has assumed greater importance in our society
Running Head 4
Financial literacy has assumed greater importance in our society due to increasing complexityof financial products. It has derailed the economic safety nets by the government, workers and een the parents who are worried by their own retiremennts. It is away of cognitive understanding of what entails finance and the skills such as budgeting , inesting, borrowing, taxation,and personal financial management.being financially literate makes one to be well prepared for specific financial roadblocks which in turn lowers the chances of personal economic distress. Financial literacy has benefits that can improe the stardadr of liing for people through an increase in financial stability.some of the benefits includes: better financial decisions, management of money and debts,less financial stress and effective creation of a well structured budget.
Better financial decisions
Better financial decision making is paramount in individuals’ way of living . It helps one to gain an insight into how gash is being generated and distributed. having a balance sheet help one indicates one’s current financial positions.Itenables one to understand whether it is going to make losses or profits. If one is incapable of making managing money, he or she will will hae a difficulties in making major financial decisionsprofits makes one happy and loss lead to one being uncomfortable.
Management of money and debt
Paying of debts will depend on how one will management his or her money. Financial literacy education equips one with the skills of budgeting saving and payment of due debts. Improving financial mathematics skills enable one have a good plan on how ,where and where to invest money to avoid major debts at later debts.most people hae some kind of debts , be it a student loan, credit card debt or both. Paying loans on time that is ahead of schedule a lot of money in interest.
Well structured budget
Budget is the foundation of someone’s financial health. A budget is a financial plan for a defined period. It may also include planned sales volume and revenues , resource quantities , costs and expenses , assets, liabilities and cash flows. There are some things one need to do to have a full control of finances which includes creating a personal monthly budget, start an emergency fund, make a plan for retirement, make a plan to get out of debt and determine credit score and how to improve it. One can save money on interest by improving credit score.
Understanding the paycheck
One needs to learn on how to find gross and net income based on historical earnings. One needs to know what he is earning een before spending , saing and inesting.if one make similar amount monthly this becomes easy. Paycheck identifies gross and net income which help one note deductions. Paychecks which ary from month to month makes it difficult for one to calculate his or her income.
Financial education inoles a wide landscape as shown in this research. Programs for financial education differs in ways based on the qualities of the groups served and the content to be taught or the information to be shared. Ealuations in financial education will differ substantially based on the characteristics f the financial education programs they are designed to assess. Oerall assessment is generally a positive one.
Belousova, T. A., Gryzenkova, Y. V., Kirillova, N. V., Vasyakin, B. S., & Pozharskaya, E. L. (2019). The financial literacy assessment among students majoring in the field of finance. EurAsian Journal of BioSciences, 13(1).
Compen, B., De Witte, K., & Schelfhout, W. (2019). The role of teacher professional development in financial literacy education: A systematic literature review. Educational Research Review, 26, 16-31.
Goyal, K., & Kumar, S. (2021). Financial literacy: A systematic review and bibliometric analysis. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 45(1), 80-105.
Kasman, M., Heuberger, B., & Hammond, R. (2018). A review of large scale youth financial literacy education policies and programs. The Brookings Institution.
THEORY PAPER RUBRIC 1 Title Name Course Instructor Date of Submission Jackie
THEORY PAPER RUBRIC 1
Date of Submission
Jackie is an African-American from New Jersey with anxiety and depression problems. She is a mother of a 6-year-old kid, homeless and single. She succumbed to depression due to sexual abuse and domestic violence, which made her leave the relationship. As a result, Jackie abuses alcohol as a way of fighting depression. Previously, she used dangerous means of taking alcohol, such as using a cleaning bottle to take it. Recently, Jackie got a job as a UFC fighter, but after losing against a competitor, she developed severe depression problems caused by anger issues. However, Jackie is a responsible mother and assumes to protect her son from abuse. She does not believe in family relations as her mother neglected her and was absent most of her life. Jackie believes her mother was arrogant even when she needed her most, especially during her occurrences of sexual abuse. Jackie believes that fighting in UFC will give her more chances of winning the fight hence solving her economic situation instantly. She focuses on winning a major fight to ensure her stability and financial security in the future. Her problem with alcohol addiction hinders her progress forward, which relapses into anger and depression.
Jackie’s educational background is unknown; therefore, the UFC fighting is her main source of income, but she worked as a house help in the past. Due to a distant relationship with her family members, she had a traumatic childhood. She had an irresponsible mother whose boyfriends assaulted her when she was a little girl. She wanted to be a better mother to her son, so when she began fighting, she gave up her son for adoption so that he could not go through a traumatic childhood as she had experienced. Unfortunately, the child’s father was murdered, but she proclaimed parental rights so that she could take care of him. In her career as a UFC fighter, Jackie gained many victories. She developed a romantic relationship with Desi, her physical trainer; still, the man would envy Jackie whenever she fought with other competitors. As a result, he developed a substance over dependency. Whenever Jackie signed up for other training, he would be violent to both the child and the mother. He was also abusive to the boy and called him “little”, which made him mistreat the child even more as he regarded himself as “big”. Jackie would abuse alcohol every time she lost a fight as it caused her anger and depression; therefore, her community always bullied her. Jackie’s family has individuals who suffer from substance abuse, especially alcohol. As an African-American living in the US, most of her diet was American. Jackie’s previous training in martial fighting encouraged her to meditate to help her focus during her fighting career.
Cognitive therapy is an effective treatment for patients suffering from addiction or substance misuse, depression, anger and anxiety. Psychology therapy is one of the most effective forms of treatment for patients who have psychological disorders. Cognitive theory focuses on changing the individual’s negative thoughts by identifying them and replacing them with positive ones. People adapt negative thoughts leads to low self-esteem, hopelessness and change in behavioural moods. Jackie has a negative attitude towards family caused of her mother, her violent husband and boyfriend and the sexual assault she received as a child. She keeps herself busy as a fighter, and when she loses a fight, it triggers her anger and self-esteem, making her abuse alcohol. CBT enables the individual to identify all negative thoughts, leading to self-discovery, although it can be difficult sometimes. The trainers in UTC martial fights advise Jackie to focus, which is a way that helps her appreciate herself and therefore leads to victories in many fights.
The main goal of CBT is that it is problem-oriented and focuses on the problems that the patient experience. The therapist and patient focus on treatment and develop positive cognitive ways to prevent depression. CBT does not dwell on the causes of a patient’s distress, but its main objective is to look at the present behaviour. Therapists help patients achieve their goals by focusing on specific problems and giving solutions. The sessions involve setting up a plan with the patient and selecting particular items that lead to a productive therapy focus. The counsellor also gives homework assignments that force the patient to put more effort and reinforce the concepts practised. Her main goals include strengthening her relationship with her son and trainer in Jackie’s case. She is also optimistic about her fighting career and puts extra effort into her meditation skills. She also desires to fully recover by overcoming the substance use so that she can focus fully on her son and work (Carpenter and Hofmann,2018). Self-monitoring is an important aspect of CBT. It enables patients to track their behaviours over time and share them with their therapist. The patient records all observations, progress and assumptions to share with the therapist. The evidence ensures efficiency as the patient can support their arguments. For example, if Jackie assumes she is a useful member of society, she must prove to her therapist how she benefits society. She could focus on her fighting job so that she acquires money to take care of her son by providing education, who could become a great person in the society. Since she has issues with her family, she could focus on forgiving them to get rid of her anger which brings negative thoughts. Putting records also helps the patient distinguish different thoughts and the effect they bring on their moods. Records also help the patients accept facts, even if some could have bitter memories about the patient. In Jackie’s case, she should accept that people have different mothering capabilities, and not all women are capable of being great mothers to their kids. She should accept that her mother was arrogant and irresponsible, which led to her sexual abuse. It is a painful experience, but with the help of a counsellor, she could replace the negative thoughts with positive memories and choose to move forward and forgive her mother so that she could move forward and make family relations.
Behavioural techniques are also an important task in CBT as it aims to enhance functioning, which increases pleasurable experiences. The main objective of behavioural patterns is to overcome anxiety and depression. The counsellor and patient work to reduce the number of tasks that the patient can manage, leading to the decision-making process. The tasks managements should be graded and helps to overcome procrastination. The techniques obtained rate the activities as per schedule, whether daily or weekly and give changes to the patient, hence stimulating a greater sense of life. The techniques help patients establish pleasurable and useful activities that help patients deal with difficult issues. In Jackie’s case, she should engage fully in fighting competitions as they give her pleasure. She should also learn how to handle losses and accept challenges to make more room for improvement. Jackie should also put more practice with her trainer to not lose the organization’s scholarship. Her presence in the competitions will also strengthen her skills and give her more chances to win more competitions. She will also have money to cater to her needs since she is homeless and takes care of her son since she is the only parent left to raise her kids. Behavioural experiments help patients gather information on safety behaviours which help them avoid certain behaviours such as alcohol abuse. For example, Jackie should avoid stressful behaviours that make her take alcohol. Also, exercising and training help Jackie relax and reduce anxiety hence managing her levels of stress and depression. Behavioural therapy in CBT helps the client develop coping strategies such as engaging in physical activities, increased social involvement, avoiding much focus on internal thoughts, increasing assertiveness, and reducing feelings of anxiety, hence successful training sessions. CBT will help Jackie overcome her mental trauma from sexual abuse and violence.
Solution-focused therapy focuses on finding solutions for clients who seek therapy. It incorporates positive principles and practices that help clients to focus more on solutions rather than relying on problems. The theory is friendly, motivating, future-oriented and sustains clients with desirable change. It develops solutions by looking at how the client’s life will change after solving the problem to the degree that satisfies the client. The client and therapist look through the client’s experiences and behavioural changes that caused depression and anxiety and look for practical solutions that the client can practice. The process also concentrates on the periods the client successfully addressed the issues without struggles. The main concept of the theory is that it is based on language, and the therapists decide on the form of conversation they will have with the client (De Shazer and Berg,2021). To fully understand the client’s problem, the therapist needs to engage the client in a conversation that mainly comprises questions and answers. The conversation clarifies the counsellor when the circumstances of the problems are most severe and the behaviour on their moods. For example, Jackline succumbs to alcohol misuse mostly when she gets a defeat in the fight. It is her main source of income, and she could even lose her scholarship if she lost frequently. Since she is unstable, her son is the only family, and her community isn’t friendly either, as older men raped her. After conversing with Jackie, the client advises her on practical ways to handle defeat, such as doing too much practice so that she can sustain her job and win more fights. The client also explains to Jackie that sometimes people lose in certain situations but keep trying and hoping for the best outcomes. The therapist also shows Jackie that her motivational factors while fighting should be her son as she needs to be strong for him and be a responsible parent.
Solution focus therapists apply the “presuppose change” technique to help clients focus on positivity even with a little progress. They may ask a client, “what change has occurred since I saw you last?”. If the client has a hard time answering or there is no chance, the therapist can still ask questions that encourage the client to think and cope with their problem, such as “how did you manage to cope in that difficult situation”. In the case of Jackie, the therapist would ask, “how did you manage after the sexual assault?” The question feels uncomfortable, but it also gives Jackie hope and recognizes her as a strong person. The therapist needs to ask exceptional questions as they give the client positivity. For example, “what is your greatest achievement?” “when do you feel happiest?”. Scaling questions are also important in this process as they allow the client to rate a certain experience and look for things that would change their circumstances. For example, the therapist would ask Jackie, “On a scale of 1-10, what are your experiences with domestic violence?” The question will allow Jackie to look at the circumstances that led to violence and what she would have changed. This kind of therapy also allows coping questions to help clients open up on resiliency as the therapists show patients what is likely to work in their case, giving them room for more growth. Providing Jackie with educational tools will enable her to rehabilitate on substance dependency.
Multiculturalism is popular in the US as it contains people from worldwide. It involves theoretical and philosophical ways that cultures vary in gender, identity, race, religion and class. CBT and SFT give patients of different cultures treatments and have strengths and weaknesses. CBT has grown and offers psychotherapy treatments to clients from various cultures. Mental health practitioners have ensured the need to ensure cultural competency when delivering psychological treatment. It ensures all patients get treated equally without discriminating against them due to their colour, race or gender. It has also established a great relationship with patients and enhanced collaboration in a multicultural setting that features a wide range of treatments. However, it also has some weaknesses as the multicultural lens lack a common structure and specific goals that the entire session should achieve. It results in limited data as the therapist may support one model over the other, which incorporates cultural differences and hence may fail to achieve the goal of treating the patient fully. Multicultural counselling on SFT connects with clients and influences the development of diverse approaches; hence operates with the assumption that the theory is universal and gives the client solutions. The disadvantage of a multicultural lens on SFT is that it imposes cultural diversity on groups. In contrast, therapists treat individual clients hence challenging the assumption of mental health benefits.
Psychotherapy theories focus on conceptualizing problematic behaviour by discovering the patient’s motivations. Cognitive therapy focuses on what people think rather than their actions. According to research, people with negative thinking lead to negative emotions and behaviour. Changing the thoughts of people also changes their emotions and attitude. Solution-focused therapy concerns their goals by giving clients solutions to their mental problems. Both CBT and SFT bring therapeutic change and psychopathology. The theory of change illustrates how and gives a particular reason why the change occurred in a particular context. It focuses on the activity that led to the achievement of goals and improvement of the client. The theory of psychopathology focuses on abnormal behaviour and experiences that differ from societal norms. For example, some societies believe mental illness could be influenced by religious superstitions attributed to demons or evil spirits. Psychopathology can be descriptive or explanatory (Sauer‐Zavala and Semcho, 2022). Descriptive psychopathology involves defining and categorizing symptoms of people through observing their behaviour and assessing them according to societal norms. Explanatory psychopathology explains certain symptoms in the patient according to psychotherapy theories by understanding how the theories were formed. Patients with psychopathology disorders are characterized by distress, danger, deviance and dysfunction. Distress is caused by negative thoughts and is associated with anxiety and depression. The danger is the violent behaviour that a patient could cause to people surrounding them or themselves. The person’s behaviours are usually harmful and could harm themselves or other people. Deviance involves thoughts and ideas that patients deviate from and are unacceptable to society. Psychologists should judge the deviant behaviour as per their culture and not as a group because minority groups may not have shared many norms with other cultures. Dysfunction is malicious behaviour that hinders the individual’s ability to perform normal duties. Both psychopathology and theory of change affect the client’s performance as psychopathology mostly involves the symptoms that the client perceives. In contrast, the theory of change explains why the client behaves in certain behaviour.
Transference involves a situation where an individual’s feelings and desires about a person are directed to and applied to another individual. In therapy, the patient applies their feelings based on the other person to the therapist when receiving treatment and behaves as if the therapist were the other individual. It is important during counselling as the therapist can understand the patient’s mental state. On the other hand, countertransference occurs when the therapists redirect their feelings to the patients. A code of ethics guides therapists, and they should maintain a professional distance from their patients. Therapists need to address the issue early and work through those feelings as they could affect their accountability during treatment. For example, a therapist with family problems could allow his feelings to affect the patient throughout the counselling session and could probably affect the client negatively. Transference in therapy could be intentional or unintentional. Unaddressed transference could lead to misunderstanding from the patient, which could develop into a problem and hinder the patient from returning for more treatment (Parth and Löffler-Stastka2017). Transference focused on psychotherapy could be used as a way of treatment by the psychologist as the patient is open about their feelings; hence the therapist acquires better treatment for the patient. Transference involves a mixture of positive and negative emotions such as anger, frustration, love, affection and fear. There are ways in which the therapist and patient could manage their transference and countertransference throughout the counselling sessions. The parties could ask for advice from their colleagues or peers when they feel emotions trigger their workability. They should set clear boundaries hence avoid emotional misunderstandings that could affect the doctor-patient relationship.
To sum it up, cognitive behavioural therapy and solution focus therapy is among the most efficient and reliable psychotherapy approaches that help patients with mental conditions. Depression, anxiety, anger and substance misuse are among the most common mental disorders patients experience. Cultural norms differ among patients; therefore, treatment may differ from one patient to another. Therapy sessions could lead to transference and countertransference; hence the therapist should notice early to ensure therapy sessions do not affect either party.
Parth, K., Datz, F., Seidman, C., & Löffler-Stastka, H. (2017). Transference and countertransference: A review. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 81(2), 167-211.
Sauer‐Zavala, S., Southward, M. W., & Semcho, S. A. (2022). Integrating and differentiating personality and psychopathology in cognitive behavioural therapy. Journal of Personality, 90(1), 89-102.
Carpenter, J. K., Andrews, L. A., Witcraft, S. M., Powers, M. B., Smits, J. A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2018). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for anxiety and related disorders: A meta‐analysis of randomized placebo‐controlled trials. Depression and anxiety, 35(6), 502-514.
De Shazer, S., Dolan, Y., Korman, H., Trepper, T., McCollum, E., & Berg, I. K. (2021). More than miracles: The state of the art of solution-focused brief therapy. Routledge.