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Analyzing Michael Jackson’s Outfit In Thriller. History Assignment Help In Uk



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Analyzing Michael Jackson’s Outfit in Thriller.

Michael Jackson’s outfit in the thriller music movie was just amazing. Thriller was the most influential music of all time that proved to have a profound effect on popular culture. In the music video, Michael Jackson wore a black stripped red jacket, red trouser, fedora hat and a wig that really fit into the song’s occult theme. Michael Jackson also wore white socks and black shoes. The red jacket was a V designed. The red leather look jacket with black details became very influential after the music video was released thus becoming a fashion sensation. Other actors were dressed into the zombie outfit as they danced to the thriller tunes. The fedora hat that Michael Jackson wore repeatedly in the Smooth Criminal video was a common addition to his wardrobe. The fedora hat is a solid dark hat with a smooth charcoal like band. The wig Michael Jackson was wearing was black in color.

The jacket was smooth and looked like a leather jacket. The wig was black in color and well fitted in his head. The smooth leather like red color with black details complemented the red trouser, white socks and black shoes. The trouser was also cotton like and very smooth. The black leather shoes harmonized his overall costumes making it a unique fashionable style. The socks were made of a cable knit white thread thus complementing the smooth red trousers. Fedora hat was smooth fairy combined with a darker smooth ribbon.

The jacket was bell shaped with the black stripes that made a wing like shape on his shoulders accompanied by curved like neck. The wig on his neck was rough and shaggy thus complementing his boyish look. The red trouser was a slim silhouette which specifically fitted his slim body. The jacket also had round buttons and well knit contours. His simple black shoes were flat. The socks were tight fitting. The dark hat that Michael Jackson was wearing well fitted his shaggy black wigs. The wigs were well cropped under the hat making him look smarter and casual.

The red leather jacket greatly fitted his body making him look like the real actor and fashion designer. The matching of the jacket and the trouser was just amazing. The jacket reached exactly at his waist casting no doubt to the audience that the outfit was actually made for him. The black strip just below the jacket and above the trouser successfully matched his black hat and black shoes. The trouser well fitted his tall height. The trousers’ straightness wonderfully fitted his straight shape.

Michael Jackson’s outfit in thriller music movie made him unmarked as a member of the black American community. The outfit could be worn by any other race as it does not look like the baggy and mostly jeans worn by most blacks. His trouser and the black shoes communicated an expression of his male gender. However, his general outfit could be worn by females making the outfit appear unisex. The red leather like outfit suggested his classy position in the society. The leather outfit is presumed to be expensive and can only be afforded by the rich in the society. The following picture was part of the thriller music movie by Michael Jackson (Gallagher Web).


Works Cited

Gallagher, Danny. 10 Things You Didn’t Know About Michael Jackson’s ‘Thriller,’ 30 November,2012. Web. 13 May, 2013. <>.


Non-Liberalism in Germany and Japan ap art history homework help: ap art history homework help




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Non-Liberalism in Germany and Japan

In politics, liberalism is defined as the theory of politics that is based on the natural autonomy of individuals, advocating for civil and political liberties[1]. Liberalism in government and political institutions has been practiced for many years, with the states that opt for this type of governance believing that it promotes political development. Liberalism tolerates the governance of a state through the consent of the country’s citizens, as well as, the protection of these people from arbitrary authority[2]. Though most countries and states have accepted and adopted liberalism in the governance of their countries, others have opted to take a different approach, which discourages the application of liberalism. Two such countries are Germany and Japan, which have opted for a non-liberal approach to their political and government institutions.

With a non-liberal approach, these countries do not allow civil and political freedom, and instead, the government does not guarantee individual rights and civil liberties in their respective states[3]. Such countries restrict the development of political, social, and economic development of its state, hence affecting the overall development of these states.  Countries that opt for this system of governance do this as a way to maintain law and order in their societies. They believe that a democratic system of governance corrupts the entire system of governance and leads to conflict between the state and its citizens when the two do not agree on the path to be followed with regards to certain policies and procedures.  Non-Liberalism is a concept that is particularly directed and meant for serving the state and its people. However, this form of governance serves the authorities more than it does the citizens of a state, thus proving to be a problem when applied. The theoretical underpinnings of this non-liberalism are complex and they include the promotion of a structured and organized system of governance, maintenance of law and order, as well as, the observance of traditional political values to sustain the uniqueness of the state[4] (Holmes 22).

Researchers argue that a non-liberal approach to governance compels countries towards a different route from the basic development of modern political institutions. Studies explain that non-liberalism affects the development of modern political institutions in countries both positively and negatively[5] (Holmes 7).

This paper examines the effect of non-liberalism in Germany and Japan. The paper explains how non-liberalism in Germany and Japan has affected the development of modern political institutions in these two countries.


Effects of Non-Liberalism in Germany and Japan

According to researchers, the adoption of a non-liberal approach to political and governance has affected the development of modern political institutions in states that have opted for this form of political approach. Accordingly, the effects of non-liberalism in countries and states are primarily dependent on the degree of implementation in the respective country or state. Four main effects of non-liberalism have been identified including political power and bureaucracy, political apathy, poor constitutional and administrative development, as well as, moral degradation of political institutions[6].


Political Power and Bureaucracy

Non-liberalism has been closely linked with political power and bureaucracy as it promotes a hierarchical system of governance[7]. Political power and bureaucracy refers to the state at which political institutions have been systemized in a dictatorial manner. German and Japan have for years demonstrated this type of leadership in their political institutions, and this has affected the development of political institutions in these states.  Non-liberalism grants power only to those in top authority thus limiting equality of its citizens. This means that those in authority have the power to make decisions for the rest of the citizens in a country. Most of these decisions revolve around the way of life for the country citizens including the principles and standards to be followed by both political and social institutions in the state. Both Germany and Japan have experienced this political power and bureaucracy in their systems of governance, which has proved to have a negative influence on each of the countries. The citizens of both these states do not enjoy political freedom, and they more often than not find themselves being punished for exercising this[8]. Only those appointed in various political institutions can take part in country politics thus making it hard for the rest to be equally represented. Political power and bureaucracy affects modern political development because, it does not recognize the needs of all the individuals in these states. However, bureaucracy has been identified as a beneficial factor with regards to the development of political institutions in a state. Researches argue that the hierarchical form of governance in a state compels individuals to adhere to the laws of the state. It instigates some form of respect for the law of the land, and for that reason, promotes proper governance of the state. For example, citizens in Germany and Japan reveal a greater observance of the laws, thus reducing the possibility of conflict in these states. However, this can work both ways as citizens may conflict with those in authority regarding the laws governing their land. Japan, for example, has experienced these types of conflict as the citizens of the state tend to conflict with the state authorities on some of the laws used to govern the state.


Political Apathy

Political apathy refers to the state of lack of political engagement by individuals who make up a country or state. Researchers explain this as one of the greatest effects of a non-liberal approach to state governance, as most country citizens are not permitted to take an active part in their country’s politics[9]. Sequentially, these people are not motivated into engaging in their countries political affairs, as they opt to leave the ruling and governance of the state to those in authority. Unlike others states such as the US, countries that have opted for this system of governance experience lesser political involvement by the citizens of a state and for that reason they are not represented effectively. Owing to the lack of representation for the citizens in these states, individuals feel that the government does not adequately address their needs as citizens. They believe that the ability to dictate every aspects of their lives by those in authority impedes on their political freedom, which in turn affects other areas of their social and economic lives. Political apathy can be detrimental to a state’s political structure and institutions, because countries that embrace this approach to governance have a tendency of lacking behind when it comes to the transition into modern states. Germany and Japan have both experienced this, and have taken along period to transform their political institutions into modern political structures[10]. When compared to other states like the United States of America, one can clearly see how this applies, as both these two countries are still governed through the traditional means that are not part of the modern society. Whereas the citizens in other liberalized states take part in the formulation of policies in their political institutions, those in Germany and Japan have a problem taking part in the development of their state’s political institutions. Researchers explain that political apathy affects the political development of countries because those in authority exercise their power without criticism, which is necessary to identify the various loopholes in political governance.


Poor Constitutional and Administrative Development

Political scientists explain that poor constitutional and administrative development comes as a result of non-liberalism, and they use the example of Germany and Japan to illustrate this. Poor constitutional and administrative development refers to the process through which the administration, as well as, the state constitution undergoes changes during the course of time. It is whereby amendments are made to the constitution and the administrative structure of a state, as the country develops into a modern state. Constitutional development is especially crucial for political development, as it addresses the current issues and problems in a state, as opposed to, issues that have been there in the past. For that reason, countries such as Germany and Japan have proved incapable of solving some of the issues that they are currently facing, and instead, the constitution dwells on past issues. This, in turn, means that such states fall behind in the progression towards becoming modern states as their constitutions and administrative systems and structures tend to be conventional.  In both these states, the constitution has undergone very few changes owing to the traditional approach of non-liberalism[11]. For that reason, each of the country’s constitution suffers a great deal, which in turn affects the development of political institutions into modern political systems. Japan’s constitution, for example, has not undergone any changes for a few years now, and some of the accepted practices of the constitution are not considered as modern, hence making the process of modern political development for this state a problem. In addition this, the fact that liberalism has been deemed one of the most modern political developments in governance makes such states appear traditional and their transition to modernity is a problem. Researchers argue that the lack of constitutional and administrative development has failed these countries, as they seem to have lagged behind in political development and progression.


Moral Degradation of Political Institutions

During and after the Second World War, Germany had been solely governed by the Nazi regime, which was authoritarian in nature, which was also responsible for some of the worst crimes against humanity[12]. This is an example of how non-liberalism has promoted moral degradation of political institutions in countries and states. Moral degradation of political institution has been exposed in various ways including corruption, crimes against humanity, and political discrimination among other things. Countries that have adopted a non-liberal approach to politics and governance reveal the highest forms of corruption in their political institutions. Corruption is brought about by the systemized nature of the political institutions that gives power to those in authority. Because they are in authority, individuals accept bribes from citizens for the provision of services to their citizens. Japan’s political institutions have been one of the most corrupt political institutions in the world, and this has been brought about by the adoption of political non-liberalism. Citizens of this state have been forced into bribing officials so as to get their way. In relation to crimes against humanity, Germany is the best example, and as mentioned before, the country experienced the worst crimes against humanity owing to the non-liberal approach to politics.  Japan has also experienced a fair share of this degradation, with most governing institutions using violent approaches to ensure political adherence by the country citizens[13]. Those in authority use their political power to dictate what should be done in a state, with citizens who do not adhere to this facing a punishment from the state. Discrimination based on political preference is also experienced in such states, and this is closely linked with the issue of crimes against humanity. Individuals who do not observe the accepted political laws and regulations tend to be discriminated against both in the political and social settings. Such individuals are prohibited from exercising their political freedom, which in turn provokes the need for retaliation by these individuals.  The possibility of punishment for the lack of observance for the accepted laws of the land is also high thus increasing instability in the state. Countries that use a non-liberal approach to governance tend to experience a higher level of moral degradation in their political institutions that other states hence the need for a redefined political structure in such states.


Annotated Bibliography

Calder, Kent E. Crisis and Compensation: Public Policy and Political Stability in Japan. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1991. Print.

This book examines the Japanese political system in relation to the states developed public policies. The author argues that these policies have been responsible for Japan’s political stability, as they are used as responses to threats facing the state’s political system. Calder draws particular attention to Japan’s economic inefficiency, and he uses this as the primary example of the effects of the states policy adoption, which is of non-liberal nature.  Generally, the book explains how Japan has successfully exploited the concept of political non-liberalism to shape its political structure for the future benefits of its citizens.


Dahrendorf, Ralf. Society and Democracy in Germany. United Kingdon: Gregg Revivals, 1992. Print.

This book examines the Germany’s political system, which is assumed to be a result of the failure of the country’s liberal revolution. The book explains some of the effects of Germany’s adoption of a non-liberal political system, such as social and economic inequality. The book explains how the failure to adopt a liberal political system inherently led to the failure to confront the country’s colossal problems. The author explains that the choice to adopt a non-liberal political system has affected the present political system in the state, thus the importance of reviewing some of these decisions. Generally, the book examines the redefinition of Germany as a political state both in the political and social arenas.


Holmes, Stephen. The Anatomy of Anti-Liberalism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996. Print.

This book provides an analysis of the concept of Anti-liberalism and its adoption in various states in the world. The book explains the concept and application of anti-liberalism, explaining its origin, whom it serves, as well as, the effects of anti-liberalism in political systems and structures. The author exposes the theoretical underpinnings of anti-liberalism, as well as, its perceived effects on nations that opt to adopt the concept. The book explains the different effects of anti-liberalism ranging from communal bonds, to moral disintegration, highlighting the implication of these in countries and states.


Katzenstein, Peter J. Policy and Politics in West Germany. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987. Print.

In this book, the author provides a new perspective of German non-liberalism in their political system and institutions. The author specifically, draws attention to Germany’s ability to revive militarism and authoritarianism, when its fellow industrialized countries took on a different course in liberalism. The author explains that the lack of liberal revolution in Germany remains the source of some of the state’s problems such as its tragic confrontation with modernity. The book links the failure to experience liberal revolutions with six main problems such as economic organization, social welfare, industrial affairs, immigrant workers, administrative development, and academic reform. He explains how these problems have come about as effects of non-liberalism in Germany, thus explains the political situation in the state.


Kohno, Masaru. Japan’s Postwar Party Politics. New Jersey: Princeton University press, 1997. Print.

In this book, the author examines the evolution of Japan’s political system in the period during and after the Second World War. The book highlights the major political changes that took place in Japan during this period, placing emphasis on the country’s shift from a liberal democratic state to a conservative state. This book provides a reflective analysis of Japan’s political system, and the implications of adopting a conservative approach of politics in the state.  As proof for his ideologies, the author highlights the government formation process in Japan so at to assist the readers understand the changes that took place.


Markovits, Andrei S. and Reich, Simon. The German Predicament. New York: Cornell University Press, 1997. Print.

This article draws specific attention to the institutional anatomy of Germany as an anti-liberal state. As the article explains, factors such as the state’s economic and political power illustrate the effects of the rejection of liberalism in the years preceding and after the 20th century. In relation to this, the book explains the difficulty in passage to a modern society by Germany, which is highlighted as one of the greatest effects of non-liberalism in Germany. The author explains that the absence of democracy and liberalism in Germany has been responsible for some of the problems the country is experiencing. Generally, the book offers a different perspective of regarding the development of German political institutions, because of failure to experience a liberal revolution like its fellow developed countries.



Pempel, T.J. Policy and Politics in Japan. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982. Print.

Drawing attention to the topic of political non-liberalism, this book analyses the non-liberal political system in Japan. The book identifies five main areas that have been affected by Japan’s choice to be a non-liberal nation including social welfare, labor relations, economic policy, higher education, and administrative reform. The author draws attention to Japan’s bureaucratic autonomy, illustrating the strengths and weaknesses of the conservative political system. Basically, the book provides the advantages of the non-liberal conservative political system over the liberal political system. Simply, the book provides an realistic assessment of Japan’s non-liberal political system in comparison to that of other industrialized countries.


Reich, Simon. The Fruits of Fascism. New York: Cornell University Press, 1990. Print.

This book examines Germany’s lack of liberal adoption, and the effects that this has had on the political, economic, and social situations in the state. The book is, however, more inclined to the positive effects of the Fascism, which is the opposite of liberalism, on Germany, as well as, its citizens. The author explains, how Germany successfully managed to develop a well-structured and hierarchical political system that has in turn had various effects and implications on the state. However, the book also explains the negative effects of this highlighting institutional sclerosis, as the primary effect of Fascism.



Stockwin, James. A. A. Governing Japan: Divided Politics in a Resurgent Economy. New

Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell, 1999. Print.

This book provides an in-depth analysis of Japan’s political systems, institutions, and culture. More specifically, the book draws attention to the modern political system, which he explains as the outcome of the country’s rejection to liberalism and democracy. Japan’s patterns of complexity in their political institutions, especially in the 20th century have been highlighted, in light of the country’s cultural and historic situation. The book provides six main effects of Japan’s rejection of liberalism including political power and bureaucracy, political apathy, poor economic management, deficiency in public satisfaction, and Japan’s bad constitution.


Streeck, Wolfgang and Yamamura, Kozo. The Origins of Non-Liberal Capitalism. New York: Cornell University Press, 2005. Print.

Unlike the other books used for this research study, this book draws emphasis on both the German and Japanese nations, comparing the effect of non-liberalism in both these states. The book presents a collection of the ideas of various Japanese and Germany political scientists, with each providing personal views on the matter. Specifically, the book provides a historical background of the application and implementation of non-liberal capitalism in Germany and Japan. This is done from two main perspectives including the emergence of capitalism and its survival, and the difference between the German and the Japanese political systems. The book also provides a summary of the internally consistent requirements of an entrenched capitalist nation in comparison to the liberal economy.


[1] Holmes, Stephen. The Anatomy of Anti-Liberalism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996.  pp. 2


[2] Holmes, Stephen. The Anatomy of Anti-Liberalism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996.  pp. 2


[3] Holmes, Stephen. The Anatomy of Anti-Liberalism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996.  pp. 5


[4] Holmes, Stephen. The Anatomy of Anti-Liberalism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996. pp. 22


[5] Holmes, Stephen. The Anatomy of Anti-Liberalism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996. pp. 7


[6] Stockwin, James. A. A. Governing Japan: Divided Politics in a Resurgent Economy. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell, 1999. pp. 112.


[7] Streeck, Wolfgang and Yamamura, Kozo. The Origins of Non-Liberal Capitalism. New York: Cornell University Press, 2005. pp. 56.


[8] Reich, Simon. The Fruits of Fascism. New York: Cornell University Press, 1990. pp. 68.


[9] Stockwin, James. A. A. Governing Japan: Divided Politics in a Resurgent Economy. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell, 1999. pp. 120


[10] Kohno, Masaru. Japan’s Postwar Party Politics. New Jersey: Princeton University press, 1997. pp. 56.


[11] Streeck, Wolfgang and Yamamura, Kozo. The Origins of Non-Liberal Capitalism. New York: Cornell University Press, 2005. pp. 79


[12] Markovits, Andrei S. and Reich, Simon. The German Predicament. New York: Cornell University Press, 1997. pp. 54


[13] Calder, Kent E. Crisis and Compensation: Public Policy and Political Stability in Japan. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1991. pp. 20


Development of Technology in Workplaces history homework

Annotated Bibliography

Friendships in the Workplace



Nowadays, with the rapid development of technology, people find themselves working in a place where competition plays an important role in the organization. Employees, generally, will have to find themselves friends and cliques to form coalition. Friendships in the workplace, therefore gradually develop. One must argue, however, if friendships existences in the work environment are genuine? Do employees make friends to form coalition to compete each other? And does workplace friendship affect organizational outcomes at all?

This annotated bibliography identifies some arguments and researches to the above questions, with the main focus on friendships in the workplace and its organizational outcomes.

The references are arranged alphabetically by first author’s last name. The first six articles are the most relevant to the above topics, the next two articles are not as relevant but will be mentioned in the literature review, followed by the last two articles, which are totally not relevant to friendships in the workplace and will be discarded as a result.

The “References” at the end of this report lists all authors included.

Citation of the document is in Chicago style. All articles were found using Proquest database.

In general, I have a brief evaluation, describing information content and why the work was chosen, usually because it adds substantially to understanding of the above topic.






Berman, Evan M., Jonathan P. West, and Maurice N. Richter. 2002. Workplace relations:                   Friendship patterns and consequences (according to managers). Public administration review 62, (2): 217-230


This article examines the notion of workplace friendship and reports on a survey of senior managers in U.S. cities with populations over 50,000 about their views on workplace friendship.

It states that workplace friendship reduces workplace stress, increases communication, helps employees and managers accomplish their tasks, and assists in the process of accepting organizational change. Despite possible adverse consequences that may also occur (workplace friendship resulting in conflict-of-interest or harassment allegations, for instance), successful managers frequently develop friendships with others in their own organizations. The authors explore and challenge a few evidences to show that managerial orientations in favor of friendship are widespread and that they are associated with important organizational rewards. They illustrate through their research a survey which was distributed to senior managers in the US. From the survey, the authors offer some interesting implications for practice such as workplace friendships improve communication and help employees get their jobs done. Despite some concerns that workplace friendships lead to gossips and office romances, these outcomes are also viewed as manageable. Nevertheless, this study does not observe actual workplace relations, but only the perceptions of managers. Neither does it examine the views of respondent groups other than managers, which might also be of interest. Despite of this, this article is an important read on friendships in the workplace and it helps to form the basis for my literature review later on.


Chun-Te, Lin. 2010. Relationship between job position, job attributes, and workplace friendship: Taiwan and china. Journal of Technology Management in China 5, (1): 55-68


This article verifies the relationship between job attributes and employee workplace friendship within formal organizations in Taiwan and China by conducting a research. It reveals that within a particular job attribute, supervisors have better workplace friendship than subordinates and supervisors/subordinates from Taiwan have better workplace friendship than those from Mainland China. The author contends that a team with better workplace friendships is more likely to achieve the goals. However, a subordinate does not require as much workplace friendship as the supervisor as he has less responsibility and more clear working instructions.

This paper is written in easy, conversational style, makes a good case for showing the relationship between the independent variables, which, the author asserts, consisted of five job attributes, and the dependent attributes, which is mainly workplace friendship. Despite of this, the research does have some limitations such as data collected was mainly from eastern part of China, which doesn’t truly reflect the situation in every company in China. On top of that, the questionnaire responses are mainly self-reports of participants. Nonetheless, the author does suggest future study on business division, rather than business functions as the results on this may differ, more variables can also be added into this research model. This article will not form the basis of my research; however it will be useful supplementary information and will help my literature review look more interesting by quoting practices in Taiwan and China


Dougherty, Thomas W., and Liviu Florea. 2008. The role of personality in employee developmental networks. Journal of Managerial Psychology 23, (6): 653-669


This paper contributes to theory about the potential role of personality characteristics in individuals’ forming of four types of developmental network structures: Entrepreneurial, opportunistic, traditional, and receptive. Other aspects of the relationships among employees and the members of their developmental networks, especially the quality of these relationships, may be important, and may be related to personality similarities and differences. The article is well laid-out and organized, making it easy to follow the argument. It clearly illustrates how personality characteristics play a key role as individual-level influences on the formation of the four networks. However, to date there is limited research on personality as it relates to developmental relationships, hence the authors suggests that this will be a promising avenue for future work. This piece of paper provides a powerful incentive for my literature review on friendships in the workplace, with personality influences one of the main factor to be discussed.



Morrison, Rachel L. 2009. Are women tending and befriending in the workplace? gender differences in the relationship between workplace friendships and organizational outcomes. Sex Roles 60, (1-2): 1-13


This article studies the different gender views on the correlation of friendships in the office   environment and job satisfaction. The author uses data gained through internet-based surveys which asked respondents to describe the benefits received from workplace friends, and measure workplace friendships and organizational variables. Her research focuses on two hypotheses, one, women are more likely than men to focus on the social and emotional benefits their workplace friends can provide and two, men are more likely than women to focus on the task or job related benefits that their workplace friends can provide. The article is useful to my topic, as the author suggests that workplace friendships have a different function for men and women because women derive more social and emotional support from their friends. Women tend to seek emotional support when they are unhappy in a way that men will not, and thus, may make more friends than men when they experience dissatisfaction. The main limitation of the article is that data concerning sex of the friend was not gathered, this is almost certain to affect an employee’s friendship and hence, impact their experience of work. This article will not form the basis of my research; however it will be useful supplementary information for my research on friendships in the workplace.


Sias, Patricia M., and Daniel J. Cahill. 1998. From coworkers to friends: The development of peer friendships in the workplace. Western Journal of Communication 62, (3): 273-299

This article discusses the role of communication in the transitions of peer friendships in the workplace, from coworker to friend, friend to close friend and close friend to almost best friend. Through interview, it was found that as the three friendship stages develop, communication become less cautious and more intimate. Written for a scholarly audience, the article brings out the fact that although peer friendships in the workplace were associated with both individual and contextual factors, the latter one was perceived to be more particularly influential. The authors have provided an extensive literature review and research questions. They all had firsthand experience in conducting interviews and analyzing results, providing very comprehensive descriptive information on the primary friendship transitions in the workplace. The summary and general discussion provided a useful overview of the conclusions drawn by the authors and could be used in the research paper to support a conclusion. However, while a primary goal of this study was to examine friendships among peers, such a focus is also a limitation of the research. The interview’s small sample comprised primarily of women, nevertheless, prevented examination of differences and similarities in the ways men and women develop workplace friendships. These limitations, nevertheless, are recognized by the authors. It is also recommended that future work should attempt to investigate such issues with a larger randomly-chosen group of participants.


Sias, Patricia M., Guy Smith, and Tatyana Avdeyeva. 2003. Sex and sex-composition differences and similarities in peer workplace friendship development. Communication Studies 54, (3): 322-340


This article discusses cross-sex friendships by identifying fundamental differences between cross-sex and same-sex friendships in the workplace. The study also indicates the role of communication in removing organizational boundaries around coworker relationships. In particular, as workplace relationships begin to transcend the boundary between work and personal spheres, so does their communication – partners’ conversations become increasingly-focused on non-work-related topics such as events and issues in their personal lives. The authors suggest that cross-sex friendships differ from same-sex friendships in a fundamental way – while the impact of workplace contextual influences decreases as same-sex friendships develop over time, these influences appear to retain their importance for cross-sex friendships as the relationship becomes closer. This paper is provocative and innovative in that it suggests ways organizations can promote friendships between men and women, ensuring women are privy to the benefits of workplace friendships. Finally, the author’s call to action is to place physical proximity as important to employee friendship development, particularly in the early stages of the relationship. The main limitation of this study, however, is that it considers how the organizational context influences coworker friendship development but ignores the ways such friendships may impact the organization as organizations are not static entities. Nonetheless, this resource is readable, thoughtful, and includes both theoretical and practical implications on cross-sex friendships for assessment. The report concludes with more questions about friendships development in the workplace and leaves the door open for more research on this question.


Elsesser, Kim, and Letitia Anne Peplau. 2006. The glass partition: Obstacles to cross-sex friendships at work. Human Relations 59, (8): 1077-1100


In this article, Elsesser et al found that men and women have trouble being friends at work. Data collected through interviews shows that that cross-sex friendships could be misconstrued as romantic or sexual, or that their overtures could be taken the wrong way. The authors call it the “glass partition” which they say might make it more difficult for women to climb the corporate ladder. Sexual harassment policies, while important, could also be discouraging these sorts of friendships, according to the study. The study is excellent in a way that it gives an insight on cross-sex friendships at work, however, in my opinion; this will not be relevant for my literature review as it relates more on the sexual harassments in the workplace than on friendships. Nevertheless it is worth mentioning in my review as part of cross-sex friendships.


Pakeeza, Mohammad Haris, and Muhammad Sajjad. 2011. Workplace friendships and organizational outcomes. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business 3, (1): 667-679

Using questionnaire survey, Pakeeza et al conducted a study on workplace friendships and their real impact on the organizations overall performance. This research aimed to know what kinds of problems are created by workplaces friendships for the managers and how they deal with it. The analysis reveals that there is a strong relationship between friendships in the workplace and organizational outcomes. The result shows that most of the workers try to develop friendships in their own respected departments or with the people who are most doing the same task as him/ her. These friendships bring to the most of the respondents job satisfaction and they enjoy working with their co-workers. However the results was collected merely from floating questionnaires in different public and private sector universities, which is totally not representative of other industries. To the extent that this research is descriptive, results of this study provide insights into the importance of recognizing workplace friendships for firms and companies that operate in the educational sector.

In summary, it has to be admitted that the current study is still far from being conclusive. Further

studies must be undertaken, better measures must be developed, and larger samples must be used to improve our understanding concerning the exact relationship between friendship and organizational outcomes. This study, however, is worth mentioning in my literature review but will not form the basis for my research on “friendships in the workplace”.


Hirschhorn, Larry and Thomas Gilmore. 1992. “The New Boundaries of the “Boundaryless” Company.” Harvard Business Review, 104-104


The authors discuss in this article the emotional boundaries necessary for interpersonal relationships in the workplace.  Included are the authority boundary, task boundary, political boundary and identity boundary.  Because these boundaries are different from the traditional kind, they tend to be invisible to many managers. Knowing how to recognize these new boundaries and use them productively is the essence of management in the flexible organization where team work is of major importance.  The authors suggest managers use their own feelings as tools in thinking and managing.

This article is however not useful for my topic of “friendships in the workplace” as it more like a management tool for organizations acts. Hence it will be discarded.


Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1979. “Power Failure in Management Circuits.” Harvard Business Review, 65-65.


This article seeks to identify some of the causes of a feeling of powerlessness among specific groups within organizations.  These groups are first-line supervisors, staff professionals, and chief executive officers.  The author argues that each of these groups suffers from the common problems of lack of open channels to supplies, support, and information. Written for managers, CEO and academics, the author uses a case study to demonstrate that by sharing what power the individual members of these groups have they are able to thereby increase their own power, and the effectiveness of the organization.

The shortcomings of this article are its age (for example, the author devotes a section to the special problems of powerlessness felt by women managers), the fact that a model is provided which relies primarily upon logical analysis for support, and the fact that a single case study is cited as evidence.  On top of that, this article is about management power, which is totally unrelated to the topic of “Friendships in the Workplace” therefore not worth mentioning in my literature review. It will be discarded.




Generally, most authors and researchers conclude that friendships play an important role in the organization, and that it affects the organizational outcomes in a positive way. One can argue that, however, there are some negative impacts of workplace friendships such as gossips or office romance, these are manageable. It is interesting to also note that, in some countries, particularly Taiwan and China, supervisors have better workplace friendships than subordinates, due to the demand for performance and productivity within the team.





















Berman, Evan M., Jonathan P. West, and Maurice N. Richter. 2002. Workplace relations: Friendship patterns and consequences (according to managers). Public administration review 62, (2): 217-230


Chun-Te, Lin. 2010. Relationship between job position, job attributes, and workplace friendship: Taiwan and china. Journal of Technology Management in China 5, (1): 55-68


Dougherty, Thomas W., and Liviu Florea. 2008. The role of personality in employee developmental networks. Journal of Managerial Psychology 23, (6): 653-669


Elsesser, Kim, and Letitia Anne Peplau. 2006. The glass partition: Obstacles to cross-sex friendships at work. Human Relations 59, (8): 1077-1100


Hirschhorn, Larry and Thomas Gilmore. 1992. “The New Boundaries of the “Boundaryless” Company.” Harvard Business Review, 104-104


Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1979. “Power Failure in Management Circuits.” Harvard Business Review, 65-65.


Morrison, Rachel L. 2009. Are women tending and befriending in the workplace? gender differences in the relationship between workplace friendships and organizational outcomes. Sex Roles 60, (1-2): 1-13

Pakeeza, Mohammad Haris, and Muhammad Sajjad. 2011. Workplace friendships and organizational outcomes. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business 3, (1): 667-679

Sias, Patricia M., and Daniel J. Cahill. 1998. From coworkers to friends: The development of peer friendships in the workplace. Western Journal of Communication 62, (3): 273-299


Sias, Patricia M., Guy Smith, and Tatyana Avdeyeva. 2003. Sex and sex-composition differences and similarities in peer workplace friendship development. Communication Studies 54, (3): 322-340




THE ANNUAL REPORT OF NIKE INC help with history assignment: help with history assignment




What is your company?

The company is Nike, Inc

What does your company do or make?

Nike Inc is an American Multinational Corporation (MNC) engaged in designing, developing , manufacturing as well marketing of footwear,  and related accessories, equipments, apparel and services.

Who are the auditors of the financial statements?

Nike’s the auditors of the financial statements is PriceWaterhouseCoopers, LLP

Where does the company do business? In the US only or internationally?  In which countries does it operate?

Nike Inc is an American Multinational Corporation (MNC), and so operates internationally in various countries. It has 700 shops situated in 45 countries other than the US, most of them being in Asian countries like China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand among others, as wwell as in European countries like Germany, Greece among others.

What are the financial highlights of the current financial year?

The latest audited accounts are those of the Year Ending November 30, 2013, during which the company made a Total Revenue of $3,331,000, net profit of  $2,257,000 from recurrent operations, (46,000)from non-recurrent operations, net income of 2,211,000  .The tptal assets were valued at $7,584,000 and total liabilities at $3,926,00.

Does the company use a calendar year or fiscal year (their year ends on a date other than December 31st) for financial reporting purposes? What year is covered in the financial statements?

The company uses fiscal year for purposes of financial reporting. The 2013 report covered the period between June 1 2012 and May 31, 20.

Does the annual report list your company’s competitors? If so, what companies are mentioned?  If not, what companies do you think are your company’s competitors?

Yes, the competitors arte mentioned  and they include  adidasPuma, , V.F. Corp., Li Ning, as well as Under Armour .

Net sales = ?. Is this an increase or decrease compared to last year?  What is the dollar and % change?  Is there any discussion in the annual report about the change in sales? If so, elaborate

The sales were  $25,313,000 representing  an increment from 2012’s which was $23,331,000. This was 8.5% increment.

Net income = ?. Is this an increase or decrease compared to last year?  What is the dollar and % change?  Is there any discussion in the annual report about the change in sales? If so, elaborate.

The net income was $2,472,000, increase from the 2012 value which was  $ 2,211,000, representing 11.8%. The increase was attributed to increase customer base and ability to endure market competition.


Gross profit (or gross margin) = ? Is this an increase or decrease compared to last year?  What is the dollar and % change? 

The gross profit was $ 11,034,000, an increase from the 2012 value which was  $10,148,000. This represents 8.73% change in value.


State the inventory at the end of the year? Is this an increase or decrease compared to last year?  What is the dollar and % change? 


What inventory method does your company use? How do you know?


Compute Inventory turnover and average days inventory on hand for the most recent year? Show your computation.  How do the numbers look?
State the cash and cash equivalents amount? Is this an increase or decrease compared to last year?  What is the dollar and % change?
State the ending Accounts Receivable balance? Does the balance sheet show net receivables or does it also show the allowance account?
What method is used to record bad debt expense? How do you know?  (check the notes to the financial statements to answer this questions).
Property, plant and equipment = ? Is this an increase or decrease over the past year? What was the dollar and percentage change?
Depreciation expense = ? Accumulated depreciation = ?
What depreciation method does your company use to compute depreciation expense?
Besides accounts payable, what other types of accrued liabilities does your company report? Which is the largest liability other than accounts payable?
How many shares of common stock are issued and outstanding? How many shares of preferred stock are issued and outstanding?
Did your company issue any additional stock this year? How do you know?
Did your company pay dividends this year? If so, how much dividend was paid?
What is the ending balance in the retained earnings account?
Based upon the cash flow statement, how much did the company spend on new property, plant and equipment? Did the company sell any property, plant and equipment?
Based upon the cash flow statement, did your company issue new (or repay existing) liabilities? If so, how much?
Overall – Write a paragraph to provide any overall comments about the financial health of the company based on the FINANCIAL information provided above. Be sure to focus on any key financial observations reported above.  While optional, you may wish to look at Management’s Discussion and Analysis for additional insight or include anything else you believe is relevant. This question is equivalent to 4 questions.

UNDERSTANDING ABOUT RACE/ETHINICITY history assignment help and resources



(Author’s name)

(Institutional Affiliation)


Assignment One: Race

Race is defined as the classification of people into groups based on color shape and size. In most cases, this classification is influenced by culture and has been practiced since 1977 as part of a response to discrimination ( For that reason, when used in reference to people, race has been defined as being a member of a particular cultural community. Accordingly, in America, race is divided into six categories including American Indian, African American, Native Hawaiian, Asian, Hispanic, and White. Relevantly, if a person belongs to any of the above communities, he or she is said to being of that racial background. According to the information presented in part one to four of the PBS documents, it is evident that race has been an issue that has affected Americans throughout history. The first factor that is evident from these documents is that racial discrimination is still existent in America today. Additionally, the documents reveal certain issues such as the fact that the wealth acquired by Americans today is based on their racial identity, as opposed to, individual hard work (  Lastly, most Americans today are ignorant of the racial issues existing in their society, which plays a role in the existence of racial discrimination in the society.

The most surprising issues from these articles is the fact that racial discrimination still exists even in modern society. The American society is assumed to be the most democratic society in the world and the possibility of racial discrimination ended during the period of Martin Luther King. Having a holistic perspective on race allows individuals to respect each race, hence reducing the possibility of racial discrimination in society. Accordingly, having individual biological, socio-cultural, and historical perspectives regarding race will only allow people to have limited thoughts on race, which in turn, increases the possibility of racial discrimination in society.

Assignment Two: Significance of Anthropology

As a field of study, anthropology has been identified as being beneficial to the society at large. Not only does it assist academicians in understanding humanity and the human process, it also promotes the comprehension of the overall human society. Accordingly, anthropology results in more objectivity and critical thought regarding individual societies, cultures, and subcultures, as well as, the values, successes, and problems in each culture and society (Lewis, 1998).  This is because anthropology allows the study of the human being, which in turn, allows individuals understand humanity much better. Anthropology allows the understanding of the formulation of cultural values and beliefs, which is normally considered as a way of understanding certain human behavior and practices. Anthropology allows individuals to critique how and why communities behave the way they do, and accordingly act in a particular manner. Communities and societies are exposed, thus allowing the comprehension of the way of life for those belonging to these communities (Harris, 1997). Additionally, anthropology encourages understanding of the various classifications of groups in particular cultures, thus the formation of sub-cultures. It allows comprehension of the determinants for these classification and groupings, as well as, the different applications in the societies through which they can be applied.

Assignment Three: Challenges of Anthropology

The ways in which anthropology is practiced today is far much different and complicated than it was in the past. This is because the anthropological process has changed from how it was practiced in the past, making it hard for anthropologists to conduct ethnographic research, thus affect understanding of anthropology. Anthropologists today face various challenges, which have in turn affected how the human being and his society can be understood. One of the problems faced by anthropologists today regards native anthropologists, who when carrying out ethnographic research may be forced into providing biased anthropological information. Native anthropologists are not equipped with the necessary knowledge to provide commentary on ethnographic data that is outside of their ethnographic background (Price, 2004).

Another problem facing anthropology today regards globalization and the increased economic, physical, and cultural connectedness of societies. Though this may not appear as an anthropological problem at first sight, it is considered as one of the greatest problems of anthropology today. Globalization has led to the dissolution of the uniqueness of most communities today, as people believe in letting go of their cultural differences and embracing the global community (Price, 2004). This has, in turn, forced communities to let go of the cultural values and beliefs that make them unique, thus making it hard for anthropologists to conduct proper ethnographic research.  Another problem that has been associated with anthropology revolves around ethics when conducting ethnographic research. Just like all other field, anthropology has faced a problem of ethics, whereby ethnographic researchers have been accused of carrying out various unethical practices during field study. Accordingly, unethical anthropological practices have been carried out as a result of the fact that ethnographic research relies on human data that is easy to manipulate. Relevantly, another challenge that has been identified in relation to anthropology is unequal power relationships, which comes as a result of postmodernism (Price, 2004). The last challenge that has been associated with anthropology is andocentric bias, which refers to the emphasis of the male point of view in research, as opposed to, the unification of research finding in studies.


Assignment Four: Communicative Behavior

This study was carried out at Walmart, which is one of the busiest shopping centers in America. This particular retail store was chosen because it has a considerable number of customers visiting the premises on a daily basis, thus providing the necessary data required for the study. The study was conducted during on a Saturday afternoon, a time which the store receives the largest number of customers, thus making it the busiest time of the week for the retail store.  During this time, there is plenty of traffic for the retail store, as many customers, all of different gender, age, and racial background, visit the store to purchase one or two products for their homes. Observably, most shoppers were shopping in groups, with the fewer numbers of shoppers engaging in purchasing activities on their own.  Accordingly, the study observed various similar and different communicative behaviors between men and women shoppers. One of the observations was the fact that men tended to shop on their own, as opposed to shopping in groups. Additionally, men who shopped in groups were mostly in the company of children suggesting that they are parents, or elder siblings to the children. Women, on the other hand, had a greater tendency of shopping as a group. They were also observed to be in the company of children once in a while, hence the possibility of parenthood.

Male shoppers were observed to engage in very minimal communication with each other during the shopping spree, and the longest form of communication was during the actual purchase of goods at the counter. Women , on the other hand communicated frequently with each other at all times during the shopping spree with most of the conservations regarding other issues not related to the shopping spree. The observed communicative behaviors between the different shoppers at Walmart sequentially allow various conclusions to be drawn regarding gendered communicative behaviors. Conclusively, in terms of learning culture, this assignment demonstrates the different ways in which culture is learned and performed throughout one’s life.

Assignment Five: Language

Language, culture, and social identities have all been linked together in anthropological studies. Accordingly, one of the results of this linkage is the identification of the English language as the main language for Americans, thus forcing the American population to learn the language (Crawford, 2007). However, this identification has met a number of challenges from both critics and American communities who believe that because America is made up of various communities, it should, therefore consider the possibility of multilingualism as a representation  of the various communities that the state houses. Some of the arguments in support of linguistic diversity include the concept that it represents all the communities making up the society, thus allowing them to feel as though they are part of the society.

Another argument in support of multilingualism is that it reduces racial and ethnic discrimination, as communities who do not speak a similar language as the rest do not feel as though they do not belong (Crawford, 2007).  Contrastingly, the arguments against linguistic diversity state that multilingualism does not support national unity, which is the downfall of most nations. The issue of multilingualism invokes strong feelings for some individuals because language is part and parcel of cultural identity, which if taken away from them, would impact their identification in the society. Most critics argue that all bilingual countries experience dissent and a lack of national unity (Crawford, 2007). However, this is not the case, as others have used this multilingualism to promote unity through the representation of all members of the society.  Accordingly, based on the ideas presented in each of the arguments regarding multilingualism, it is safe to say that the anthropological community would support the application of multilingualism, because it recognizes all the different communities that make up a particular society.

Assignment Six: Family Organization

Based on the information gathered from this unit regarding anthropological issues and factors in society, the concept of the family remains the centre of all anthropological knowledge.  Additionally, various examples of the family structure are provided in Nanda and Warms, thus allowing further comprehension on the concept of family in anthropology. Various factors are highlighted in relation to family organization including geographical proximity, economic dependence, and division of labor. These can sequentially be utilized for the analysis of the family on a personal level.

Geographical proximity/household structure

My family is a family of five comprising of a father, mother, brother, and two sisters. The parents and their two daughters live together, whereas the son as moved out of the family house and is living about three hours away from the family. The reason for the son’s  geographic distance is mainly because of work, and also because he believes that he should start his family far away from their home for better parenting and minimal family interference.  In relation to my parents’ immediate family, my family lives very far away from them, with most of them living in a different town from each other.

Economic dependence/independence

Apart from the youngest daughter who is still in high school, the rest of the family members work, with the parents having the responsibility of providing for the family. The oldest daughter supports the family in case they need help, but most of the time is not tasked with the responsibility of providing for the family.

Division of labor

Labor in our family is divided along gender lines in that, the males in the family perform duties that are considered masculine, whereas the females perform feminine duties.

Evidently, my family setting is much different from my parent’s family’s setting during their time. This is because, the roles of family members were much different during their time, thus affecting their family organizations.

Assignment Seven: Gender

Anthropology and ethnographic studies cannot be considered as comprehensive without the consideration of gender and its influence in anthropology. Essentially, the concept of gender has been considered from two main perspectives including the biological and the cultural perspectives (Basow, 1994). The biological perspective defines gender in terms of the different biological characteristics possessed by men and women. The cultural perspective, on the other hand, defines gender based on the cultural perception that the society holds regarding men and women. The term gender role refers to the different duties and responsibilities assigned to the different genders that are existent in society today. As most would assume, gender roles vary biologically and culturally, with most cultures defining different gender roles for their communities (Basow, 1994). Whereas biological gender roles are similar across all cultures and may include giving birth, cultural gender roles differ from one another with the similarity being minimal across cultures.

Another term that is common to anthropological studies is gender stereotype, which refers to the classification of the different genders in terms of their behavior. Also used synonymously with gender discrimination, gender stereotyping is used to define the different perceptions people have regarding a particular gender, and why they would choose one gender over the other at any given time (Basow, 1994). It is the belief that a particular gender behaves and thinks in a particular manner, which in turn affects how that gender is viewed in the society.  Conclusively, gender hierarchy is another term that is significant and common to anthropological studies.  It refers to the chain of command that is characteristic of gender such as in the family setting where the father is seen as the breadwinner.

Assignment Eight: Anthropological Approaches to Consumer Behavior

Based on the case studies presented in their website, it is evident that the anthropological approaches embraced by this organizations range from language and signage, and consumer culture for the sale of their products and services. Specifically the organization has used packaging, building design, technology and the integration of pet shopping, as part of their strategies to increase sales for the company. In essence, their anthropological approach can be defined as anthropology to economic behavior, which has benefited the company in various ways (  Based on the information presented on their website, it is clear that the company has embraced the use of anthropologists in the determination of the various approaches to be used for the promotion of sales. This, in turn, illustrates the significance of anthropologists in consumer behavior.

Assignment Nine: World Civilizations

Based on the information provided in the Pearson Longman companion website, there are various world civilizations, all of which attained their civilization at a different time from the other. For this assignment, two world civilizations have been chosen including Rome and America. Both these states achieved their civilization at a different time form the other with the difference being only a few decades apart. Whereas Roman civilization was first recorded in years as early as 510 B.C.E., evidence of American civilization has bee traced back to 2000 BC (Pearson Longman Companion). The differences between these two civilizations is further illustrated in their economic structures, political systems, warfare and conflict, as well as, laws and social regulations. In relation to economic or subsistence strategy structure, the Roman economy was unequal in most of the period that characterized the Roman Empire.  The northern parts of the empire were the most uneconomically productive, whereas Greece and the other parts of the empire yielded the best economic results for this empire(Pearson Longman Companion).

Economically, the Roman society was divided between noble landowners, town dwellers, and the rural populace. The American civilization, on the other hand, was much different from the Roman civilization in that it was not solely dependent on the state citizens for its civilization. Because America was developed from the migration and settling of various ethnic communities into the state, the economic structures were divided between the land owners and the slaves. The Roman political and leadership system was autocratic with the Roman republic being charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order in the region (Pearson Longman Companion). The American civilization, on the other hand, embraced a similar authoritative system of governance with those in  charge being the influential land owners, as well as, other rich people in the state. Roman and American Warfare and conflict is differentiated in the choice of nations that each civilization chose to engage in warfare.

Assignment Ten: Poverty

All of the following information should be for the city where your primary residence is and be as current as possible.

Please note what city you are using here: ___________________________________________

General – for your city:

Average household income (also called median household income):_______________________

Average individual income (or per capita income):_____________________________________

Poverty rate:___________________________________________________________________

Unemployment rate:_____________________________________________________________

Average home price (also called median home price):___________________________________

Current state minimum wage:______________________________________________________

US poverty threshold for a family of 1:______________________________________________


B1. Look at the classified ads and list an assortment of the wages are being offered for jobs that do not require extensive experience in the following occupations:

Retail sales:____________________________________________________________________

Housekeeper (hotel or domestic):___________________________________________________

Restaurant service:______________________________________________________________

Secretarial/administrative assistant/clerical/office:_____________________________________

Construction or handy work:______________________________________________________


B2. Calculate the following earnings for work at a level just below that of full-time (38 hours, as fulltime employees are often given benefits and companies prefer to minimize benefit expenditures):

(Current state minimum wage + 3.50) x 38 = _____________________ weekly wages

Weekly wages x 4.33 = ________________________ monthly gross earnings

Monthly gross earnings x .10 = _____________________ in taxes

Monthly gross earnings – taxes = ____________________ after tax net monthly earnings

After tax net monthly earnings x 12 = _______________________net yearly earnings

How does this compare to the wages being offered in part B1? Mark one:

Higher ______ Lower ________ About right _______

Basic expenditures – Shelter, transportation, food, clothing:

Rent for a 1 bedroom apartment:___________________________________________________

Utilities (phone, gas/electric, water, trash – whatever is not included in rent):________________

Monthly car payment on a dependable, economy vehicle:________________________________

Monthly car insurance:___________________________________________________________

Gasoline costs for one month (based on driving 15 miles per day to work round-trip, 5 days week):________________________________________________________________________

Monthly costs for medical insurance premium:________________________________________

Estimated monthly food costs (tip: keep your grocery and other food receipts for a week and multiply by 4.33):_______________________________________________________________

Monthly clothing expenses (including purchases and laundry costs):_______________________

TOTAL OF ALL MONTHLY EXPENDITURES: _____________________________________

AFTER TAX MONTHLY EARNINGS (from Part B2): ________________________________

How do these two figures compare?_________________________________________________

Poverty is defined as the state of having little or no money or material possessions to maintain the normal living conditions for a person or a family. In most cases, poverty is defined as living being incapable of supporting oneself in terms of meeting the daily needs and requirements. For that reason, individuals who are deemed as poor as the ones who lack access to one or all of the basic needs including food shelter and clothing. However, the modern definition of the poor person is one who lives below the dollar, that is, on a daily basis. The rationale behind such definitions is that poor people do not have access to similar things like everyone else. Different from the term poor, the term, middle class refers to the social and economic class that falls between the upper class and the lower class. The upper class defines the rich, and the people who have access to a surplus of the daily needs and requirements. The lower class, which is also defined as poor defines those that do not have access to basic necessities. Accordingly, the middle class defines those have enough money to sustain their attainment of basic needs and requirements.

Assignment Eleven: Ethnic Conflict

The term ethnic conflict is defined as conflict between two ethic groups, which normally results in wars. Ethnic conflicts have been existent in society throughout history as ethnic groups fight for identification and recognition in their respective societies (Monica, 2003). One of the most current ethnic conflicts in society today involves the conflict in Ethiopia-Somalia conflict that is about five years old. The conflict between the two has been associated with land disputes, especially issues related to the border line as the two states are both interested in extending the border so that they can increase the land for their countries.

As presented in the media, the conflict has been linked with the need for colonization and taking over each country by its rival. Accordingly, most people, are therefore, led to believe that the two states are interested in colonizing each other when in essence they want to expand their boundaries (Monica, 2003). The immediate results of this conflict have been identified as the mass deaths of the two ethnic communities represented in each country. Additionally, another consequence of these two conflicts is the formation of destructive militia groups that instead of bringing peace to the countries, they increase unrest, chaos and insecurity in the countries. Anthropologists would define this conflict as a conflict of racial identity and sustenance, whereby the two communities seek to make out themselves as the superior ethnic community over the other. The fight for land is, therefore, a way of assuring the communities of resources for their community, as opposed to the colonization of the other state.

Assignment Twelve:

Type of item
Brand of Item
Approximate Cost of Item
Country where it was made

4 Years +

1.      Coat

2.      Athletic Shoes

3.      Bag

4.      Hat

5.      T-shirt
1.      Mark and Spencer

2.      Addidas

3.      D&G

4.      New Look

5.      Madonna
1.      $78

2.      $100

3.      $200

4.      $65

5.      $20
1.      Malaysia

2.      Japan

3.      China

4.      Taiwan

5.      India

1 Year or Less
1.      Dress

2.      Jeans

3.      Scarf

4.      Skirt

5.      Sandals
1.      Chloe

2.      Levi’s

3.      Mark Jacobs

4.      Chanel

5.      Jimmy Choo
1.      $250

2.      $175

3.      $100

4.      $99

5.      $200
1.      USA

2.      USA

3.      Japan

4.      China

5.      China

Part 2:


GDP (Gross Domestic Product)

$4.34 Trillion
$7.998 Trillion
$400 Billion
$3.304 Trillion
$714.7 Billion

GDP per capita (per person)

Telecommunications, Food Processing, Consumer Goods
Automobile, Electronics, Textiles, Processed Food
Mining, Automobile, Telecommunications
Manufacturing, Mining, Agriculture Processing, Petroleum Production and Refining
Textile, Chemicals, Food Processing, Mining, Transportation, Manufacturing
Electronics, manufacturing, Petroleum refining, Textiles, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Consumer Products,

$1.277 Trillion
$746.5 Trillion
$1.435 Trillion
$200.7 Billion
$187.9 Billion
$254.9 Billion

Export partners
Canada, Mexico, China, Japan, Germany, UK
US, China, South Korea, Hong Kong
U.S, Japan, South Korea, Germany
Singapore, US, Japan, China, Thailand, Hong Kong
US, UAE, China
China, US, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore

Total population

Poverty rate %

Day of Independence
4th July 1776
1 October 1949
31 August 1957
15 August 1947
10 October 1911


Assignment Thirteen: Western Models vs. Anthropological Perspectives

Western models of economic development are modernization refers to the modern or western definition of civilization as understood by man. With this definition of civilization, individuals are made to believe that civilization is a consequence of economic and industrial development, as opposed to other factors (Wallerstein, 2003). The anthropological perspectives on development, on the other hand, defines civilization from a different perspective including the integration or mergence of people and communities. In this perspective, civilization is seen as the result of the development of new communities as opposed to economic development. Anthropologists critique the western models because these models do not consider the human role in civilization. Instead, they examine the role of trade and industrialization, which do not necessarily present the actual factors that led to the civilization of countries and states. When civilization is considered from an anthropological perspectives, one can see how anthropology can change human understanding on what goes on around them. Additionally, an anthropological perspective will allow individuals to anticipate possible future civilizations that will come about as a result of human involvement and association. Evidently, anthropological perspectives are crucial for almost all aspects of human lives and can be used to explain some of the factors that occur in society today.

Assignment Fourteen: Making a Difference Through Anthropology

Anthropology, as a scholastic and an practical discipline, can influence the world in terms of appreciating the human experience, as well as, improving the human state through research and appliance (Nanda & Warms, 2010). As illustrated in their book, Nanda and Warm provide various ways through which anthropology can be used to help improve the lives of human beings, thus increasing the value of live for most people. In the case of AIDS prevention, anthropology seeks to figure out the various ways in which the problem of HIV/AIDS can be eradicated from the countries that the disease mostly affects (Nanda & Warms, 2010). Accordingly, anthropological research carried out on the spread of HIV/AIDS in countries will be focused on the role of the human mind in the spread of the disease.

Specifically, anthropological research, in such a case, will look at the human and culture based influences that have led to the spread of the disease in the different societies it affects. Anthropological research will examine how the different cultures of people living in these communities translate into the prevalence of the disease, as well as, how to manipulate these cultures into the eradication of the disease (Nanda & Warms, 2010). This is different from other approaches such as the economic model that links the economic stature of societies with the spread of certain diseases such as HIV/AIDS.  Accordingly, there are various other problems that could benefit from anthropological research such as poverty, and ethnic conflict among other things. Anthropological research can be used to define the cultural and human influences of these problems, as well as, the different ways in which they can be solved.

















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