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American Dream in Edward Albee’s Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf

In the final act of Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Honey apologetically and drunkenly explains that she has peeled the label off her brandy bottle. To this, George replies, “We all peel labels, sweetie: and when you get through the skin, all three layers, through the muscle, slosh aside the organs, and get down to bone, you still haven’t got all the way, yet. There’s something inside the bone… the marrow… and that’s what you gotta get at.” In a play blending realism and absurdism, Edward Albee peels off the institutions and values that Americans held and hold dear, such as family, beauty, marriage, success, religion, and education. With blackly humorous ridicule and through critical analysis, Albee suggests that these institutions, traditionally comprising the “American dream,” have been desperately created to escape reality. Ultimately, however, he shows us that reality continues to pervasively lurk not far beneath the surface that we have slapped over it, almost as if threatening to eat up the very thing with which we suppress it.

Even before an analysis of Albee’s dramatic action, the location itself sets the scene for a study of American society. Albee sets his play in the fictitious New England town of New Carthage, alluding to the ancient civilization of Carthage, which for thousands of years flourished, but was permanently conquered by the Romans. The name is not coincidental, as George refers to New Carthage as “Penguin Island,” a mythical island destroyed by capitalism in a novel by Anatole France, and as “Gomorrah,” the city in the Bible that was destroyed, along with Sodom, for its wickedness. (40) The allusion invites parallels to our own country, which, at the time facing the threat of communism, not only face…

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…an philosopher. “And the west, encumbered by crippling alliances, and burdened with a morality too rigid to accommodate itself to the swing of events, must… eventually… fall.” (174) Albee suggests that, behind the façade of the American dream, behind the pretense of American ideals, behind the false front of the tranquility of American society in the early 60’s, America’s internal corruption and emptiness threatened, and perhaps continue to threaten, the country with a similar fall.

Work Cited

Albee, Edward. Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Rev. ed. New York: Dramatists Play Service, 2005. Print.

Works Consulted

Clurman, Harold. “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?” Edward Albee: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. C.W.E. Bigsby. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall 1975. 76-79

Hirsch, Foster. Who’s Afraid of Edward Albee? Berkeley: Creative Arts, 1978.

Oedipus Rex – The Characterization

Oedipus Rex – The Characterization

Sophocles’ tragic drama, Oedipus Rex, presents to the reader a full range of characters: static and dynamic, flat and round; they are protrayed mostly through the showing technique.

Thomas Van Nortwick in Oedipus: The Meaning of a Masculine Life describes Oedipus as he is seen at the opening of the drama, as a father to his Theban citizens:

In his opening words to the pathetic crowd of suppliants, Oedipus invokes images meant to reassure. As ruler, he is a father to Thebes and its citizens, and like a father he will take care of his “children.” We see already the supreme self-confidence and ease of command in Oedipus, who can address not only other people’s children as his own, but also be a father to men older than he is (21-22).

As protagonist, Oedipus is at the center of the story. The dialogue, action and motivation revolve about the characters in the story (Abrams 32-33). Werner Jaeger in “Sophocles’ Mastery of Character Development” pays the dramatist Sophocles the very highest compliment with regard to character development:

The ineffaceable impression which Sophocles makes on us today and his imperishable position in the literature of the world are both due to his character-drawing. If we ask which of the men and women ofGreek tragedy have an independent life in the imagination apart from the stage and from the actual plot in which they appear, we must answer, ‘those created by Sophocles, above all others’ (36).

Surely it can be said of Sophocles’ main characters that they grow beyond the two dimensional aspect into really rounded physical presences. This is done through mostly the showing technique, though the chorus…

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…ublishers, 1999.

Benardete, Seth. “Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus.” In Sophocles: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Thomas Woodard. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966.

Ehrenberg, Victor. “Sophoclean Rulers: Oedipus.” In Twentieth Century Interpretations of Oedipus Rex, edited by Michael J. O’Brien. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968.

Jaeger, Werner. “Sophocles’ Mastery of Character Development.” In Readings on Sophocles, edited by Don Nardo. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1997.

Sophocles. Oedipus Rex. Transl. by F. Storr. no pag. new?tag=public

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