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The Juxtaposition of Confucianism history assignment help and resources: history assignment help and resources
Professor Mengjun Li
EALC 350 (25307)
23 October 2017
Compare the attitude towards human nature in Confucianism and Legalism (e.g. Han Feizi). What are the implications of these attitudes for other aspects of their philosophy, such as education and government?
The Juxtaposition of Confucianism and Legalism Amidst the chaos and political turmoil characteristic of the Warring States period in Chinese history, Confucianism and Legalism arose as two prominent and competing schools of thought. These two ideologies differed in their sociopolitical viewpoint, as well as in their methodology of achieving their version of a perfect society. However, they were alike in that they both investigated the meanings of a stable society…show more content…
In order to achieve such a lofty goal, he advocated for government that ruled with morality and virtue, instead of punishment and forceful suppression. From the Analects, the viewpoints and values of Confucianism towards human nature mentioned prior are made clear. Confucius urged ethical and virtuous behavior, and believed a responsible government was a moral obligation of mankind. Such values are readily observed in the Analects, such as in the quote, “The Master said, ‘If a minister makes his own conduct correct, what difficulty will he have in assisting in government? If he cannot rectify himself, what has he to do with rectifying others?’” (Analects 13:13). Another excerpt from the Analects that exemplifies Confucius’s perspective of moral conduct driving humanity is as follows: “The Master said, ‘Guide them with policies and align them with punishments and the people will evade them and have no shame. Guide them with virtue and align them with li and the people will have a sense of shame and fulfill their roles’” (Analects 2:3). This first part of this quote will be important when we analyze the main beliefs of Legalism. Lastly, there is no better example of the universality of Confucius’s attitude towards human nature than in the “golden” rule. When Confucius is asked if there is a concept that can be taken as a guide for the
Formative And Summative Teacher ap history essay help
The topic of teacher evaluation encompasses the interactions of two separate pairs of variables. Two of those variables, formative and summative evaluation, pertain to the actual evaluation itself, whereas the other two, teachers and administrators, involve the professionals who take part in the evaluation process. The reader may recall from the preceding section that the prevailing literature contains certain perspectives and recommendations with regard to evaluative practices. First, formative teacher evaluation ought to provide teachers with the necessary feedback to improve their instruction, whereas summative teacher evaluation, by contrast, represents an appraisal of a teacher’s overall professional competence (Seyfarth, 2008; Glickman, Gordon & Ross-Gordon, 2014). Because the purposes of these two types of evaluation are so different, the recommendation in the literature is that they ought to be kept distinct and separate from one another (Seyfarth, 2008; Marzano, 2012; Glickman, Gordon & Ross-Gordon, 2014). Nevertheless, prevailing practice appears to be trending in precisely the opposite direction, where school districts and states employ a single evaluation instrument, typically based on the Danielson Framework, to serve the purposes of both formative and summative teacher evaluations concurrently (“PR Newswire,” 2011). Consequently, this study is structured to determine the degree to which one particular blended system is able to serve both formative and
Plan for Evaluating and Improving Formative history essay help: history essay help
FIdentification and Discussion of Key Issues To create a new paradigm for teacher evaluation requires identification and understanding of the key issues involved in these evaluations. Evaluations meet state mandates, teacher development, identification of ineffective teachers, and promotions. Many states mandate the career teachers are required to be evaluated once per year. This evaluation generally is in the form of a summative evaluation. A summative evaluation is not the recommended evaluation to improve teacher performance. Formative evaluations are the preferred evaluation methods used for increasing teacher performance (Glickman, Gordon, & Ross-Gordon 2009). Formative evaluations can take place over several different observations…show more content…
Personality conflicts between supervisors and teachers can also hamper the evaluation process. Administrators in this position could be too harsh and give an unfair evaluation or even too lax in fear that the conflict will be seen and that conflict will be an excuse for a poor evaluation. Description of specific elements that should be included The team should include specific elements in the plan that will address the complex nature of teacher evaluations in an objective manner, yet be able to dig deeper into the process so that real teaching can be measured. Multiple observations, self evaluations, multiple data sources, and pre and post conferences should be included in the plan. Multiple observations and self evaluations will give a broader view of the teacher’s performance. We need to include these items in the plan to avoid a narrow snapshot view of teaching so that an accurate evaluation can be obtained. A pre conference gives the administrator the opportunity to establish a positive relationship with the teacher. This is the time to put the teacher at ease and allow the teacher to explain any activities the principal will observe during the evaluation process. The best approach to being able to rate an activity that is generally seen as subjective is to use a rubric. The evaluator should make the teacher aware of the rubric that will be used for the rating the evaluation during this conference. The rubric should have multiple levels
ormative And Summative Teacher Evaluation
Data On Student Learning And Development Of Students do my history homework
PART II: CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Literature review
In education, the term “assessment” refers to the wide variety of methods or tools that educators use to evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, skill acquisition, or educational needs of students.
Assessment involves the use of empirical data on student learning to refine programs and improve student learning. (Assessing Academic Programs in Higher Education by Allen 2004)
Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the process…show more content…
(Assessment Essentials: planning, implementing, and improving assessment in higher education by Palomba and Banta 1999)
Assessment can be used for different purposes in education. This is reflected in Wiggins and McTighe’s (2005) definition of assessment as “the act of determining the extent to which the desired results are on the way to being achieved and to what extent they have been achieved”. Even in this simple definition, two different purposes are identified: looking at results as completed and looking at results as in process.
Assessment is commonly divided into two types that relate to these two purposes: summative and formative assessment (Chappuis & Chappuis, 2008). Summative assessment is designed primarily to document what students know, that is, what has been achieved in the instructional endeavor. This is how assessment has been most often used, as the “processes of evaluating the effectiveness of a sequence of instructional activities when the sequence was completed” (Wiliam, 2011, p. 3). Formative assessment is designed primarily to deliver information during the instructional process to help make decisions about what actions will promote further learning (Chappuis & Chappuis, 2008). This distinction has been referred to by Stiggins (2002) as assessment of learning (i.e., summative) versus assessment for learning (i.e., formative). It should be noted that Newton (2007) suggested three purposes for the use of assessment: judgment,