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A PROJECT ON PHARMACEUTICALS IN SCIENCE. History Assignment Help Writing Services

Background to the project

The background study of this project focuses on a diversified pharmaceutical, chemicals and life sciences group founded in 1668 under a single brand owner Merck KGaA. The 350+-year-old company is headquartered in Darmstadt, Germany with approximately 52,000 employees around the world with Germany and North America hosting the highest number of employees. Following the new rebranding as Merck, the single brand targets innovative positions in science and technology as a transformative change from the old brand of only pharmaceutical and chemicals.

The company, towards celebrating its 350th anniversary, had invested in several projects of architectural designs, innovative science and other programs initiated under One Global Headquarters. The programs constituted a total of $200 million investments at Darmstadt. The program was headed by internal managers, Steven and Mark whose main focus was developing a good strategy and governance. The two managers worked together with the company’s management team of experts to oversee the high number of projects.

Specifically, Mark and Steven had put more weight on relationship management as one crucial element in project development. In their way, a methodology of dealing with relationship challenges such as information asymmetry and opportunistic behaviours were addressed. Besides, the team hired external experts in cases of the inadequacy of internal personnel to stay in control of the project goals. Currently, Merck pharmaceuticals stand as the oldest world’s company of the kind with several offices within American society. The success of this company is pegged on good management relationships over the many years of its existence.


Reasons for the project

The sole reason behind starting the new projects at Darmstadt is parallel to the celebrations of 350 years of service and the rebranding activities that has witnessed a change in the products offered from dealing with only pharmaceuticals and chemicals to including innovative science and technological transformations. The projects, for instance, the architectural projects were to convey strong messages to customers, consumers, partners and the community among the employees themselves the step taken by the company in the involvement of innovative and technological transformation. Again, the projects oversaw adjustment to employee restaurant centres in Darmstadt with the development of innovative programs at the heart of the projects.

Project objectives

The main goal of this project stems from the two managers worry on management relationships, that in their own opinion, needs to be addressed with immediate effect. The following are objected towards the success of the project.

First, determining and levelling of concealment of negative potential outcomes. The management is interested in putting aside, by all means, any possible negative outcomes.
Secondly, the degree of goal conflict among the managing team
Determining and dealing with opportunistic behaviours within the company and during the project implementation.
Determining the level of trust among internal employees and externally hired experts.
Determining and enhancing the information asymmetry within the project worktime.


Constraints, limitations and risks

The project implementation faces several constraints that are related to the activities and the management system. These include external and internal factors that may limit the normal functioning of the management system. The following limitations and risks are identified in the case of establishing projects for the Merck Company in Darmstadt.

Construction is highly fragmented in Europe’s leading construction market, posing a difficulty in management and running of activities of the project.
Secondly, poor management and execution processes within the company cause low rates of employment and employee management. This affects the company by lowering the profit and revenue curve
Inadequacy in design processes. As an innovative and architectural development, the company must not run short of designs.
Underinvestment in skills. The failure to recognize the internal employees and expertise while employing external experts leads to more wages on labour.
Low labour productivity
Insufficient skills.

The above limitations have led to mismatches in risk allocations, and rewards, often leading to poor experience on buyers and customers. Market failures and other external environmental factors also are identified as limitations. For instance, the countries legal matters on revenue and business practice, political factors that pose threat to the marketing world. Also, economically, the community class directly affects the buying and selling habit of customers.

However, the construction sector faces challenges of resource allocation and raw acquiring of raw materials. In most cases, the fluctuating prices between companies pose a threat to developing a strategy towards delivery and management. Finally, it has been argued severally, that the contractors and partners in a project should be fully involved as early as possible to avoid delay in implementation.

Leadership structure (project manager and his or her senior aides: list the roles and explain what each does in the project. You need to cite 4 roles)


1.      Steven
·         Project and program manager, overall foreseeing on all other departments.

·         30 years of experience

·         Chemical Engineer- PhD

·         Responsible for R&D

·         In charge of construction and organizational projects

2.      Mark
·         A qualified architect

·         A career in the construction industry

3.      Claire
·         Claire takes charge of the innovation centre and employee restaurant management.

·         A qualified architecture with over 20 years of experience earning her the trust to be lobbied assignment in the sector of innovation.

4.      Peter
·         The architect’s project leader

·         Responsible for designing the buildings

·         Also, construction management

5.      John
·         Structural engineer

·         The task with the responsibility of ensuring Peter’s designs is feasible and affordable.

·         Heads the Berlin office as the head of construction

6.      Paul
·         A civil engineer

·         Supports John

7.      Frank
·         Procurement manager

8.      Lilian
·         Quantity surveyor

·         Externally hired expert


Project risks and their mitigation

Mitigation is a strategic risk corresponding processes which aim at reducing the probability of negative results to a project. The goal of mitigation should focus on providing solutions to negative impacts on a project. For instance, in a construction company, often, to reduce the rate of material loss and damages, the firms are advised on employing external security personnel to be in charge of the equipment. In general, mitigating project risk in companies involve applying the following arrest factors to reduce the redundancy in the project. Therefore, the project managers have the responsibility of employing the right team, clarifying the requirements, building an effective communication system and having a plan B.

Steve and Mark are torn between bidding through competitive tendering or moving forward with other methods that are more civilized. Competitive tendering would most likely cause conflict and rivalry.  Later in the future, the corporate may suffer repercussions that may or may not be irreversible. Steve and Mark can however opt for ways that were less competitive but would be less friendly to the corporate but would maintain a good relationship with other corporates. They are trying to come up with a permanent solution.

They identified and evaluate all the possible concerns that they may encounter during acquiring the appropriate contractor. Some of the concerns may cause the contractor and client to rub shoulders. Such concerns had to be addressed before entering into a contract with the contactors. Both partied have to openly state what they expect during the contractual period to ensure that the result is achieved. Steven and Mark checked out the risks that would arise in the course of construction and ensured that they were all eliminated. Some of these risks would cause delays and that had to be avoided at all cost.

The project plan is too difficult to set up. The whole structure is too complicated to build. It requires a professional with two different expertise to achieve the expected result. The floor itself is made of steel hence would require a metalsmith and concrete which would require a masonry. It looks a little less complex on paper but quite difficult when it came to building the structure. Finding a professional who is specialized in both fields can be challenging. For the structure to be efficient there should be no mistake made during construction. At this point money as a factor is out of the question. Steven and Mark might decide that they will not take the risk of entrusting the contract on just anyone who claims to have some expertise in metalwork and stonework, it requires an experienced professional. Both of them might come into an agreement that they will evaluate the contractor and ensure that he is up to the task. This will surely build trust between the contractor and Steven and Mark. They would ensure that the contractor fully understands the complexity of the structure and what was required of them.

Steven and Mark discover that some materials that they were to used were outdated and could no longer be used during construction. Since they are out of time and the plan to construct the structure was already in motion, they have to find a solution to the problem as soon as possible. They decide that they would resolve the problem once and for all during the procurement process. They agreed that they would revisit the situation shortly. Both of them were optimistic that this decision would solve the risks and hence cut the cost spent on the construction of the structure.

Project stakeholders and how to interact with them

Project stakeholders are people actively involved either directly or indirectly in the activities of the project and are negatively or negatively affected. The stakeholders have an impact on the results of the project. At any given project, apart from the manager, the management team, customers, suppliers, contractors and government are classified as stakeholders.

Reviewing the case of Merck’s Company, currently undertaking a construction and rebranding project, several parties are involved in one way or the other. The involved parties form the stakeholder list. The engagement team of One Global Headquarters are the key stakeholders in this project. The individuals include the aforementioned experts, exclusive of Steve and Mark. The likes of Peter, John, Paul, Frank, Lilian the quantity surveyor and Claire are all-inclusive of the stakeholder. In addition to the management team, externally hired experts and supplier companies are stakeholders. The government in charge of giving directives and ensuring legal matters are also key stakeholders to the Darmstadt project.

How to interact with project stakeholders

Engagement with stakeholders is a key component in project management. To achieve effective project implementation, there lies a need to interact and professionally engage with stakeholders. The following are some factors to be considered as ways of engaging project stakeholders.

Early identification of stakeholders
Get the stakeholders talking to each other
Seeking to understand before understood
Engaging stakeholders in estimates
Building a professional communication strategy through frequent visits, meetings, pieces of training and communications.

The vision of the project and the type of project team culture you wish to promote in your team

A strong culture shapes the vision, mission and objectives of a project through effective decision making, pattern involvement, actions, behaviour control and other factors. How a project is implemented closely relates to the kind of results and expectations at the end of the project. Cultural awareness is important among project managers. The values, beliefs and behaviours in an organization determine and shapes an organization’s vision. Talking about an organizational culture simply refers to the personality of an organization witnessed in the conduct of the members. A strong culture generates commitment and competency in an organization.

The leadership of Merck Company insists on creating a crucial management relationship among the team members. A culture of good relationship encourages teamwork among employees. In this manner, the culture of collaboration is promoted among workers. Ironing out incompetency behaviours, discrimination, conflict of interest among other negative cultures. Therefore, the Merck Company’s leadership is determined in achieving a collaborative team of workers and stakeholders, who will efficiently deliver.

Common Symptoms of the Supply Chain Process history assignment help writing services: history assignment help writing services


Common Symptoms of the Supply Chain Process




Common Symptoms of the Supply Chain Process

In a business environment, the supply chain is critical in ensuring that the products produced by a business reach the consumers in time, and the raw materials that the business requires for its production processes reach the company on time. However, there are instances where there could be inefficiencies in the supply chain that might not manifest in good time for the executives to take remedial action (Leukel & Sugumaran, 2019). In such cases, it is important that certain common symptoms of a faulty supply chain are recognized in good time for immediate action to be taken. Symptoms are manifestations of an existing issue, and just like they reveal the existence of an illness in an individual, they also reveal the presence of underlying problems in a supply chain process (Giannakis & Papadopoulos, 2016). Some of the symptoms of a struggling supply chain process are delay in the delivery of either products or raw materials to the company, poor customer service, loss of revenue, high inventory costs, among others.

In the case of poor customer service, it occurs because of a series of reasons. The most dominant reason is changing consumer behaviors and an increase in the number of alternative products in the market (Giannakis & Papadopoulos, 2016). For a company to solve its customer service issues, it needs to conduct market research and understand the changing consumer trends. Consumers might change their behaviors because of different reasons, and the approach that the business was using to engage its consumers might need a shift (Leukel & Sugumaran, 2019). Where the company fails to adapt to the consumer changes, the effect is poor customer service. Once a business understands the changing market dynamics and how consumers’ interests and behaviors are changing as well, then a different approach to consumer engagement can be developed to correct the poor customer service.

On high inventory costs, this can manifest where there are changes in freight and energy costs. Increased labor rates can also have an effect on the realization of high inventory costs. A solution to high inventory costs is the adoption of new technology such as the Transport Management System (TMS) to identify the most cost-effective means of moving goods and services (Leukel & Sugumaran, 2019). Use of Yard Management Systems (YMS) is another way of identifying the existing options in the service market that would minimize the costs that a company incurs in storage requirements (Giannakis & Papadopoulos, 2016). In other operation elements where high costs are realized, using business intelligence can assist in identifying options that would minimize the operation costs.



Giannakis, M., & Papadopoulos, T. (2016). Supply chain sustainability: A risk management

approach. International Journal of Production Economics, 171, 455-470.

Leukel, J., & Sugumaran, V. (2019). Supplement to the Article: How product representation

influences the understanding of supply chain process models. Available at SSRN 3386680.


The Case against Capitalism in the Communist Manifesto do my history assignment

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The Case against Capitalism in the Communist Manifesto


The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels contains one of the most iconic and influential texts in human history. Freidrich Engels first drafted it in October of 1847; it was officially recognized as the Communists League programme of action in its Second Congress in December of 1847. The Communist Manifesto contains a crystallization of the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels on the impact and future of the Communist movement. According to Marx and Engels, the work lays down a crucial historical theory and is a restatement of the idea that formed the foundational basis for their communist theory. Marx and Engels wrote the work as a response to the capitalist industrial revolution. It is highly antagonistic to capitalism’s ideas due to the harsh economic and living condition created by the system of capitalism then. The contents of the Communist Manifesto were a restatement of the worker’s position relative to the classists’ ideals of capitalist Europe. In this regard, Marx and Engel used the text to brew an ideology centered on Capitalist Europe’s oppressed laborers and the independence or success of this oppressed class. Essential to the arguments against capitalism in the Communist Manifesto is a historical description of the sources of such oppression and suffering of the laborer, a denial of the benefits of capitalism and socialism to the worker, and an intentional declaration that the revolutionary action of the worker must eliminate such oppression. Class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie is also central to the arguments that Marx composes in defense of the political and social theories of communism. The Manifesto also invokes rhetoric and historical connotations in addressing his ideas. This paper explores Marx and Engels’ arguments against capitalism in the Communist Manifesto by looking at their depth, persuasive value, and general conception. Central to this analysis is an in-depth consideration of the various arguments against that are present in the work. Further, the essay will lay down the available criticisms that seek to negate Marx and Engels’ eloquent postulations.

Historical Context of the Communist Manifesto

The historical context under which the Communist Manifesto was published is, without a doubt, an essential part in the estimation of the effectiveness and applicability of its case against capitalism and the capitalist system. The text was published in response to the European Industrial Revolution’s developments and its voracious hunger for resources, both human and natural (Marx, and Engels). The growing middle and upper class fuelled nearly exclusively by the profits of the Industrial Revolution. The disparity it created against the lower class of laborers and artisans was to Marx and Engels, a simmering pot for revolutionary action (Boyer). The rhetoric of The Communist Manifesto published in 1848 was a countermeasure of the ramifications of the capitalist system’s exploitative nature. The exponential growth of technology and the use of machines in the industrial complexes and the deplorable conditions of the laborers in these industries were to Marx and Engels unacceptable and deserved to be countered through the institution of a new socio-political and economic order (Boyer).

Capitalism, the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat

    “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. (Marx and Engels)” Marx and Engels establish a historical perspective in their criticism of the capitalist system.  They begin by indicating that a history of struggles between classes dominates human history. In this regard, they never fail to mention the freeman and the slave and the feudal lord and the oppressor and the oppressed. This dialectical materialism is, according to Marx, the foundations of society and that the conflicts over resources are the driving force of societal and economic change and oppression. In establishing a ground for their description of the capitalist system’s foundations, the Manifesto identifies the bourgeoisie and the proletariat as the main parties in the capitalist system. The bourgeoisie, in this regard, is the class of modern capitalists, owners of the means of production, and the employers of wage labor. The proletariat is the class of modern wage laborers who lack their own means of production and opt to sell their labor for wages. The modern bourgeoisie the text avers ‘has sprouted from the ruins of the feudal society’ (Marx, and Engels) and has invented new methods of oppression to replace the feudal lords’ oppressive policies established a new form of struggle. In essence, Marx and Engels attempt to establish a connection between capitalism and the previous oppressive ideals of feudalism and slavery.

The argument continues by establishing the nature of the Capitalist system and the evils that Marx and Engels associate it with. This argument essentially tries to postulate that the actions of capitalism and modern industry are against man’s natural morality and has introduced an ethical argument against the motives of the bourgeoisie. The Manifesto proclaims that the bourgeoisie “has pitilessly torn asunder the motley feudal ties that bound man to his ‘‘natural superiors.”…. In one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation.” (Marx and Engels) This moral argument seeks to create in the proletariat an identification of the motives of the capitalist movement.

A complete control of the means of production by the bourgeoisie, which is evidently the rise of the capitalist and industry, creates the class and societal struggles that Marx and Engels speak of as the capitalist’s very intention. The authors propound that as the bourgeoisie creates this capital and property system, the proletariat’s position is in a similar fashion being determined. The proletariat class, the state, is formed by their need to find work and are only worth the extent that their labor increases capital.  “These laborers, who must sell themselves piecemeal, are a commodity, like every other article of commerce…” (Marx and Engels). The bourgeoisie exerts control and exploitation of the proletariat on such basis without regard to their individualism or even differences in age, gender, or sex and considers them a universal instrument of labor.

Marx and Engels’s eventual result of this exploitation of the masses avers a struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. This begins with the concentration of a growing mass of proletariats, including Trade Unions (Boyle, and Marx). By creating the proletariat class and their mass exploitation, Marx and Engels aver that the bourgeoisie creates an increasingly proper foundation for revolution by the proletariat. The authors proclaim that the capitalist system would collapse under the weight of the revolutionary pressures of proletariat resistance, paving the way for Communism (Boyle, and Marx).

Communism as the Anti-thesis to Capitalist Oppression of the Proletariat

The Communist Manifesto, as the name suggests, lays down the doctrinal and ideological premises of communism as a social, political, and economic theory. While it is mostly concerned with the communist ideals, providing an anti-thesis or substitute for the alleged exploitation and eventual collapse of the capitalist system. Marx and Engels apply the Manifesto as a solution to exploitative capitalism and use their rhetoric in the text as a case against capitalism (Boyle, and Marx).

Marx and Engels begin their argument for communism and against capitalism by articulating that the Communist holds the proletariat’s interests as part of its common interest. The text avers that “They [Communists] have no interests separate and apart from those of the proletariat as a whole. (Marx and Engels)” Further that “In the national struggles of the proletarians of the different countries, they point out and bring to the front the common interests of the entire proletariat, independently of all nationality.” (Marx, and Engels) These proclamations lay down the intention of the Communists to relate their interest with that of the proletariat against the bourgeoisie led capitalist system.

Marx and Engels further aver that the immediate aim of the Communist is to achieve the common aims of the proletariat state. They cite the aims of proletariat parties as “the formation of the proletariat into a class, the overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariat. (Marx and Engels)” The authors aver that the capitalist system creates only capital and cannot create property for the artisan or the laborer. In this regard, Communist seeks abolition of bourgeoisie property and the abolition of private ownership of property. The work identifies this as the principal aim of the Communist (Boyle, and Marx).

In defense of the above postulations, Engels and Marx opine that the capitalist’s aim is not only a personal acquisition of property but also the possession of social power. They further aver that for capital to benefit society, it must be collective property, and by converting it into social property, capital acquires a social character and loses its current form as the property of a class (Boyle, and Marx). By extinguishing the bourgeoisies’ reliance on private property and capital, Marx and Engels propound that abolition of these concepts will eliminate the proletariat’s oppression and conditions in the capitalist system (Boyle, and Marx).

Marx and Engels aver that wage labor is at the center/requisite of maintaining the laborer’s existence as a labourer and a class member. In bourgeois society, wage is used as an accumulator of labour, and that control of wage ensures that the capitalist accumulates the benefits of the material labour. Communism offers a solution to this by ensuring that accumulated labour is used as a way to enrich and widen the abilities and existence of the laborer (Marx, and Engels) r.

The free market and free trade are a concept, so central to the capitalist that the products and commodities are in some contexts considered more important than the labor or factors of production that produces them (Marx, and Engels). Marx and Engels aver that even though the acquisition of such good may seem like freedom and a facet of individuality, access to them has already been denied for a majority of the population by the monopolization of private property by the bourgeoisie. (Marx and Engels) A redistribution of this property would, in essence, allows even the proletariat to participate in the enjoyment of such commodities without the exploitation of their labor. The text reads that communism does not deprive the right to enjoy the products of society, but it prevents the acquisition of power to subjugate people based on ownership of such properties (Marx and Engels).

A conclusion of these arguments articulates what the abolition of capitalist systems and the bourgeoisie society is an outlining of the essential functions that the proletariat/communist state would take over as part of its transformation. The abolition of all property in land and rent, a heavy progressive or graduated income tax, abolition of all inheritance, centralization of all credit in the hands of the state, equal liability of all work, and free education for all children and child labor (education reform) (Marx, and Engels).

The above arguments are a proper denial of the principles that are central to the theories of capitalism. They essentially seek to reveal the nature of capitalism and their ramifications on the conditions of laborers. Marx and Engels introduced communism and stated its principle ends are an anti-thesis of the capitalist conditions that existed in the material historical period.

A Critique of Communist Theory

The prosecution of capitalism is the postulations of Marx and Engels in The Manifesto while eloquent and, to a huge extent, convincing on capitalism’s nature and the promises of communism are not without fault. Several authors and commentators have established faults and inconsistencies in/ with Marx and Engels’ aversions in the Communist Manifesto.

A crucial failure of the argument on the nature of class struggle and its status as a building block of societal structure is that the argument was an oversimplification of human society’s nature (Stalin). While it may be true that class struggle plays a significant role in the course of history, there is a glaring lacuna as to how Marx and Engels conceived their idea on the social stratification that is central to the entirety of their theory. The rigid stratification has also been criticized for its assumption of the inferred organization or unification of the bourgeoisie class (Lefebvre). Marx and Engels’s portrayal of the upper capitalist class seems to wrongly presume that it acts in an organized and hugely coordinated manner. This also applies to the proletariat, who are, in essence, portrayed as a unitary body with a collective interest of actualizing a revolution and taking over statist power. Marx and Engels ignore the existence of divergent interests internal or intrinsic to societal change.

Another criticism of Marx and Engels was that there was a denial of practically significant facets of human nature, such as the abolition of competition, which would contradict a natural human facet (Lefebvre). The abolition of free trade would in deny the state an essential ground for revenue and operation.


The Communist Manifesto is an eloquent articulation of the principles of communism and an eloquent case against the capitalist system. Marx and Engels identify crucial parts of the capitalist system that may be inconsistent with their theory of history and that class struggle is a significant force of human historical progression. The authors also show that the principles of communism serve as denial and substitution of capitalism for the benefits of the proletariat. The assertions of Marx and Engels are however not without criticism.



Works Cited

Boyle, David, and Karl Marx. Understanding The Communist Manifesto. Rosen Pub., 2011.

Boyer, George R. “The historical background of the Communist Manifesto.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 12.4 (1998): 151-174.

Engels, Friedrich, and Karl Marx. The Communist Manifesto. Broadview Press, 2004.

Lefebvre, Henri. Dialectical materialism. U of Minnesota Press, 2009.

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. The Communist Manifesto (Manifesto Of The Communist Party). Martino Publishing, 2012.

Stalin, Joseph. Dialectical and historical materialism. Moscow, USSR: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1938.


THE MAIN IMPACTS OF PARENTS IN THE SOCIETY. history assignment example: history assignment example

Ben Chambeau

Professor Kyle Allen

English 101

23 November 2020

Comparative Analysis Essay

A parent is someone that has the greatest opportunity to make an impact on their children’s lives. For many reasons that statement is true almost every time, but mainly because they are the first person in their child’s life. An influence can have a negative and positive connotation, and sometimes it is hard to view it as just an influence. Still, it is an influence none the less. In Zadie Smith’s Grand Union, the narrator shows just how influential her mother was to her even after death. It is the influence of the narrator’s mother that makes the narrator grow into her own person and make her own decisions. In Mindy Haskins Rogers’ My Father’s English: Changing Language, Changing Class, the narrator is also influenced heavily by a parent, this time her father. Once again, the father’s influence on the narrator, even at a young age, forced the narrator to grow as a person. Both narrators in both stories show the effects of a parent and the influence that is instilled upon their children forever. Grand Union and My Father’s English: Changing Language, Changing Class both are examples of how parents are the driving factors of influence in someone’s life regarding the decisions they make and the things they decide to do.

The story My Father’s English: Changing Language, Changing Class is about a woman who finds a love for language. The reason she becomes passionate about this topic is because at a very young age, she acknowledged her father’s accent as inferior and wanted to get rid of her own. This small, subtle, detail displays to the reader had it not been for her father’s accent, the narrator might have never gone on to be a teacher, or to study poetry. It is because her father, the one who gave his way of speaking to her, was responsible. Going off of that, the narrator also had trouble understanding her father because of his accent. This created problems for her at a young age, “I am five years old, and he is commanding me. Each time he repeats himself he becomes more agitated” (Busch and Flint-Martin 310). This shows that not only did the rough and thick accent of her father make her want to pursue a field in language, but the dynamic that she had with her father at a young age also influenced her to then go on later in life to learn all she could from every accent and language. Although her father never intentionally spoke this way to confuse or influence her, it just happened given that he is her father. He did nothing wrong as a parent by just speaking the way he was taught to speak, and he definitely could not have ever anticipated that his daughter would be so impacted from it, but not many people realize they are an influence till way after. The narrator looking back now can definitely acknowledge that her father played a major role in her life and her growth as a person even if at the time in her childhood she viewed it as a negative influence. This negative and positive influence do not take away from the constant which is a parent being influential on their children.

Similarly, in Grand Union, the narrator’s mother is seen as a projection by the narrator because she is dead. Although she is dead enough information is given to display that the mother made her mark on her daughter. Following the death of the narrator’s mother, the narrator can still see her. This is information to the reader shows that the narrator is still thinking about her mother very much. Clearly something was not settled before the mother’s death because whenever the topic of where the narrator lives is brought up the mother gets unsettled. “Figures, I said, and she admonished me for using an Americanism and asked if I was still living in those devilish parts” (Busch and Flint-Martin 317).  This quote shows the reader that before the mother’s death, she had an issue with her daughter leaving. Not just leaving but also living in America. The influence the mother had on her daughter, scorning her for leaving and living away from her home country, is what is making it so difficult for the narrator to move on. It is not normal for someone to project an imagine in the mind of someone who has passed, regardless of how much they missed them. It is because the mother died still holding this grudge against her daughter, that the daughter now struggles to cope following the loss of her mother. This influence on the daughter’s life creates stress but also makes it hard for the daughter to feel confident in her own decisions. Regardless of how it made the narrator feel or act, it still made her act a certain way. This confirms the argument that all parents influence the lives of their children in some way.

The two texts both show not only that a parent can be influential to their children but also that this influence can later affect them in life. As stated in the prior two paragraphs, both narrators chose to act and make decisions because of the influence from their respective parents. The narrator of My Father’s English: Changing Language, Changing Class went on to pursue a career in language, all because of the influence her father had on her as a kid with his accent. Had her father not had his accent and had he not had the relationship he had with her; it is safe to say that the narrator would probably have never had any incentive to learn more about language let alone pursue a career in it. Similarly, Grand Union shows a narrator that is struggling to let her mother go because of the influence that she imposed upon her when she was still alive. This unsettled feud between the mother and the narrator about her decision to live in the United States had lasting effects on the narrator way after the mother’s death.

Now, although the two texts are similar in the aspect of the parent influencing their child, it is not always a positive or negative influence. The argument is not that a parent’s influence is good or bad, rather that it just exists, it is just present. Obviously, everyone is different, everyone has different experiences and not everyone is expected to have similar ones. As shown by Grand Union the narrator is struggling because of the influence her mother imposed on her. This from the reader’s perspective is not a good thing and can be viewed negatively. Regardless, the influence is there, and the narrator is able to grow from it as shown at the end of the story, “Americanisms everywhere. But also love, the recognition of history, and the inconceivably broad shadow cast by the Blue Mountains,” (Busch and Flint-Martin 318). Although the narrator’s mother disagreed with her decisions, the narrator was able to come to terms with them on her own after struggling with her mother. My Father’s English: Changing Language, Changing Class differs from Grand Union because it focuses mainly on the positive regarding how the influence of a parent at a young age created a lifelong passion for the narrator. This positive influence once again is irrelevant to the argument in place which is that the narrator was influenced by her parent resulting in growth and decisions being made that, without said influence, would not have happened. The influence a parent can have on their child can stem back decades, or only a couple of months, but regardless a parent will always have some sort of effect on their children and their decisions.

Parents have children not with the intention of negatively influencing them, but sometimes it happens without them even realizing it. Although this is the case for some, others experience influences that ultimately change their life for the better, and lead to their success and passions. A parent should not feel guilty for this because it is just the way that life works out, the connection they have with their child is still important to their growth. Ultimately, the one constant shown is that regardless of negative or positive, parents will always influence their children. This can be shown in Zadie Smith’s Grand Union and Mindy Haskin Rogers’ My Father’s English: Changing Language, Changing Class. The two stories show just how much a parent can affect and influence the decisions of their children. Even though the outcome and situation are not always the same, both stories show that parents will always be an influence on their children’s growth and the decisions they make.



Work Cited

Busch, M. J., and K. Flint-Martin. “”Grand Union.” The Carolina reader for English 101: Fall    2020, Hayden-McNeil, LLC, 2020, pp. 316-318.

Busch, M. J., and K. Flint-Martin. “”My Father’s English: Changing Language, Changing            Class.” The Carolina reader for English 101: Fall 2020, Hayden-McNeil, LLC, 2020, pp.        309-313.



The companies I have decided to concentrate on are Costco and Dollar General. Costco company is a wholesaler corporation. Costco offers bulk products at highly discounted prices.  On the other hand, Dollar General is a retail corporation offering several products available to their customers in their neighbourhood stores. Both of these companies are successful in the American business environment. Their success has been linked to proper management of inventory. This discussion focuses on Costco and Dollar General in analyzing different aspects of inventory and its relation to a company’s performance.

Company inventory

Costco and Dollar general uses almost similar kinds of inventories.  The most common types of inventories used in these companies include finished products, maintenance, work-in-progress, raw materials and operational supplies. Finished products are those commodities that have completed the production process. They are often ready to get into the distribution phase. Maintenance and operational supply are used to complete the production process. Repair is also another type of inventory, although rarely considered, used alongside maintenance and operational; supply in the completion of the process of production. On the other hand, raw materials are the commodities supplied to these stores by suppliers. They form the resources used in the production of different commodities and products. Lastly, work-in-progress is used to refer to commodities which are within production. In most instances, such commodities are still being processed. This means they have not completed the production process and are in various stages of production.

Many wholesalers and retailers use different locations to store specific products. This is a characteristic exhibited by both Costco and dollar general. They have the stock-keeping unit. Besides, these two companies have the dependent and interdependent demand, as a common characteristic of their inventory. In a sense, the demand for interdependent commodities does not depend on any other product to be forecasted. Conversely, to forecast the demand of an interdependent inventory, there has to be reliance on another item. More so, both companies have a common characteristic of avoiding stock out. These characteristics of inventory within Costco and dollar general have helped them avoid backorders.

Goods and services design concept

Both Costco and Dollar general has the most effective goods and services design programs. Their goods and services design concept is centred in providing their clients with utmost satisfaction while shopping with them. These programs have enabled companies reliable in providing the best customer care services. For instance, Dollar general enhances their clients can make maximum savings. This is done by offering customers online redeemable coupons. Both companies have full-time customer care services. They are readily available for their clients at any time of the day or night. These companies have ensured that every customer has the best experience while shopping. There is always an employee to help out the customers while shopping. There are varieties of choices to choose from Costco. They also have a delivery program. The clients can order goods online and have them delivered whenever they want. Besides, both companies have their customers choose how they want to be served. Those who want to serve themselves are shown the self-service terminal. In essence, the customer service is the centre of the goods and service design programs for these companies. It is designed to arise the best experience with the customer.

Inventory and role in the performance

Proper inventory management causes increased performance for any company. in a sense, inventory management is critical. Management facilitates the generation of revenues and profits for a company. In this dimension, the need to have proper inventory management is necessary to enhance performance. Costco and dollar general uses the turnover formula in managing their inventory. The turnover formula uses the cost of the products sold dividend by the mean inventory level at a specific period. In this sense, having a high turnover means the company is selling a specific commodity at an encouraging rate. While on the other hand, a low turnover rate for a commodity may easily lead to losses. In essence, these companies ensure proper management of their inventory. This is because proper management of inventory avoids losses, goods going bad and ultimately increases the performance of the company.

Proper inventory management leads to customer satisfaction. In a sense, customer satisfaction is subject to many elements. These include fulfilment time, pricing, returns and in stock. With good management of inventory, these factors are well fulfilled, which accrues to the customer’s satisfaction. Proper inventory management also means one can analyze the rate of sales for the goods. One gets to know that certain goods are highly demanded on special occasions. This will ensure that one avails such products during those periods to satisfy customers. More so, this enables keeping the inventory costs low, and high considering the time.

Proper inventory management leads to operational efficiency. In this dimension, both Costco and Dollar General perform transactions with the highest margins. This means that they pay low fees for acquiring their inventory, but then accrue maximum profits from selling these commodities. This happens due to the reduction of inventory costs through proper management of inventory using the turnover formula.  In some instances, customers might acquire faulty products. These companies have return policies. The customer returns the product and replaces it with another one. However, such instances are reduced since proper inventory management of these companies facilitates decreased faulty products. In a sense, the quality of in-stock enables one to have a count of the stock throughout. Thus, the chances of having faulty or expired products are minimized. This further increases the efficiency of the company in making profits.

As such, inventory plays a primary role in a company’s performance, operational efficiency and customer satisfaction. Having a poor inventory management system can cause poor performance leading to poor customer services. This happens in delaying what the customer ordered due to lack of constant checking the inventory. A company’s performance, operational efficiency and customers service is also impacted by the planning of inventory. Proper planning of inventory ensures the company has some extra stock. This ensures the risk of a certain product getting depleted unannounced is covered. In essence, inventory determines the marginal propensity of consumption by customers. This is because whenever a customer is purchasing, he/she might be tempted to unintentionally purchase another item. This is possible if the company has a variety of products to offer customers. However, proper management is required to ensure customers satisfaction. Whenever customers are satisfied, the operational efficiency of the company is increased, therefore leading to better performance.

Company layout

A company’s efficiency is dependent on several aspects among them the layout. In a sense, the company’s layout is critical in determining the effectiveness of production. A good layout also ensures operations are run efficiently. Four major layouts are known, although this discussion has focused on two. These are process layout and product layout. Process layout is commonly found in production firms with a specified volume of production. They are majorly low volume which requires specified operations while producing. An example of where to find process layout is in a machine production firm. Serves firms incorporating this form of the layout include schools, hospitals, banks among others. This layout is flexible and leads to higher motivation among the employees. However, it requires a complicated planning and hiring process.

On the other hand, the product layout specifies out the order of operation in production. In a product layout, there are specified steps to followed when manufacturing a product or offering a certain service. It is most common in firms producing high volume since a little cost is incurred. Unfortunately, this layout is not flexible, which makes it cumbersome for the employees. Nevertheless, Costco and dollar general do not have any of the above-mentioned layouts. They have what is referred to as service layout. These companies are concerned with customer satisfaction. In most instances, customers are usually concerned with how close a service facility is. In these companies, the customers are mostly involved with a lot of contacts. Therefore, Costco and dollar general have incorporated the service layout since it has massive benefits. This layout provides ease of entrance, freeways, accessible facilities, well-designed walkways, organized parking areas among other requirements which will provide satisfaction to the customer.

Metrics of performance evaluation

Supply chain managers use several metrics of evaluation to ensure their customers are satisfied and to realize efficiency in the internal supply. For instance, Costco employs the metric of responsiveness and sustainability. Costco has a strategy of ensuring they always have inventory. As such, they have shipments done every night. This has ensured that the company stores do not ever run out of stock. They also have online platforms where their customers can shop. These products are delivered into the customer’s preferred address. This has enabled the company to amass customers satisfaction.

On the other hand, Dollar general uses a customer-related metrics and supply chain efficiency. They provide their customers with questionnaires to fill in. These questionnaires provide the customers with the chance to detail their experience with shopping at dollar general. The customer’s responses offer the company a clear path to understand their complaints. Besides, the company gets monthly reports regarding the progress of inventory. This has enabled supply chain efficiency since the inventory can be managed effectively.


Both Costco and dollar general has indicated signs of handling their inventory sufficiently. However, sometimes mishaps happen. They arise from miscalculations, depletion of products among others. These challenges can be avoided by breaking inventory operations into three basic categories. These are safety, replenish and extra stock. Such a breakdown will ensure that all risks related to inventory are averted. Besides, an insurance policy is helpful in case challenges arise within the supply chain or distribution process. This will ensure the customer is always covered in case something happens during manufacturing or transportation. The above-mentioned rationales help improve inventory management at the companies.


In conclusion, there is a massive value gained from proper management of inventory. Proper management of inventory leads to operational efficiency. Operational efficiency of the supply chain leads to enhanced customer satisfaction. Whenever customers are satisfied, the company will raise more revenue. Operational efficient leads to increased performance of the company. Therefore, inventory management is critical in designing performance of a company.