Within the nucleus of the cell, there is a ribbon of the huge molecule DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, distributed over 23 chromosomes. Only a few microns wide, it would stretch a full six feet if uncoiled. It consists of 2 matching strands twisted in a spiral called a “double helix”. Each strand contains some 3 billion repeating chemical units called nucleotides, each incorporating one of four different kinds of chemical bases–adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. The DNA of the two strands are complimentary and as such, only guanine links with cytosine and adenine with thymine. Hidden among these sequences and representing only 2% of human DNA are the genes-sequences that code for the production of the proteins all life depends on. Humans have an estimated 50,000 to 100,000 genes each made of 1,000 to some 2 million nucleotides with their bases. This great number afforded by the arrangement of these four bases reveals the secret to the vast info-carrying ability of the genetic code. The rest of the human genome, about 98%, is non-coding “junk” DNA.
It was only 8 years ago that DNA was introduced to the field of criminal investigation. Prior to that, it had been used as a means to identify the genes for inherited diseases such as Huntington’s and cystic fibrosis. It was first established to be used in paternity and immigration cases; however, it was later used in 1986 as reliable and substantial evidence to convict Colin Pitchfork of murder.
The High Cost of Genetic Engineering
The High Cost of Genetic Engineering
Genetic research on human embryos, in correlation with the human genome, is the key to gene therapy, genetic diagnosis, and even to genetically engineered human beings. Knowing which gene controls what trait and causes what genetic disease will arm doctors with a powerful tool to treat their patients at the molecular level. On the other hand, this allows people to possibly manipulate genes to enhance specific traits or create the perfect baby. Genetic research on human embryos has two implications. A practical one in therapeutic research (to detect, and hopefully correct gene flaws), and then the potentiality of allowing parents to decide how their child should look (or in an extreme word, eugenics). The former, which at the present is wishful thinking, will be a reality in the future if the technology becomes feasible.
Assuming that we did genetically engineer for positive, medicinal purposes, it would require germ-line therapy, eliminating the necessity of constant somatic cell therapy. Germ-line therapy is the process of replacing genes, whereas somatic cell therapy is adding genes and hoping that they replicate at a higher rate than others. Possible targets for genetic engineering would be genetic diseases, such as Huntington (The Benefits of Genetic Engineering) and Parkinson, those proven to be linked to genetic predisposition, such as cancer (Ao, 140), psychological disorders like schizophrenia (Bernstein, 518), and major birth defects (Resta). There are however drawbacks to these treatments. Examples include undue suffering to the subjects due to botched engineering of the genes (Wolfson), also known as the Frankenstein factor, psychological trauma associated with…
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Resta, Robert G. Genetic Counseling: Coping with the Human Impact of Genetic Disease:
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What’s Morally Wrong with Eugenics:
Wolfson, Richard. Cloning, Marketing Life, and Playing God (Part II): http://www.natural-law.ca/genetic/BiotechNov97.html
Dickman, Steven. “Human Embryos Carrying Altered Genes.” New Scientist July, 1997.
Henig, Robin M. “Tempting: If you could dictate the content of your kid’s genes, wouldn’t you?
Shouldn’t you?” Discover May, 1998. Pp. 58-64.