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A critical examination of each of the empirical studies, including, but not limited to the following: critique of sample

A critical examination of each of the empirical studies, including, but not limited to the following: critique of sample size, methods, statistics, generalizability, clinical indications/ contraindications;

I need five pages critiquing (guidelines above) one article that I attached. The first article is on cannabinoids and using them as an alternative for pain treatment

Surname 3 Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Number Date Appearance and Performance-Enhancing

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Appearance and Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Supplements (APEDS)

           Appearance and performance-enhancing drugs and supplements (APEDS) are substances used with the intention of improving the athletic capacity of individuals or enhance their appearance. These drugs can be synthetically or naturally produced and are legal or illegal. Substances such as creatine and protein supplements are legal, whereas drugs such as anabolic-androgenic steroids that are not recommended for medical purposes are illicit. The misuse of APEDS has been associated with the serious medical issues, including increased risks to the cardiovascular systems. APEDS also result in behavioral and psychological problems. These issues include eating disorders, body shame, drug use, and increased risky sexual behaviors. Due to the societal pressures for persons of the male gender to achieve muscular bodies, especially persons that are active in the social domains, men are primarily associated with APEDS than women. The most common APEDS among women are those that burn body fats to achieve fit bodies. I chose the topic of APEDS since the misuse of these drugs can lead to severe eating disorders and muscle dysmorphia. Other severe consequences of the abuse of these drugs are cardiovascular and renal problems, which are serious comorbidities. The topic of APEDS is related to overall health since these substances affect the health of populations directly. APEDS affect the physical, social and emotional dimensions of health. By causing eating disorders and cardiovascular failures, APEDS affect the physical dimension. Through muscle dysmorphia, APEDS affect the emotional aspects of individuals. Since APEDS can result in drug abuse, especially increased alcohol intake, they affect the social dimension. Appearance and performance-enhancing drugs and supplements (APEDS) have serious risks when abused by their users: they result in eating disorders, muscle dysmorphia, and cardiovascular diseases. 

APEDS and Eating Disorders

           The increased use of APEDS leads to eating disorders due to weight and shape concerns. Most of the issues concerning eating disorders arise due to cultural pressures to have lean appearances and the need to meet these expectations. APEDS are used to improve muscle mass and definition to meet certain body ideals. The abuse of APEDS causes individuals to eat too little or too much due to too many worries about body shape and weight. In schools, there is pressure to appeal to other students. Such stresses push students to engage in substances that enhance their appearance to avoid body shaming and to please others. The most prevalent eating disorders from the consumption of APEDS include Bulimia and anorexia (Ganson et al. 3). Bulimia causes a preoccupation with the body shape and weight, and in some cases, those that are affected force themselves to vomit or overindulge in exercises. Anorexia is similar to Bulimia and is an intense concern regarding weight gain, and those suffering from this disease will go to the extreme to maintain an ideal weight and shape.

The Most Affected Population & the Way Forward

           According to the open access government, in college students, the use of whey proteins and steroids is common, and these substances affect eating practices. In reference to a study done by Healthy Minds Study that analyzed 7,000 college students, open-access government states that lifetime abuse of APEDS increases the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms (Open Access Government). The Healthy Minds Study researchers concluded that there is a need for health practitioners to stay aware of the shifting body ideals among young adults, especially college students, and the association of eating disorders with APEDS. Athletes have a higher prevalence when it comes to APEDS. These individuals are driven by the need to improve their bodies and athletic performance (Steele et al., 235). The chief concern to society is that APEDS are marketed as safe and healthy, whereas they have serious consequences when used by individuals to attain ideal bodies. Public awareness can be helpful to educate people on the risks of consuming APEDS. Regulations are ideal since they can help diminish the consumption of APEDS to a large extent. There should be the availability of prevention, examination, and treatment services to persons that are abusing APEDS. Counseling and therapy are impactful ways to deal with eating disorders and require the intervention of the family.     

APEDS and Muscle Dysmorphia 

           Muscle dysmorphia affects the thoughts and behaviors of APEDS users as they seek to maintain muscularity and leanness. Persons with muscle dysmorphia have the belief that they are too weak and their bodies are small. Interestingly most of these individuals have big muscles and are in good shape. APEDS can distort the reality of the users regarding body shape and weight. The affected persons indulge in harmful practices like lifting extra weights to achieve what their minds tell them is the ideal weight. Persons with muscle dysmorphia avoid mirrors and maintain strict diets. They become highly anxious in the midst of people, and this leads to depression. 

The Most Affected Population & the Way Forward

           Muscle dysmorphia affects athletes in areas such as bodybuilding, wrestling, and football. Athletes are usually in the limelight and have a lot of pressure to stay fit (Steele et al., 234). Thus, they have a higher prevalence of overindulging in harmful activities such as consuming APEDS to stay fit (Nagata et al. 5). Increased therapy and education are needed to curb muscle dysmorphia. Most people with this condition deny that they have a problem, but it is important to continuously engage them in talks regarding proper nutrition, the dangers of APEDS, and over-exercising. Discussions regarding what makes a healthy body image are also helpful. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is useful in managing muscle dysmorphia. It teaches individuals the ways to realize they have compulsive behaviors to help them change to healthier habits. Individuals are encouraged to change their unhelpful thought patterns through such therapy. Support groups are also helpful to persons suffering from muscle dysmorphia. 

ADEPS and Cardiovascular diseases

           Appearance and Performance-enhancing Drugs and Supplements (APEDS) have negatively impacted the cardiovascular system. APEDS have been connected with high blood pressure and reduced functioning of the heart ventricles (Liu et al. 2230). Diseases such as strokes, artery damage, and heart attacks have also been associated with APEDS. APEDS have steroid compositions that make cardiovascular diseases develop partly through enhancing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and lowering the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. High HDL and LDL levels heighten the risk of atherosclerosis, which is a condition resulting from fats being deposited in arteries. Blood flow is disrupted, and if it is prevented from reaching critical areas such as the brain and heart, heart attack or stroke results. 

The Most Affected Population & the Way Forward

           APEDS enhances lipoprotein levels, also known as bad cholesterol, which sticks and clogs the artery walls. Athletes are mostly affected by cardiovascular diseases due to their high usage of (APEDS) to enhance their energy levels in sports (Torrisi et al. 587). Severe chest pains, exhaustion, and shortness of breath are experienced by individuals whose heart ventricles are blocked (Liu et al. 2230). Heart diseases result, and if symptoms persist, they lead to heart failure. If used for long, APEDS may cause irreversible heart complications that may affect one or multiple parts of the heart. These complications lead to heart valve disease, heart’s outer lining problems, heart relaxation and squeezing challenges, and abnormal heart rhythms. 

           Blood clots also result from (APEDS). When clots of blood form in blood vessels, blood flow is potentially disrupted, and heart muscles get damaged. The heart becomes ineffective in pumping blood resulting in heart complications (Liu et al. 2231). Blood does not flow effectively to critical areas such as the brain as a result of blood clots in the vessels. If the heart does not function as expected the blood pressure heightens resulting in breathing complications. The steroid constituents in APEDS slow down the normal functioning of the heart. Consistent use of APEDS results in severe heart complications that hinder the body’s general functioning.


           Appearance and Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Supplements (APEDS) are substances used to enhance individuals’ athletic capacity and appearance. These products can either be synthetic or natural, and some are illicit. Most people engage in the abuse of APEDS due to the societal pressures to maintain lean and muscular bodies. While some women abuse APEDS to reduce body fat, men are more likely to use these drugs. APEDS lead to eating disorders, muscle dysmorphia, and cardiovascular diseases. I have learned that APEDS are a serious issue affecting the youth today and that they cause serious consequences. The topic of APEDS is essential for personal and community health since these substances affect the physical, emotional, and social health dimensions. Affected persons are part of the community, and thus, the need to highlight APEDS.    












Works Cited

Ganson, Kyle T., et al. “Use of appearance-and performance-enhancing drugs and substances is associated with eating disorder symptomatology among US college students.” Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity (2022): 1-6.

Liu, Jian-Di, and Yan-Qing Wu. “Anabolic-androgenic steroids and cardiovascular risk.” Chinese Medical Journal 132.18 (2019): 2229-2236.


Nagata, Jason M., et al. “Appearance and performance-enhancing drugs and supplements (APEDS): Lifetime use and associations with eating disorder and muscle dysmorphia symptoms among cisgender sexual minority people.” Eating Behaviors (2022): 101595.

Open Access Government. Performance Enhancing Drugs Can Induce Eating Disorders

Steele, Ian H., Harrison G. Pope Jr, and Gen Kanayama. “Competitive bodybuilding: fitness, pathology, or both?.” Harvard review of psychiatry 27.4 (2019): 233-240.

Torrisi, Marco, et al. “Sudden cardiac death in anabolic-androgenic steroid users: a literature review.” Medicina 56.11 (2020): 587.

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A critical examination of each of the empirical studies, including, but not limited to the following: critique of sample Writing Assignment Help Surname 1

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Since time immemorial, religion has played a key role in shaping the cultural framework of most communities It’s old, yet it’s still going strong. Current civilizations, like previous societies, have continued to give religion the recognition and respect it deserves based on its immense influence. From the beginning of time, religion has enlightened and inspired cultures (Udoh et al. 1750244). As a result, rejecting religion’s power and influential capacity on any community and culture is arrogant and indicative of a denial of fundamental facts. This study investigates the cultural significance of three ancient religious works which include; an artistic work, literary piece and architectural work.

The literary piece under analysis is the legendary Greek poem ‘The Illiad’. The Iliad, through focusing on “the rage of Peleus’ son Achilles/and its devastation,” gives us an insight to ancient Greek civilization (I.1-2, Lattimore). The Iliad’s worth can be observed in how it serves as a legacy for Greece and an inspiration for a number of writers including Milton and Virgil. Examining the impact of the Iliad on its own period, historians assert “The Iliad and The Odyssey were the ‘national’ poetry of classical Greece, uniting Greek-speaking individuals by lending artistic legitimacy to their shared heritage,” (Fiero, 81) In contemporary society, the tales of the Trojan War still are what come to mind when contemplating about Greece.

We can observe a core principle of Greek culture in The Iliad: grandeur and honor are crucial. Glory was viewed by the Greeks as “a product to be exchanged: one acquires it by attempting to kill an adversary, and the defeated give it to the victor as a present.” (Martin,18-19). In the epic, multiple wars are fought, and several men die, but as Martin puts it, “Mitigating the gloom of loss and grief is the glitter of glory, which assures that an individual’s name is immortalized in the society” (Martin, 19). The epic also highlights the relationship between Greeks and their gods and their perception of religion. “Individuals are at the burning core of the cosmos described by The Iliad,” Martin wrote. The gods are frequently confined to the position of facilitators or observers, while human desires and interests drive the narrative of the poems” (18). This suggests that religion played a more inert role in the lives of the Greeks, in which the gods were venerated but considered to have little impact on daily life.

The artistic work is the historic Babylonian sculpture on The Law Code Stele of Hammurabi. This code was established by Hammurabi, Babylon’s sixth king, with the goal of “establishing the reign of righteousness in the kingdom, destroying the evil and villainous, and preventing the strong from harming the vulnerable.” (Hammurabi, par. 1) The regulations etched on the sculpture provide insights into how the Babylonians lived and their stance toward wrongdoing. Charles Kent explores Babylonian culture in his article Biblical World, describing it as a system of cruel severity, with excessive contempt for the sanctity of human life, and lack of forethought in other ways reflecting the defective norms of their day.” (15).

The Babylonians benefited from the code not just because it provided them with unchangeable regulations, and also because it connected them, in the same manner that The Iliad united the Greeks. According to Fiero, Hammurabi wrote the code “in an initiative to merge the Babylonian Empire democratically and give them better leadership,” (Fiero,27) not just “to defeat the vile and the morally corrupt” (par. 1, Hammurabi) as the stone stated. The Babylonian cultures have something in common thanks to the consistent legal system. Although Hammurabi’s Code was not the earliest known written law, it is significant for us as it contains “the most broad and comprehensive body of laws to remain from ancient times” (27, Fiero). It provides us a more complete picture of their civilization and makes studying it easier. “That the code imposed a powerful impact over the legislation of the Jews in some circumstances is chronologically conceivable and practically verifiable,” (Kent,15). The Hammurabi Law Code Stele is an interesting and vital ancient history record that should be preserved.

The architectural structure is the Ishta gate. This is a historically significant landmark that must be protected for upcoming generations. The reconstructed form of the gate may be seen in the image below. It was constructed in 575 BC as part of Babylon’s eight defensive gates. The deity Akkadian was honored with this gate. (Pedersén 171) She was worshipped as a goddess of warfare, prosperity, and love. The gate, according to researchers and archaeologists like Robert Koldewey, who discovered the construction, featured 575 monsters and bulls, as well as 120 lions grouped in 13 rows. The wild animal and monster, in particular, are symbols of strength, and their expanse connotes fertility.

Religion was highly valued by ancient Babylonians, as evidenced by the Ishta gate and the Hammurabi code. As a result, religion was an important component in ancient communities, defining and moulding the cultures and beliefs of the time. Before these works, there were many gods (Bonnet 211). The worshippers of these gods displayed unusual forms of worship and dedication to their gods. The Ishta gate, for example, depicts the gods’ divine protection of the city and how Babylonians’ labor could secure the city. Similarly, the Hammurabi code emphasizes the supremacy of the law and the importance of maintaining order by punishing crime and moral corruption.

The three works discussed here are excellent examples of ancient resourcefulness and innovation. We can recognize goodness in them, as well as many notions about man’s purpose and function. The Iliad emphasizes the importance of every life, but Hammurabi’s Law Code Stele takes a more detached and stern view of human life. The Ishta gate exemplifies how religion and people’s efforts come together to protect societies. Whatever our own beliefs are, we can still benefit from our forefathers’ ideas. Their ideas had such sway that we can now find traces of them in current law and literature.

Works Cited

Fiero, Gloria. The Humanistic Tradition: Prehistory to the Early Modern World. 11th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2015

Kent, Charles Foster. “The Recently Discovered Civil Code of Hammurabi.” The Biblical World, vol. 21, no. 3, 1903, pp. 175–190. JSTOR, Accessed 25 April 2022.

Martin, Richard. Introduction. The Iliad of Homer, by Homer, Translated by Richmond Lattimore, The University of Chicago Press, 2011, pp. 1-68

Pedersén, Olof. “The Ishtar Gate area in Babylon: From old documents to new interpretations in a digital model.” Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie 11 (2018): 160-178.

Udoh, Oluwakemi D., Sheriff F. Folarin, and Victor A. Isumonah. “The influence of religion and culture on women’s rights to property in Nigeria.” Cogent Arts & Humanities 7.1 (2020): 1750244.

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Anemia is a condition in which the body produces insufficient healthy red blood cells (RBC), which deliver oxygen to the rest of the body’s tissues. According to Tong et al. (2020), Anemia develops when a person’s hemoglobin (Hb) is insufficient to satisfy their needs. For this reason, Anemia, also known as low hemoglobin, leads to body weakness and exhaustion. According to Mayo Clinic (2022), skin pallor, fast pulse, dizziness, trouble breathing, lightheadedness, and weariness are the most common clinical manifestations of Anemia. While the primary diagnosis determines the course of treatment, iron supplements are the most often given remedy for Anemia. Additionally, medications that enhance blood formation are the most appropriate therapy choice for those with low blood production.

The pathophysiologic process of Anemia

Anemia can occur as a result of a problem at birth (congenital) or as a result of a disease that a person develops (acquired). Anemia is when a person’s blood does not contain adequate RBC. Insufficient RBC may occur if:

A person’s body produces insufficient RBC.

When a person bleeds excessively. Bleeding causes faster RBC loss than it can be replenished.

A person’s body is capable of destroying RBC.

Therefore, Anemia develops physiologically as a result of an imbalance between erythrocyte production and loss. According to Chaparro & Suchdev (2019), this imbalance occurs as a result of insufficient or impaired erythropoiesis caused by excessive erythrocyte loss, inflammation, inherited hemoglobin abnormalities, or nutritional deficiencies as a result of hemolysis or blood loss. The physiological consequence of Anemia is dependent on total hemoglobin levels and the duration of the sickness. There are multiple pathophysiologies, including increased erythrocyte loss and breakdown and decreased erythrocyte synthesis. There are various diagnoses for Anemia, but in this discussion, I will focus on Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) and beta-thalassemia anemia.

The pathophysiology of Iron Deficiency Anemia

IDA is a common type of Anemia. Insufficient iron causes IDA. The body can’t create enough hemoglobin without iron, says Mayo Clinic (2022). As a result, IDA might make a person tired and out of breath. Thus, IDA happens when the body’s iron stores fall below normal RBC production levels. Fetal hemorrhage, poor dietary iron, or iron loss in the urine may all contribute. To compensate for iron losses, the body’s iron balance is usually carefully maintained. People can generally repair IDA with iron supplementation. Sometimes further therapies or tests for IDA are necessary, especially if physicians suspect internal bleeding.

The pathophysiology of beta-thalassemia

Thalassemia is a hereditary blood condition that results in a hemoglobin deficiency in the body. Thalassemia can result in Anemia, which can leave a person feeling exhausted. If the condition is minor, a person may not require therapy. However, more severe thalassemia may need a blood transfusion (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Regular exercise and a nutritious diet may help combat weariness. Beta thalassemia is a blood condition that results in decreased hemoglobin production. The primary pathophysiological mechanism of beta thalassemias is the detrimental consequences of unbalanced globin chain synthesis on erythroid development and survival. An imbalance of alpha/non-alpha globin chains causes an excess of mismatched alpha globin to precipitate, damaging membrane structures, accelerating apoptosis, and destroying erythroid precursors in the bone marrow. In persons with beta-thalassemia, decreased hemoglobin levels result in a shortage of oxygen in several organs. Additionally, affected individuals have a deficiency of RBC, manifest in pale complexion, weariness, weakness, and more severe consequences. Individuals with beta-thalassemia are more likely to produce irregular blood clots.


Chaparro, C. M., & Suchdev, P. S. (2019). Anemia epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology in low‐and middle‐income countries. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1450(1), 15-31. Doi: 10.1111/nyas.14092

Mayo Clinic. (2022). Anemia.,eachwithitsowncause.

Mayo Clinic. (2021). Thalassemia.

Mayo Clinic. (2022). Iron deficiency anemia.,isduetoinsufficientiron.

Tong, Y., Xie, X., Mao, X., Lei, H., Chen, Y., & Sun, P. (2020). Low red blood cell count is an early indicator of myometrial invasion in women with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma with metabolic syndrome. Cancer Management and Research, 12, 10849.