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A CASE BRIEFING SAMPLE CONCEPT. University History Essay Help


The A.Z v B.Z case Brief Sample Overview. help me with my history homework: help me with my history homework



A.Z v B.Z case Brief


Institutional Affiliation

Students Name




Brief # 7


Facts- In the case during a marriage, it was through an aid by the fertility clinic that pre-embryos were created from the male and female eggs. The couple was therefore having difficulty in conceiving a child. The choice to have a vitro fertilization was based on the fact above. Thus the woman’s egg would be combined with the man’s sperms in a petri dish. It was successful as it resulted in an embryo later to the birth of a twin daughter as a pre-embryo. Uncertainly the couple separated, and the husband filed a case against the wife using the pre-embryos that were frozen. The wife, who in the case was the defendant, appealed the matter, this was because it was signed before the embryo process that anyone would have access to it, and she also took part in its success, thus having more children in the future.

Issue- Was prohibiting the wife from accessing the frozen pre-embryos held in the clinic erroneous?

Holding- No

Reasoning- The court was the one in charge of giving out the order of barring her from using the pre-embryos. In giving the verdict, the court said that the interest of the husband in avoiding procreation was outweighing that interest that the wife had developed. The husband never wanted to have additional children as the wife did. Thus the husband would not be forced to become a father without his willingness.

Thus the court was not going to enforce a contract that was at any point violating the public policy. At the same time, the courts are hesitant to invalidate the various agreement related to public policy. At the time, it is clear that the public policy outweighs the personal freedom are put into considerations, and sometimes the same contract would not be enforced by the courts.

THE MAYO v NCSU CASE BRIEFING SAMPLE. us history essay help


Institutional Affiliation

Students Name




Brief # 8


Facts- The plaintiff had been working for the NCSU for ten years. He was also tenured as the faculty member of NCSU in the engineering department and consequently served as the director of graduate programs for the Nuclear Engineering Department. He informed his manager that it was about time for him to leave the institution for some other tasks. His departmental head did allow him permission to resign. However, the Departmental Head, after accepting his resignation proposal, did not go ahead to inform the institution of the same. This was due to weeks after the petitioner had left the institution. This lead to an overpayment of Mayo by the institution. In the court, it was affirmed by the Head of the Department that it was his duty to inform the institution of everything happening within his premises that he dialed taking up as a duty. However, the institution also had not paid the petitioner his salary in full in the first four months of his employment as salary. The case was appealed by the institution claiming overpayment that was to be refunded.

Issue- What evidence could NCSU rely upon to establish its pre-payment?

Holding- Yes

Reasons- According to the court of law, the employment contract written is binding to all the employees. The North Carolina constitution mandates that no person is set to an entitlement to exclusive or separate privileges coming from the community but in the considerations of the public services. Thus the additional compensation as a result of due services rendered is unconstitutional. Therefore money from state institutions that are inclusive of overpayments should be with immediate effect be refunded back.

Therefore, as a respondent, one has an obligation that the recoup that comes as a result of overpayment of salary to the defendant in this case then the returning of the money as asserted by the court was a proper and right thing to take into considerations.




The Australian tourism during COVID-19 ap us history essay help: ap us history essay help


BRIEFING DOCUMENT for the case study by [Name]


Professor’s Name


Location of Institution



Australian tourism during COVID-19

The Covid-19 impact pandemic has not only affected the health sector but posed a danger to the economy by affecting crucial economic contributors. Due to the restrictions put in place to reduce the disease’s spread, some of these measures have slowed down the economic cycle. The tourism sector is one of the economic contributors industry that the pandemic has dramatically impacted. The restrictions in borders and traveling have made the industry difficult to thrive as it depends on traveling. Therefore, most of the economy that depends on tourism has had significant losses due to low tourist turnout. The Australian tourism sector is one of those that the pandemic has hardly hit. Twenty-six percent of Australia’s tourism sector depends on international visitors who were now restricted from traveling. This indicated that around 26% of the tourism economy would be directly impacted, not considering other impacts due to lack of international visitors to the sector. Economic analysis showed that within seven days of international travel restrictions, the Australian economy lost $1 billion. With this significant impact on Australia’s tourism sector, a recovery plan is essential to save the numerous job opportunities being lost, hospitality and travel services businesses being shut down, and the overall loss in the tourism economy. In this paper, we look at the impacts of COVID19 on Australia’s tourism economy and the recommendations made in the recovery plan of the sector.


Impacts of COVID 19

The mitigation plan for COVID-19 has been seen to be the most significant crisis in the tourism sector. The tourism sector is huge as it incorporates other sectors of the economy. For instance, the hospitality, food, and travel industries depend on tourism. About 5 percent of Australia’s workforce is in the tourism sector. Various factors brought in impacts to the sector in different ways. Some of the effects brought about by the pandemic have brought both negative and positive implications to the tourism sector of Australia.

Impact on international tourism-dependent industries

According to the international tourism snapshot, the number of international visitors in Australia dropped by half in 2020 compared to 2019. This meant around $21 billion was lost as spending by the visitors in the region. Restrictions in travel was one of the reasons leading to a low number of overseas tourists. From another perspective, most tourists who were willing to travel canceled their plans due to disruptions and health risks due to the pandemic. Moreover, the airlines’ increase in fares meant that even those who were willing to travel got restricted and opted to travel later. There was an 80% drop in international arrivals in 2020 than in 2019 (Deloitte,2020). From an economic perspective, the reduced spending meant that various industries that depended on visitors’ spending and needs were significantly affected in terms of profit. One significant impact has been on the accommodation facilities. The decline in bookings in these facilities meant that they had to be closed. For instance, the Gold Coast hotel occupancy reduced from 84% in February 2020 to 4% occupancy in April 2020. Therefore, several people would now be unemployed. Moreover, with the measures to reduce the spread of COVID 19, hotels that did not meet the minimum requirements remained closed. Another impact was on the airline facilities with low income due to fewer international travels. This led to lower competition in the sector hence increased travel prices, which further reduced the number of visitors willing to travel. However, consumer preference has not been affected with high hopes of restrictions being lifted and normality resuming.

Impact on the cultural tourism

According to Deloitte, access the cultural industry was the second most impacted industry by COVID 19 after that of accommodation (Richardson,2020). Cultural tourism is one that depends mainly on overseas visitors. Cultural tourism involves visitors’ urge to learn and consume a place’s culture, both tangible and intangible. Most domestic tourists are familiar with the culture; hence the overseas tourists are suited to it. Traditional tourist hubs like those in North Queensland were significantly affected due to the reduced number of tourists (Flew and Kirkwood, 2020). It is also important to note that cultural tourism mainly occurs in heritage sites, which are greatly affected by over-tourism. Due to restrictions of overcrowding, the number of people allowed in these areas reduced.

Positive implications towards recovery

Despite the negative impacts of the pandemic, various positives can be drawn towards the recovery and recommendations in reviving Australia’s tourism sector.

The shift to domestic tourism

With international restrictions taking place and domestic restrictions being lifted, the impact on domestic tourism has been roughly positive. Considering that most Australians wishing to tour in other nations can’t do so, they opt to tour the region, promoting local tourism. Australians’ adventurous nature has pushed the need to fill the gap left by the low international tourist. Therefore, due to the pandemic, tourism’s focus has shifted to domestic tourism rather than international tourism. According to KPMG, 61% of Australians are planning for holidays between June and July 2021, and 72% preferring to book for the best part of the year (Beyond COVID-19-KPMG).

New Zealand-Australian travel bubble

Despite the negative implications of the virus, there will be a favorable implication in Australia’s tourism sector through increased better ties within the Pacific region. According to the New Zealand market profile as of 2016, New Zealand led with the number of visitors in Australia. Tourists from New Zealand contributed $2.6 billion to the Australian tourism economy (O’Sullivan and Pawar,2020).  The New Zealand-Australian travel bubble has created reduced travel restrictions between these two nations. This has had a positive impact on tourism as it has ensured that despite the low international visitors, at least the industry is alive (CNN Travel). With the travel bubble likely to be expanded in other nations within the Pacific region, it is expected that there will be good ties within the region hence increasing the number of visitors in Australia post-COVID-19.

The revival plan

With the impacts on Australia’s tourism economy during the pandemic, a mitigation plan is necessary to ensure that the sector recovers from the significant losses. The recovery involves first ensuring the industry’s demand and supply grows to a point where it will not be highly impacted in future indefinite events. Moreover, with the high competition in the sector, there is a need to focus on strategies to attract visitors to Australia. The strategic plans should also ensure that the customers feel confident about the industry regarding health security, whereby measures to curb COVID-19 are well adhered to. This is because, at the beginning point of the recovery, customers will focus on health safety. To ensure this is possible, the revival plan should focus on these strategies: marketing strategy, competitive strategy to increase demand, and building customer confidence through health safety

Marketing strategy

After the pandemic drew off some of the customers, there is a need to get their attention through marketing. The marketing strategy will be one of the wake-ups calls for the customers to remind them what to look up to after the pandemic. This will be the opportunity to attract more customers by inspiring them on why visiting Australia is the best option for them. In reviving the economy of the sector, marketing should evolve markets that will yield high revenue. There are three major countries whose value is over $6 billion: America, China, and United Kingdom. These will be the target areas; hence marketing will be intensified in these areas. One of the mechanisms for the strategy will be through campaigns. The campaigns will mostly target youths who are a competitive asset in the sector. It will involve making customers familiar with Australian strongholds in tourism, including Aquatic, wildlife, foods, and coast. Moreover, consideration will be done on upcoming key events such as international occasions and gaming being hosted in the country. Some of the key campaigns organized include Holiday Here This Year campaign (Australia,2020). The campaign cost $20 billion and aimed at promoting tourism both domestically and internationally. The development in technology is another consideration to put in mind. Information will be shared through the social media and various websites such as and through a better presentation (Australia,2020). Moreover, other social media platforms such as Facebook, twitter and YouTube are better platforms to attract the youths.

Another step to revive the industry is through partnership with other relevant industries to ensure that they promote customer preference for Australia as their tourism hub. During the pandemic period, there was a hike in airline charges, which is likely to put-off some of the customers from visiting the country. There is a need by the tourism industry to partner with these industries to ensure that their facilities too favor the visitors to the country.

Health safety strategy

In ensuring government involvement in the mitigation plan, health safety is one of the areas where it can fully participate. Sanitary protection measures are essential in ensuring the confidence of the tourists while visiting the country (Sigala,2020). Moreover, the hospitality agency should ensure that all the pandemic control measures are adhered to. This involves a series of initiatives and policies on health safety. In a case study in Spain tourism sector, one of the recommendation in ensuring health safety was educating the employees in the hospitality industry on how to keep the places free from the virus (Rodríguez and Alonso-Almeida,2020). Moreover, there needs to be collaboration between the health and the hospitality sector to ensure indeed the health security is maximum even in case of an emergency that might occur.

Competitive strategy

The competitive advantage by porter in the generic strategy framework provides an insight on how an industry can adopt a competitive behavior especially after a crisis. According to porter, there are three main areas of focus when a company decides to adopt this strategy. This includes; differentiation, cost leadership, and focus (Evans,2015). Turning to tourism recovery in Australia, differentiation involves making the industry and the services unique from others. The Australian government released $1billion relief as a recovery fund for industries that had been affected by Covid-19. (COVID-19 Relief and Recovery Fund, n.d.). Of the recovery fund, $33.5 million would be used to fund upgrading of conservative and heritage sites to ensure that they are premium. This would ensure that the tourism product is top mark compared to those in other nations hence customer’s preference shifts to Australia’s market. The other area of focus in Porter’s generic strategy, cost leadership is an essential factor to consider to ensure maximization of profit by the industry. It involves maximizing profit but retaining a price equal to that of the competitors or one lower. This precisely involves increasing the sales of services in the industry and reducing cost. One way of reducing cost may be applied in marketing. The tour operator companies might copy the designs of websites used by their competitors to reduce the cost used to make new website designs. Moreover, for the airlines to reduce the costs in their services, they ought to reduce some of the services they offer, such as free meals. This reduced cost will enable them to focus on maybe reducing ticket prices, which will attract more customers to the industry. Airlines are some of the inputs in the tourism industry and are essential in ensuring the revival of the industry. Reduced costs in the industry ensures maximization of profit to the overall tourism industry.

Finally, the focus aspect will aim at industry segmentation. This will involve looking at various areas of the industry that are likely to bring about quick recovery. For instance, while doing the marketing, there is a need to look at a particular population that is likely to turn up big and prefer the Australian tourism industry. Moreover, there is a need to focus on specific regions that are likely to bring in lump sum revenue to the tourism economy due to their potential in customers. For instance, the Australian industry should focus on American, Chinese and United Kingdom populations.


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Flew, T. and Kirkwood, K., 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on cultural tourism: art, culture and communication in four regional sites of Queensland, Australia. Media International Australia, p.1329878X20952529.

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