b. X 1 times, where X is the last digit of your student ID?
c. X 4 times, where X is the last digit of your student ID?
Comment on the relationship between the probabilities observed in (a), (b), and (c). Explain, using concepts from lecture, why this occurs and what it means in context.
2. Suppose next that we have even less knowledge of our patient, and we are only given the accuracy of the blood test and prevalence of the disease in our population. We are told that the blood test is 9X percent reliable, gestational diabetes affects X 1 percent of the population in our patient’s age group, and that our test has a false positive rate of X 4 percent. Compute the following quantities based on this new information:
a. If 100,000 people take the blood test, how many people that test positive will actually have gestational diabetes?
b. What is the probability of having the disease given that you test positive?
c. If 100,000 people take the blood test, how many people that test negative despite actually having gestational diabetes?
d. What is the probability of having the disease given that you tested negative?
Comment on what you observe in the above computations. How does the prevalence of the disease affect whether the test can be trusted?
3. As we have seen in class, hypothesis testing and confidence intervals are the most common inferential tools used in statistics. Imagine that you have been tasked with designing an experiment to determine reliably if a patient should be diagnosed with diabetes based on their blood test results. Create a short outline of your experiment, including all of the following:
a. A detailed discussion of your experimental design.
b. How is randomization used in your sampling or assignment strategy?
c. The type of inferential test utilized in your experiment.
d. A formal statement of the null and alternative hypothesis for your test.
e. A confidence interval for estimating the parameter in your test.
f. An interpretation of your p-value and confidence interval, including what they mean in context of your experimental design.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.
KANTIAN PERSPECTIVE 6 Deliverable 2 – Kantian Perspective Yarlee Geimah Rasmussen University
KANTIAN PERSPECTIVE 6
Deliverable 2 – Kantian Perspective
Ethics Around The Globe
April 24, 2022
Kantian Perspective on Abortion
Duty, according to Kant, is a moral or legal responsibility. According to Kant’s deontological views, some acts are always wrong, even if they result in a good end (Johnson & Cureton, 2004). In deontology, actions are always appraised regardless of their results. Although an action may be ethically wrong, it may accidentally result in a positive effect (Kranak, 2019). Kant is credited with inventing the most well-known variant of deontological ethics. Kant’s moral theory is founded on his belief that humans have a one-of-a-kind capacity for reason (Johnson & Cureton, 2004). No other animal has the ability to think and act rationally, and it is precisely this ability that necessitates humans to behave in line with and for the purpose of moral law or responsibility. Human inclinations, emotions, and consequences, according to Kant, should not play a role in moral conduct; consequently, the reason for an action must be founded on duty and carefully thought out before it occurs. In theory, morality should provide people with a set of reasonable norms that guide and forbid specific activities while remaining independent of personal preferences.
The moral worth of an action, according to Kant, is decided by human will, which is the only thing in the universe that can be regarded good without qualification (Kranak, 2019). Acting in accordance with moral duty/law is an example of good intent. Moral law is made up of a set of categorical maxims, which means that we are obligated to behave in line with categorical imperatives. The most renowned is “Act only by that maxim by which you may wish that it be a universal law at the same moment” (Johnson & Cureton, 2004). To put it another way, before deciding what to do, you must ask yourself, “Would it be alright if everyone did this?” So, if telling a lie comes in handy one day, I should question myself, “Would it be alright if everyone lied?” Obviously, the answer is no, since if everyone lied, no one would be able to have meaningful interactions with anybody else. As a result, I must never lie. Lying is a morally reprehensible conduct.
In his second formulation of the categorical imperative, Kant imply that we behave in ways to respect humanity, whether in your own person or in another, in every situation as a goal in itself (Kranak, 2019). Other individuals should never be viewed as a method to achieve a goal. On a bad day, this is a good reminder. This imperative emphasizes that every reasonable activity should be viewed as both a principle and a goal. Because they must only be pursued if they are in line with a hypothetical imperative, most goals are subjective in nature. A hypothetical imperative is a conditional requirement of reason. It instructs us on how to proceed in order to reach a given objective (Johnson & Cureton, 2004). In connection to the aforementioned modern dilemma, we tend to believe that a person has done wrong if they see a fetus as essentially disposable, something that may be disposed of at will, according to Kant’s first categorical imperative. Pregnancy, on the other hand, might pose a threat to personal freedom and agency, and abortion is ethically justifiable in some situations. In the second imperative, it may be claimed that abortion of a fetus should not be viewed just as a way of avoiding the aforementioned challenges of pregnancy, but should also be viewed as if the fetus were you.
Abortion has a moral obligation. The claims of Kant that we must not treat the capacity to set, organize, and pursue ends as something to be sacrificed for arbitrary, inclination-based ends; that we must recognize rational nature, particularly the moral capacity, as the source of human dignity; and that all rational beings are equally entitled to this fundamental, basic respect are the foundation of virtue duties (Kranak, 2019). Virtuous agents are guided by respect for rational beings, which limits what they do in pursuit of their aims and motivates them to enhance their own perfection and the enjoyment of others. As a result, destroying a fetus shows a lack of regard for its pursuit of objectives and should be considered a moral obligation.
Abortion should not be authorized unless, in the opinion of a skilled health practitioner, there is a need for emergency care, the mother’s life or health is in jeopardy, or if rape, incest, or fetal disability are present. This makes it possible to implement globally since it takes into account logic. This is how the aforementioned maxim fits into category formulations: This maxim would be appropriate in the first imperative since it would be acceptable if no one had an abortion. It’s a moral blunder. This maxim matches the second imperative since it evaluates the reasoning of conditions in which abortion could be authorized rather than merely a means to a goal.
Johnson, R., & Cureton, A. (2004). Kant’s moral philosophy.
Kranak, J. (2019). Kantian Deontology. Introduction to Philosophy: Ethics.
Explain what duty is according to Kant and how this view differs from other senses of duty.
Describe the relationship between a good will and duty for Kant.
Differentiate the two formulations of the Categorical Imperative.
How do these formulations apply to your selected contemporary moral issue?
Using the foundation of Kant’s moral theory explain how there is a moral duty for your selected contemporary moral issues.
Express your view as a maxim.
How feasible is it to universalize your maxim?
How does your maxim fulfill/satisfy each of these formulations?
Deming’s 14 Points – In a workplace Environment Student’s First Name, Middle
1. A patient is classified as having gestational diabetes if their glucose level is above 140 milligrams per deciliter Statistics Assignment Help Deming’s 14 Points – In a workplace Environment
Student’s First Name, Middle Initial(s), Last Name
Course Number and Name
Instructor’s Name and Title
Assignment Due Date
Deming’s 14 Points
Create a Constant Purpose toward Improvement
Deming insists on establishing a futuristic business environment where activities are focused on improvement. A business can invest on new technologies to increase efficiency for the future production or operations (Mind Tools). For instance, a company can invest on computerized filling system to permanently address the issue of file dislodgment in the future.
Adopt the New Philosophy
According to Deming, a business must operate under specific philosophical model to maintain quality. However, the guiding philosophies should be flexible and evolutionary for future improvement purposes (Academic Gain Tutorials). For instance, rather than implementing new products to respond to a shift in the market, a business should adopt a philosophy that understand the needs of its customers and provide services and/or products accordingly.
Stop Depending on Inspections
That quality should be guaranteed from the beginning of production process rather than checked at the end of production process. According to Deming, ensuring quality in the process minimizes any chance of quality inefficiency that could be costly (The Deming Institute). For instance, manufacturers should ensure quality from raw materials to every step in the production process.
Use a Single Supplier for Any One Item
According to Deming, consistency in quality of inputs or raw materials for production is a guaranteed way to maintain the quality of the output (Mind Tools). In this case, a business should push suppliers to improve the quality of the inputs. For instance, a coffee shop should insist to get quality coffee beans from its suppliers.
Improve Constantly and Forever
According to Deming, another approach to ensure quality is to maintain constant improvement of workforce, inputs and production process (Academic Gain Tutorials). In this case, a business should organize training and development for employees as well as invest on research and development to improve the overall output.
Use Training on the Job
Deming advices that disparity in terms of knowledge is likely interfere with the quality of the output. In this case, management should ensure disbursement of common knowledge among the workforce (The Deming Institute). For instance, a company should ensure uniformity in employee training as well as encourage sharing of knowledge among employees.
According to Deming, good leadership and management approach is critical for quality control (Mind Tools). In this case, Deming insists that business managers should aim to get the best out of every available resource. For example, managers should identify where each employee is most productive.
According to Deming, fear that emanate from hierarchal barriers may hamper maximum productivity as well as improvement of quality (Academic Gain Tutorials). As a result, businesses should maintain a comfortable working environment where employees can express or share their ideas.
Break Down Barriers between Departments
Breaking down barriers of communication is logical approach of creating a comfortable working environment for all employees. According to Deming, ensuring seamless communication between departments and employees is critical in maintaining quality (The Deming Institute). For instance, marketing team should have constant communication with production team in terms of customer needs.
Get Rid of Unclear Slogans
According to Deming, clear slogan ensures that employees understand what is expected from them (Mind Tools). As a result, business should communicate clear slogans that reflect their values.
Eliminate Management by Objectives
Deming believed that strong emphasis on meeting specific quantity objectives may hamper quality. However, a business can achieve both quality and quantity objectives by providing resources that maximize production levels. For instance, a business should have sufficient workforce to meet specific targets (Academic Gain Tutorials).
Remove Barriers to Pride of Workmanship
Removing barriers to pride of workmanship aims to ensure that every employee feels important and appreciated. According to Deming, this is critical in boosting employees’ confidence and may result to improvement in output quality (The Deming Institute).
Implement Education and Self-Improvement
Acquiring new skills is imperative for quality improvement and market competitiveness. According to Deming, companies should invest in equipping employees with new skills aligning with future needs (Mind Tools).
Make “Transformation” Everyone’s Job
According to Deming, maintaining and improvement of quality requires effort from every aspect of a business (Academic Gain Tutorials). In this case, the management or leadership should ensure improvement in every step of production.
Academic Gain Tutorials. Deming’s 14 Points For Management – Explained. External link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-tGsteslTTQ
Mind Tools. Deming’s 14-Point Philosophy – A Recipe for Total Quality. Retrieved from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_75.htm
The Deming Institute. Dr. Deming’s 14 Points for Management. Retreived from https://deming.org/explore/fourteen-points/
2 Use of digital marketing in a specific communications strategy Name: Professor:
Use of digital marketing in a specific communications strategy
Slide#1: Digital marketing
Often, digital marketing includes the digital channels used to market products to the intended customers. In this regard, digital marketing involves creating and disseminating content using digital media; these may include websites, social media platforms, and emails, among other channels. Digital marketing allows companies to connect with their customers using the internet and other forms of digital communication that may target specific customers. The HSBC Bank utilises social media platforms, including Facebook and Twitter, to engage with customers. The company is keen on increasing the use of social media platforms to respond to individual customer enquiries. This has become important because more consumers are using digital products. Furthermore, HSBC utilises its digital campaign to reach specific demographic. The company relies on the use of social media to attract emergent affluents who are between 25 years and 40 years and they are digitally savvy.
Slide#2: Communication (Promotion) Mix
The promotion mix includes a set of marketing approaches marketers to rely on to optimise promotional efforts.
Indeed, the promotion mix includes a set of marketing approaches marketers rely on to optimise promotional efforts. Often, marketers are keen on using different strategies that are helpful in reaching a broader audience. Besides, the promotion mix improves the effectiveness of promotional campaigns; this is possible because the communication mix ensures all efforts are made to make promotions remain at the right time. Additionally, a company may use a promotion mix to facilitate the segmentation of its audience; this is possible because the company has to identify its target audience, people who have something in common. Additionally, the promotion mix improves communication with clients; this is because the company focuses on developing strategies that utilise the consumers’ language. Some of the elements of an effective promotion mix include advertising, direct marketing, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion.
Slide#3: Where ‘Digital Marketing’ Fits Within The Communications Mix
Ideally, digital marketing fits into directing marketing. Indeed, digital marketing mediums, including emails and social media, are based on direct marketing; HSBC may use its social media platforms like Facebook to respond to issues from individual customers. This is important because it allows the company to have direct interaction with the target customers. Besides, digital marketing allows direct interaction with intended customers; this is made possible through the use of personalised mediums that increases engagement with intended persons. HSBC may use digital marketing to facilitate directing marketing intended to deliver products directly to customers; this is needed because it helps in generating leads and improving customer loyalty.
Slide#4: Advantages Of ‘Digital Marketing’
Some of the advantages of digital marketing include that it facilitates a marketing strategy that is cheap compared to other traditional marketing approaches. Additionally, digital marketing allows the companies like HSBC Bank to reach more potential customers without geographical restrictions. Furthermore, digital marketing facilitates personalisation where the company may implement a customer database aimed at helping companies like HSBC to offer their customers targeted offers; this offers more effective marketing approaches. Mediums of digital marketing, including social media platforms and the company’s website, help in facilitating more engagement where customers can ask questions and review and rate products and services. Besides, people the company engages within social media are likely to become potential customers.
Slide#5: Disadvantages of digital marketing
Digital marketing campaigns have become highly competitive; this necessitates that companies should strive to make their brands relevant to the target customers. This is possible when the digital marketing campaign stands out. Besides, digital marketing strategies in a company are dependant on technology and the internet, which are relatively prone to errors; there are times that social media links may not work. Also, security and privacy issues are of great concern in digital marketing; this necessitates that companies like HSBC Bank should protect their website and social media platforms to breach of information. When the customers provide negative complaints and feedback about the products and services provided, such comments are visible to the whole audience.
Indeed, it is recommended that HSBC should use effective digital marketing to facilitate customer engagement; this is critical because it will allow the target customers to connect with the products and services provided. Further, HSBC should use effective mediums such as Facebook that allow the company to meet its specific needs, which may include brand promotion. Besides, since the field of digital marketing has become highly competitive, it is critical to make sure that the company utilises skilled personnel who make help in improving the company’s digital marketing strategy. HSBC should track its digital marketing strategy; this would involve assessing and tracking the performance of the existing strategy and making changes to address the identified gaps.
Companies like HSBC relied on digital mediums, including social media and the company’s website, to convey the intended information to the target audience. Besides, the promotion mix comprises a set of approaches used by marketers to improve promotional strategies; often, this can include various elements such as adverting, direct marketing, sales, promotion, and personal selling. Additionally, digital marketing fit with direct marketing because it targets products directly to customers; this is done through the use of digital mediums, including emails and social media platforms. Digital marketing has various advantages, including reduced costs, greater exposure, and personalisation, and the disadvantages of digital marketing include the high competition, dependence on technology, and security issues.